1)- Bibliothèque des philosophes chimiques. Nouvelle edition, revûë, corrigée et augmentée de plusieurs philosophes, avec des Figures & des Notes pour faciliter l'intelligence de leur Doctrine. Par Monseiur J.M.D.R., Jean Maugin de Richebourg republié par André Cailleau, Paris. 1740-54. 4 volumes.
revu le 3 février 2010
Plan : préambule - introduction à l'alchimie [§I - CHEMISTRY] - liste des ouvrages - notes de la Bibliotheca Chemica [John Ferguson] -
Préambule : Nous donnons ces catalogues, afin que chacun puisse se faire une idée du fonds inépuisable que constituent les traités de philosophie hermétique. Ces recueils rendent compte en fait du fléchissement de la création littéraire en alchimie ; celui-ci s'observe dans la tendance qui s'instaure à réunir les traités connus jusqu'alors sous forme de compendium. Il en existait déjà à l'état de manuscrits, mais c'est au XVIe siècle que débuta la vogue des recueils systématiquement conçus. Le premier ouvrage appartenant à cette catégorie fut constitué en 1561 par Gratarole [Verae Alchemiae Doctrina]. Il contient cinquante-trois textes. Le poète et théologien Benedictus Figulus [Thesaurinella olympica aurea tripartita, Francfort, 1608 ; Rosarium novum olympicum et benedictum, Bâle, 1608] réunit et publia une autre série de textes. Mais les recueils les plus complets sont le Theatrum chemicum comprenant deux cent neuf traités [Strasbourg, 6 tomes, 1659-1661 ; éditions antérieures : Ursel 1602, Strasbourg 1613, Strasbourg 1622] et la Bibliotheca chemica curiosa qu'édita Jean-Jacques Manget, avec cent quarante traités disposés dans l'ordre chronologique [Genève, 2 tomes, 1702]. Ce ne sont pas seulement les textes, mais aussi les images qui sont rassemblés. Les trois plus importants recueils de cette espèce parurent entre 1617 et 1625. L'Atalanta fugiens de Michel Maier contient cinquante emblèmes respectivement accompagnés d'une fugue, d'une épigramme et d'un bref exposé [1ère édition, Oppenheim 1617 ; réedition récente, Bâle 1964]. Le Jardinet chymique de Stoltzius von Stoltzenberg comporte cent sept gravures provenant de divers ouvrages, comme les Douze clefs de Basile Valentin, les Symbola aureae mensae et le Rosaire, chacune accompagnée d'un sizain [Francfort 1624 ; réedition récente : Darmstadt 1964]. Le recueil le plus riche est le Jardinet hermetico - spagyrique comprenant cent soixante médaillons se rapportant chacun à un alchimiste et à une citation tirée de ses oeuvres [Francfort, 1625].
En même temps que l'on tâche de conserver les textes alchimiques, on a tendance à les considérer de façon plus critique que précédemment, ce qui fait qu'ils perdent beaucoup de leur mystérieuse aura. L'appareil critique est d'une part historique, c'est-à-dire que l'on rassemble des faits sur l'histoire de l'alchimie et la vie des auteurs. D'autre part, on se livre à une étude critique des textes proprement dits, en en comparant les diverses versions et en leur adjoignant des notes. On voit également apparaître les premiers lexiques alchimiques : le Compendium alchimiae de Jean de Garlande [Bâle 1560] contient un index de synonymes, le Compendium de Gratarole [tome II, Bâle 1561], une « Lapidis philosophici nomenclatura ». Le premier dictionnaire latin-allemand est celui de Hieronymus Reussner [dans Pandora..., bâle 1582]. Au XVIIe siècle, Martin Ruland [Lexicon alchemiae, Francfurt 1612, réed. Hildesheim 1964] et William Johnson font paraître des lexiques très exhaustifs. Des nomenclatures de signes alchimiques figurent déjà dans quelques manuscrits du XVe siècle. Beaucoup d'imprimés consacrent un ou deux feuillets à l'interprétation des principaux symboles. Il en parait une collection plus importante au XVIIIe siècle, dans le Medicinisch- Chymischund Alchemistisches Oraculum [Ulm et Memmingen 1755 ; réed., Wolfgang Scneider, Weinheim 1962].
Nous allons à présent donner une courte introduction à l'alchimie, suivie du catalogue des plus grands traités dont certains sont disponibles sous forme numérisée sur internet. Cette introduction est tirée de William Thomas Brande : a Manuel of Chemistry [containing the principal facts of the science, arranged in the order in which they are discussed and illustrated in the lectures at the Royal Institution of Great Britain. Vol. I, London, John Murray, 1821] dont voici le §I. [on trouvera les autres § dans l'introduction à l'alchimie -]
Introduction : §I - CHEMISTRY cannot be said to have existed, as a science, previous to the commencement of the seventeenth century; for, although we find, in the writings of the earlier chemists, many curious and important facts and discoveries, these remained useless and unapplied, so long as the minds of men were exclusively directed to the transmutation of the metals, the fabrication of an universal elixir, and the production of the Alcahest, or general solvent Although, therefore, it may often be amusing, and sometimes profitable, to revert to the crude speculations and waking dreams of the voluminous writers upon these subjects, who were eminent in the fourteenth and two successive centuries, the time. of the student will be more usefully occupied in tracing the labours of those, who, discarding visionary hypotheses, proceeded to the investigation of truth; and who were led on, not by the vague glimmering of speculative notions, bat by the I steady day-light of real philosophy. It is, I think, among our own countrymen that we discover the fathers of chemical philosophy: for BACON, BOYLE, HOOKE, MAYOW, and NEWTON, present unequivocal claims to that distinctive title. As induction from experiment is exclusively the basis of chemical science, little progress could be made in it till the futility of the ancient philosophical systems had been: shewn, and their influence annihilated ; till the true end of science was rightly defined, and the road to it rendered straight and passable; till the necessity of well-digested experiment had been established, which " first procures the light, then shews the way by its means." It may seem trite to quote Lord BACON; but, as experience is constantly showing the neglect of the invaluable doctrines inculcated in his works, and as students, especially, are too apt to throw off the burthen and responsibility of thinking for themselves by adopting the notions of others, without either weighing their merit or appreciating their correctness, and often only because they are new, I shall beg leave to call their attention to one of the many relevant passages of this author.
Sir Francis Bacon (1651-1626) par Cecil Thomas in Sylva Sylvarum...
" He who would come duly prepared, and fitted to the business of interpretation, must neither be a follower of novelty, custom, nor antiquity; nor indulge himself in a liberty of contradicting; nor servilely follow authority. He must neither be hasty in affirming, nor loose and sceptical in doubting; but raise up particulars to the places assigned them by their degree of evidence and proof. His hope must encourage him to labour, and not to rest; he must not judge of things by their uncommon nature, their difficulty, or their high character; bat by their just weight and use. He must, in his own particular, carry on his view with. concealment, and yet have a due regard for posterity. He must prudently observe the first entrance of errors into truths, and of truths into errors, without despising or admiring any thing. He must understand his own talents and' abilities, or the advantages of his own nature. He must comply with the nature of others. He must, as with one eye, survey the natures of things, arid have the other turned towards human uses. He must distinctly understand the mixed nature of words; which is extremely capable both of prejudicing and assisting. He must lay it down to himself, that the art of discovering will grow up, and improve, along with discoveries themselves. He must not be vain either in delivering or concealing the knowledge he has acquired; but ingenuous and prudent, and communicate his in-ventions without pride or ill-nature : and this in a strong and lively manner, well defended against the injuries of time, and fit for the propagation of knowledge, without occasioning errors; and, which is the principal thing of all, it must be such as may select and choose for itself a prepared and suitable reader." [Prefatory Aphorisms of the Novum Organum Scientiarum, No. XI. Cf. 1, 2, 3]
The following observations from the same source, will bring me back to my subject:
" And again; if any one should condescend to regard such things as are accounted rather curious than useful; and take a thorough view of the works of the alchymists, or the followers of natural magic; he might, perhaps, be at a difficulty which he should withhold, his tears, or his laughter. For the alchymist goes on with an eternal hope; and where his matters succeed not, lays the blame upon his own errors; and accuses himself as not having sufficiently understood either the terms of his art, or his author: whence he either hearkens out for traditions and auricular whispers, or else fancies he made some mistake as to the exact quantity of the ingredients, or nicety of the experiment; and thus repeats the operation without end. And if, in the mean time, among all the chances of experiments, he throws any which appear either new or useful, he feeds his mind with these as so many earnests; boasts and extols them above measure; and conceives great hopes of what is behind. It must, indeed, be allowed that the alchymists have made many discoveries, and obliged mankind with useful inventions; but they are well represented in that fable of the old man, who left an estate to his children, buried somewhere or other, he told them, in his vineyard; which they, therefore, fell to dig for with great diligence; whereby, though they found no gold in substance, yet they received a better vintage for their labour."
" But such as apply to natural magic, and explain every thing by sympathies and antipathies, have, by supine and indolent conjectures, placed strange virtues and operations in things, and if, at. any time, they have produced works, they are rather suited to admiration and strangeness, than to fruit and advantage." [Novum Organum. Section V]
It is my intention, in this introductory chapter, after a, brief allusion to the style, and views of the alchymical writers, to notice the principal researches of the chemists of the fifteenth and two following centuries; and thus to give an historical sketch of be very little doubt that the writings attributed to him are entirely spurious. The Tractatus Aureus, or Golden Work is evidently a farrago of occult philosophy belonging to a much later period. HERMES, at the outset, is made to apologize for divulging the secrets of the black art. " I should never have revealed them," says he, " had not the fear of eternal judgment, or the hazard of the perdition of my soul, prevailed with me, for such a concealment It is a debt I am willing to pay to the just, even as the Father of the just has liberally bestowed it upon me." After this prelude, we might expect to be let into some of the mysteries of alchymy, but our curiosity is quickly disappointed, by finding that they are only revealed to the eyes and ears of the sons of art; " not to the profane, the unworthy, and the scoffers, who, being as greedy dogs, wolves, and foxes, are not to feed at our divine repast." The reader is then conducted into what is termed the innermost chamber, and regaled with a history and explication of various matters relating to the philosopher's stone, by means of which, " through the permission of the Omnipotent, the greatest disease is cured, and sorrow, distress, evil, and every hurtful thing evaded; by help of which we pass from darkness to light, from a desert and wilderness to a habitation and home, and from straightness and necessities to a large and ample estate." We are then directed to " catch the flying bird, " by which is meant quicksilver; " and drown it so that it may fly no more, " this is what is afterwards termed the fixation of mercury, by uniting it to gold. It is then to be plunged into the " well of the philosophers," or aqua regia " by which its soul will be dissipated, and its corporeal particles united to the red eagle," or muriate of gold. We may, however, at once cut short these observations by remarking, that all the details bear upon increasing the weight of gold by the influence of mercury, and this imaginary document of HERMES will suffice as an example of all the earliest alchymical authors. [sur les écrits hermétiques, cf. Table d'Émeraude, Sept chapitres Dorés, Epître de Marie à Aros, Livre de Crates] GEBER is another great name in the history of alchymy; though the exact period at which he lived is unknown, it was probably not later than the seventh century. His three books of alchymy were published at Strasburgh, in 1520, and, if genuine, of which there is much doubt, contain matter that well justifies the praise of BOERHAAVE, who considers him as a first-rate philosopher of his age. In bis chapter On the Alchemie of Sol, after descanting upon the different means of refining and dissolving gold, he describes several solar medicines in language which is tolerably intelligible; they are all solutions of gold in nitre-muriatic acid, with the addition of quicksilver, nitre, common salt, and some other saline matters, and the student is directed to prepare his mind for their performance by suitable acts of piety and charity, which, if earnestly and perseveringly carried on, may, after due time, enable him, in the language of his translator. Dr. SALMON, " to change argent vive into an infinite solific and lunific, without the help of any thing more than its multiplication." Alembics, crucibles, and various furnaces are so fully described, and, if -we may believe the MSS., depicted by GEBER, that he deserves to be mentioned also as the inventor of much useful apparatus. ARTEPHIUS in 1130 published several alchymical tracts; we are told by ROGER BACON and others, that he died at the advanced age of 1025, having prolonged his life by the miraculous virtues of his medicines; but his name, and that of JOHN DE RUPESCISSA, are now deservedly buried in oblivion. The alchymical annals of the thirteenth century are adorned by the name of ROGER BACON, a native of Ilchester in Somersetshire, and descended from an ancient and honourable family. In 1240, he returned from Paris, and became celebrated among the learned of the University of Oxford. At that time, however, the exposition of ignorance, and attempts to overthrow the dogmas of the schools, was a service of risk and danger; and to this Friar BACON, for he was a monk of the Franciscan order, laid himself fully open; he was accused of practising witchcraft, thrown into prison, and nearly starved, for exposing the prevalent immorality of the clergy; and, according to some, stood a chance of being burned as a magician.
Roger Bacon (ca. 1214 -1294)
I know of no work that strikes one with more surprise and admiration, than the Opus Majus of ROGER BACON ; he stands alone like a beacon upon a waste; his expressions are perspicuous and comprehensive, such as betoken a rare and unclouded intellect; and they are full of anticipations of the advantages likely to be derived from that mode of investigation insisted upon by his great successor, Chancellor BACON. This resemblance between ROGER BACON and his illustrious namesake, has scarcely been noticed by the historians of his period; it has, however, not escaped Mr. HALLAM'S observation, who adverts to it in his History of the Middle Ages. Whether Lord BACON, he says,
" ever read the Opus Majus I know not, but it is singular, that his favourite quaint expression, prae-rogativae scientiarum, should be found in that work; and whoever reads the sixth part of the Opus Majus, upon experimental science, must be struck by it as the prototype in spirit of the Novum Organum. The same sanguine, and sometimes rash confidence in the effect of physical discoveries; the same fondness for experiment; the same preference of inductive to abstract reasoning, pervade both works."
The alchymical work of ROGER BACON, that has been most prized, is the Mirror of Alchymy, but there is little either of interest or entertainment to be extracted from it. ROGER BACON has by some been spoken of as a benefactor to mankind, by others as an enemy to the human race, inasmuch as he is plausibly considered to have invented gunpowder, an invention by which the personal barbarity of warfare has certainly been diminished,
" but which, considered as an instrument of human destruction, by far more powerful than any that skill had devised, or accident presented, before; acquiring, as experience shews us, a more sanguinary dominion in every succeeding age, and borrowing all the progressive resources of science and civilization for the extermination of mankind, appals us," says Mr. HALLAM, " at the future prospects of the species, and makes us feel perhaps more than in any other instance, a difficulty in reconciling the mysterious dispensation with the benevolent order of Providence."
This discovery has sometimes been given to BARTHOLOMEW SCHWARTZ, a German monk, and the date of 1320 annexed to it, a date posterior to that which may be justly claimed for Friar BACON. Upon the authority, however, of an Arabic writer in the Escurial collection referred to by Mr. HALLAM, there seems little reason to doubt that gunpowder was introduced, through the means of the Saracens, into Europe, before the middle of the fifteenth century, though its use in engines of war was probably more like that of fire-works than artillery. Many authorities might be adduced to prove the common use of gunpowder early in the fourteenth century. EDWARD III. employed artillery with memorable effect, at the battle of Cressy, and in the fifteenth century hand-cannons and muskets came into use, and gun-powder was in common employ. ALBERT OF COLOGNE, surnamed THE GREAT, was a contemporary of ROGER BACON ; he is celebrated as the inventor of the brazen head which was demolished by the pious zeal of his pupil, the angelical Dr. AQUINAS, in consequence of his suspecting it to be an agent of the devil. ALBERTUS MAGNUS was what in our days is termed an universal genius. He is chiefly celebrated as the commentator of ARISTOTLE ; but, if we give credit to contemporary writers, he was deeply skilled in all the higher departments of alchymical philosophy. The names of RAYMOND LULLY of Majorca, and ARNOLD of Villanova, occur in this page of the history of chemical science. Their merit, however, consists rather in the quantity than quality of their writings. LULLY died on his passage from Africa in 1315, whither he had been to preach the truths of the Gospel; his body was carried to Majorca, where he was honoured as a martyr. BRUCKER says, " he was more ingenious than honest." His chemical opinions are scarcely worth quotation or abstract. He is said to have converted iron into gold in the presence of EDWARD I. in London, which was coined into rose-nobels. [BERGMAN Histor. Chem.] ARNOLD shines as a magician and astrologer. He was a renowned prophet, and predicted that the world would come to an end in the year 1376. He was shipwrecked on the coast of Genoa, in 1313. About the year 1560, a Treatise of Alchymy was published at Paris, attributed to NICHOLAS FLAMMEL. The work, however, is spurious, and was merely ascribed to him from his becoming suddenly, as it is said, very rich. The use he made of his wealth does his memory much credit: he founded hospitals, repaired churches, and endowed several charitable institutions; proceedings which ly no means savour of alchymy. Dr. SALMON, who in 1692 published one of the above-mentioned tracts, says,
" FLAMMEL was originally a poor scrivener, yet left so great monuments behind him, as must convince the most incredulous that he knew the secret, and performed such mighty works at his own proper cost and charges, as the most opulent prince in Europe can never do the like. I know, " says he, " a gentleman who went to view those mighty buildings and their records. The archives and governors of those places, he told me, own the matter of fact but deny the means, saying, that FLAMMEL was a very pious man, and went a pilgrimage to St. James of Gallicia, for a reward of which piety the holy saint bestowed that vast treasure upon him by way of miracle, thereby denying the power of art by which it was certainly effected, to establish a miracle performed by the Romish Saint."
portrait idéalisé de Nicolas Flamel (ca. 1330 - 1418)
He was moreover celebrated for his hieroglyphics, of which fac-similes are given in SALMON'S edition. They are much of the same cast as those that now adorn MOORE'S Almanack, and quite as edifying. In SALMON'S collection we find the Marrow of Alchymy by GEORGE RIPLEY, Chanon of Bridlington in Yorkshire, who was a chemist perhaps less deserving of the reputation he acquired than most of his compeers. He may be quoted as a chemical poet. His Compound of Alchemic, dedicated to EDWARD IV, is rugged enough, but not unintelligible. The following stanzas from the preface of this piece, given in ASHMOLE'S Theatrun Chemicum Britannicum, will afford a fair idea of RIPLEY'S merits as a poet and philosopher: [... Cf. Douze Portes] The degree of faith placed in alchymy was of course much shaken by the multiplied experiments that were undertaken during the seventeenth century; in general, however, those who failed attributed their ill success to any rather than the real cause. SALMON'S creed is that of most of his contemporaries.
" As to the great and philosophic work," says he, (meaning transmutation,) " it is my opinion and belief that there is such a thing in nature. I know the matter of fact to be true, though the way and manner of doing it is as yet hid from me. I have been eye-witness of so much as is able to convince any man endued with rational faculties, that there is a possibility of the transmutation of metals; yet, for all these things, will not advise any man, ignorant of the power of nature and the way of operation, to attempt the work, lest, erring in the foundation, he should suffer loss and blame me. Without doubt it is a gift of God from above, and he that attains it must patiently wait the moving of the waters; when the destined angel moves the waters of the pool, then is the time to immerge the leprous metal, and cleanse it from all impurities."
VAN HELMONT says,
" I am constrained to believe in the making of gold and silver, though I know many exquisite chemists to have consumed their own and other men's goods in search of this mystery; and to this day we see these unworthy and simple labourers cunningly deluded by a diabolical crew of gold and silver sucking-flies and leeches. But I know that many will contradict this truth; one says it is the work of the devil, and another, that the sauce is dearer than the meat."
BERGMAN, in summing up the evidence for and against the possibility and probability of transmutation, and founding his opinion upon the multitude of relations that have been handed down to us by different writers of apparent veracity, one or two of which I shall presently quote, observes, that
" although most of them are deceptive, and many uncertain, some bear such character and testimony that unless we reject all historical evidence we must allow them entitled to confidence ." [Opuscula, IV. 127]
For my own part, the perusal of the histories of transmutation appears to me to furnish solid grounds for a diametrically opposite opinion. They are all of a most suspicious character; sometimes the fraud was open and intentional, seconded by juggang dexterity; at other times the performers deceived themselves; they purchased what was termed a powder of projection, prepared by the adepts, containing a portion of gold, and when they threw it into the fire with mercury, and found that portion of gold remaining in their crucible, they had not wit enough to detect its source; but the cases which are quoted as least exceptionable are often exactly those which are really impossible ; I mean, where the weight of the powder of projection, and of the lead or other base metal taken conjointly, was exceeded by that of the gold produced. Such is HIERNES' history of PAYKUL'S transmutation, who, with six drachms of lead and one of powder, produced an ingot that was coined into 147 ducats; and many others. But the most celebrated history of transmutation is that given by HELVETIUS in his Brief of the Golden Calf: discovering the rarest Miracle in Nature, how by the smallest portion of the Philosophers Stone a great Piece of Common Lead was totally transmuted into the purest transplendent Gold, at the Hague in 1666: and, as it is a luminous epitome of all that has been done on this subject, I shall briefly abridge the proceedings:
portrait de Iohannes Fridericus Helvetius (1629-1709)
" The 27th day of December 1666, in the afternoon, came a stranger to my house at the Hague, in a plebeick habit, of honest gravity and serious authority, of a mean stature and a little long face, black hair not at all curled, a beardless chin, and about 44 years (as I guess,) of age, find born in North Holland. After salutation he beseeched me with great reverence to pardon his rude accesses, for he was a lover of the Pyrotechnian art, and having read my treatise against the sympathetic powder of Sir KENELM DIGBY, and observed my doubt about the philosophic mystery, induced him to ask me if I really was a disbeliever as to the existence of an universal medicine which would cure all diseases, unless the principal parts were perished or the predestinated time of death come, I replied, I never met with an adept, or saw such a medicine, though I had fervently prayed for it. Then I said, surely you are a learned physician. No, said be, I am a brass-founder, and a lover of chymistry. He then took from his bosom-pouch a neat ivory box, and out of it three ponderous lumps of stone, each about the bigness of a walnut. I greedily saw and handled for a quarter of an hour this most noble substance, the value of which might be somewhere about twenty tons of gold; and having drawn from the owner many rare secrets of its admirable effects, I returned him this treasure of treasures with a most sorrowful mind, humbly beseeching him to bestow a fragment of it upon me in perpetual memory of him, though but the size of a coriander seed. No, no, said he, that is not lawful: though thou wouldst give me as many golden ducats as would fill this room; for it would have particular consequences, and if fire could be burned of fire, I would at this instant rather cast it all into the fiercest flames. He then asked if I had a private chamber whose prospect was from the public street; so I presently conducted him to my best furnished room backwards, which he entered," says HELVETIUS, (in the true spirit of Dutch cleanliness,) " without wiping his shoes, which were full of snow and dirt. I now expected he would bestow some great secret upon me, but in vain. He asked for a piece of gold, and opening his doublet showed me five pieces of that precious metal which he wore upon a green riband, and which very much excelled mine in flexibility and colour, each being the size of a small trencher. I now earnestly again craved a crumb of the stone, and at last, out of his philosophical commiseration, he gave me a morsel as large as a rape-seed; but I said, this scanty portion will scarcely transmute four grains of lead. Then, said he, deliver it me hack: which I did, in hopes of a greater parcel; but he, cutting off half with his nail, said, even this is sufficient for thee. Sir, said I, -with a dejected countenance, what means this? And he said, even that will transmute half an ounce of lead. So I gave him great thanks, and said I would try it, and reveal it to no one. He then took his leave, and said he would call again next morning at nine. I then confessed that while the mass of his medicine was in my hand the day before, I had secretly scraped off a bit with flay nail, which I projected on lead, but it caused no transmutation, for the whole flew away in fumes. Friend, said he, thou art more dexterous in committing theft than in applying medicine; hadst thou wrapt up thy stolen prey in yellow wax, it would have penetrated and transmuted the lead into gold. I then asked if the philosophic work cost much or required long time, for philosophers say that nine or ten months are required for it. He answered, their writings are only to be understood by the adepts, without whom no student can prepare this magistery. Fling not away, therefore, thy money and goods in hunting out this art, for thou shall never find it. To which I replied. As thy master showed it thee, so mayest thou perchance discover something there of to me, who know the rudiments, and therefore it may be easier to add to a foundation than begin anew. In this art, said he, it is quite otherwise; for unless thou knowest the thing from bead to heel, thou canst not break open the glassy seal of HERMES, But enough; to-morrow, at the ninth hour, I will show thee the manner of projection. But Elias never came again; so my wife, who was curious in the art whereof the worthy man had discoursed, teazed me to make the experiment with the little spark of bounty the artist had left me; so I melted half an ounce of lead, upon which my wife put in the said medicine; it hissed and bubbled, and in a quarter of an hour the mass of lead was transmuted into fine gold, at which we were exceedingly amazed. I took it to the goldsmith, who judged it most excellent, and willingly offered fifty florins for each ounce."
Such is the celebrated history of ELIAS THE ARTIST and Dr. HELVETIUS. SIR KENELM DIGBY, whose name is mentioned in this narrative, was a renowned dabbler in the mysterious art. Under the date of 7th November, 1651, in EVELYN'S Diary [BRAY'S Memoirs of John Evelyn],
" he gave me," says Mr. EVELYN, " a certain powder with which he affirmed that he had fixed mercury before the late king. He advised me to try and digest a little better, and me a water which he said was only rain water, the autumnal equinox, exceedingly rectified and very volatile; it had a taste of strong vitriolic, and smelt like aquafortis. He intended it for a dissolvent of calx of gold; but the truth is, Sir KENELM was an arrant mountebank."
Nearly all the alchymists attributed the power of prolonging life either to the philosopher's stone, or to certain preparations of gold, imagining possibly that the permanence of that metal might he transferred to the human system. The celebrated DESCARTES is said to have supported such opinions; he told Sir KENELM DIGBY that although he would not venture to promise immortality, he was certain that life might he lengthened to the period of that of the Patriarchs. His plan, however, seems to have been the very rational one of limiting all excess of diet, and enjoining punctual and frugal meals [See Life of Descartes. CHALMERS'S.Biographical Dictionary]. The history of alchymy has been greatly enriched by the labours of the celebrated ELIAS ASHMOLE, who in 1652 published his Theatrum Chemicum Brittannicum, containing several Poeticall Pieces of our famous English Philosophers, who have written the Hermetique Mysteries in their owne ancient Language.
The most remarkable piece in this collection is the Ordinall of Alchimy, by THOMAS NORTON, illustrated by several comical cuts. It treats in separate chapters, of the objects of the occult science; of the difficulties of attaining them; of the different methods of pursuing them; of the characters of the elements; and of the five concords, of which the first is Patience, the second Assistance, the third Instruments, the fourth Situation, and the fifth Planetary Influence. It is difficult to select from this production any specimen capable of conveying an idea of its merits, that can come within the limits of a quotation. [...] In later times we have had two or three believers in transmutation. In the year 1782, Dr. PRICE, of Guildford, by means of awhile and a red powder, professed to convert mercury into silver and gold, and is said to have convinced many disbelievers of the possibility of such change; his experiments were to have been repeated before an adequate tribunal, but he put a period to his existence by swallowing laurel-water. Another true believer in the mysteries of this art was PETER WOULFF, of whom it is to be regretted that no biographical memoir has been preserved. I have picked up a few anecdotes respecting him from two or three friends who were his acquaintance. He occupied chambers in Bamard's Inn while residing in London, and usually spent the summer in Paris. His rooms which were extensive, were so filled with furnaces and apparatus that it was difficult to reach his fire-side. A friend told me that he once put down his hat, and never could find it again, such was the confusion of boxes, packages, and parcels, that lay about the chamber. His breakfast-hour was four in the morning; a few of his select friends were occasionally invited to this repast, to whom a secret signal was given by which they gained entrance, knocking a certain number of times at the inner door of his apartment. He had long vainly searched for the elixir, and attributed his repeated failures to the want of due preparation by pious and charitable acts. I understand that some of his apparatus is still extant, upon which are supplications for success, and for the welfare of the adepts. Whenever he wished to break an acquaintance, or felt himself offended, he resented the supposed injury by sending a present to the offender and never seeing him afterwards. These presents were sometimes of a curious description, and consisted usually of some expensive chemical product or preparation. He had an heroic remedy for illness: when he felt himself seriously indisposed, he took a place in the Edinburgh mail, and having reached that city, immediately came back in the returning coach to London. A cold taken on one of these expeditions terminated in an inflammation of the lungs, of which he died in 1805. He is the author of several papers in the Philosophical Transactions. A few other persons of leap note wight be quoted as believers in transmutation, but the history of one is that of all; and, in the emphatic language of Spenser, they were doomed
" To lose good days that might be better spent,
To waste long nights in pensive discontent;
To speed to-day, to be put back to-morrow,
To feed on hope, to pine with fear and sorrow;
To fret their souls with crosses and with cares,
To eat their hearts through comfortless despairs:
Unhappy wights I born to disastrous end,
That do their lives in tedious tendance spend."
But although the alchymists have given us little in the way of useful facts or applicable discoveries, their reign was fruitful in the invention of apparatus. Alembics, stills, retorts, receivers, and a variety of whimsical and complex vessels, in glass and porcelain, are described and depicted in their works ; and they not only possessed all the furnaces with which our modem laboratories are necessarily supplied, but were particularly expert m their construction, and often surprisingly happy in their application.
peinture extraite du Theatrum Chemicum Britannicum, Ordinall of Alchemy
Cette peinture montre un jeune homme instruit par un vieillard : il s'agit d'Adolphus et de Senior vus dans l'une des gravures de l'Azoth, du pseudo Basile Valentin, en frontispice. Le vieillard représente le Mercurius senex de Jung ou Cronos qui doit laisser place, dans la suite de l'oeuvre, à plus jeune que lui. En haut, la colombe symbolise l'Esprit qui distille la substance du Mercure ; quant aux anges musiciens, ils constituent les ordonnateurs de l'oeuvre et sont à l'image de ceux que nous voyons sur la Scala Philosophorum du Mutus Liber.
liste des ouvrages : 1. Bibliothèque des philosophes chimiques [G. Salmon, Richebourg] : I - II - III - IV - 2. De Alchimiae Gebri Arabis [Petreus, version 1545 et 1541] = Practica vera alkimia [Ortholanus ou Hortulanus] - 3. Theatrum Chemicum [Zetzner] : I - II - III - IV - V - VI - 4. Musaeum Hermeticum, 1625 [Jennis] - 5. Musaeum Hermeticum, 1678 - 6. Bibliotheca Chemica Curiosa [Manget] : I - II - 7. Anatomia Auri [Mylius] - 8. De alchimia libri tres [pseudo-Geber] - 9. Alchemiae, quam vocant, artisque metallicae doctrina [Gratarole] : I - II - Verae Alchimiae - 10. Theatricum Chemicum Britannicum [Ashmole] - 11. Pretiosa margarita novella [Janus Lacinius, Petrus Bonus] - 12. Bibliotheca chemica [Ferguson] : introduction - 13. Sceptical chymist [Boyle] - 14. Artis Auriferae [Perna] : I - II - III - 15. Hermetisches A.B.C : I - II - III - IV - 16. Dreyfaches Hermetisches Kleeblat [Vigilantius de Monte Cubiti] : a. Traité du Sel de Nuisement - b. Mercurius Redivivus [8 traités de Samuel Norton] - c. Büchlein vom Stein der Weisen [Marsile Ficin] - d. Warfferstein der Weissen, Francfort, 1656. - 17. Deutsches Theatrum Chemicum [Friederich Roth-Scholtzen.] : I - II - III - 18. Ars Chemica [Samuel Emmel] - 19. Ginaeceum Chimicum [Io de Treuis] - 20. De Alchimia Opuscula complura [Cyriacus Iacobus] - 21. Medicina Practica [William Salmon] - 22. Thesaurinella olympica aurea tripartita, Francfort, 1608 - 23. Rosarium novum olympicum et benedictum, Bâle, 1608 - 24. Pandora Magnalium Naturalium [Benedictus Figulus] - 25. Hermetisches Museum [Albrecht] : I - II - III - IV - 26. Divers Traitez de la Philosophie Naturelle - 27. Aurae Occultae Philosophicum [alias Azoth] - 28. Collectanea Chymica [William Cooper] - 29. Aurifontina Chymica [William Cooper] - 30. Eröffnete Geheimnisse des Steins der Weisen [Christian Liebezeit] -
- mss alchimiques d'Isaac Newton - mss alchimiques du Musaeum d'Histoire Naturelle [fonds Chevreul] - mss alchimiques de la bnf -extraits de la Bibliotheca Chemica de John Ferguson sur : G. Salmon - Grasshoff - Geber - De Alchimia - Theatrum Chemicum - Dorneus - Du Chesne - Richard l'Anglais - Vogelius - Barnaud - Villeneuve - Alphonse X - Museum Hermeticum - Manget - Turba - Mutus Liber - Montanor - Zadith - D'Espagnet - Stolcius - Gratarolle - Ashmole - Lacinius - Petrus Bonus - Artis Auriferae - Hermetisches ABC - Eleazar - Fictuld - S. Norton - Rosarium - W. Salmon - Figulus - Drebbel - Crasselame -
Bibliothèque des Philosophes Chymiques, Charles Angot, 1742
Ferguson : There is no account of this person, which I have seen. The compilation was not originally of his making, for there to the edition with the same title which appeared In 1672-78 and bean as the editor's name : le Sieur S. Docteur en Medecine. Of this edition I have seen two volumes only, and I do not know if there were any more, though from the list of works detailed in the Privilege; which were proposed to be reprinted, there was material enough for at least other two volumes. The writings contained la this first edition are the following: In Tome I, A long preface; Hermes, La Table d'Emeraude. La Tourbe des Philosophes; Flamel, Bernard le Trévisan ; Zachaire, L'Opuscule; Wenceslas Lavinius.Traité du Ciel terrestre, Philalèthe, l'Entrée ouverte; Vocabulary of Chemical words. In Tome II. A long preface, Hermes, Les Sept Chapitres; Le Dialogue de Marie et d'Aros; l'Entretien de Calid et du Philosophe Morien; Artephius; Geber, La Somme de la Perfection, and at the end an Epistle to Claude Germain about his work Icon Philosophiae Occultae. The authors mentioned In the Privilege in addition to these are: Synesius, Ficinus, Arnaldus de Villanova, Lullius, Bacon, Ripley, Haly, Basilius Valentinus, Jean de Meun, Augurellus; Le grand et petit Paysant, la Fontaine des Amoureux de Sciences, la Complainte ou Remonstrance de la Nature et la responce de l'Alchimiste. Comparison of these lists will show that the present edition contains everything included in the early one, except the Epistola to Germain, and, besides, several of tbose mentioned in the Privilege. The editor ban been called sometimes le Sieur Salmon, and has been identified with Dr. William Salmon, who in 1692 also made a collection of alchemical writers. See the note under SALMON (William).
sources : Lenglet Dufresnoy, Histoire de la Philosophie, 1742, iii, p. 45 - Gmelin, Geschichte der Chemie. 1798, ii, p. 300. - Schmieder. Geschichte der Alchemie, 1832, p. 545 - Ladrague, Bibliothèque Ouvaroff, Sciences Secrètes, 1870, Nos. 630, 631. - Billings, Index. Catalogue, 1881, ii. p. 40; 1891. xii. p. 189 (calls him Maugin). - Kopp, Die Alchemie 1886, ii. p. 340 (calls him Mauguin). [on relèvera pour les impétrants une confusion à éviter avec Manget, auteur de la compilation intitulée Bibliotheca Chemica Curiosa ; notez que le Livre Secret d'Artephius (7), le Livre des Figures Hiéroglyphiques (9) et le Livre de Synesius (8) ont été publiés conjointement en français - latin - 1612, 1659 et 1682 - sous le titre générique : Philosophie Naturelle de Troiz Anciens Philosophes Renommez, etc. - cf. Chevreul critique d'Artephius - et en anglais en 1624. ]
frontispice de la Bibliothèque des Philosophes Chimiques, tome I, Cailleau, 1741
Avertissement et préface [which contains a section on the Truth of the Science, and another on the Obscurity of the Philosophers.]
1. Hermès: La Table d' Emeraude, avec le Commentaire de l'Hortulain. p. 1
2. Hermès: Les Sept Chapitres. p. 16
3. Le Dialogue de Marie & d' Aros, sur le Magistére d'Hermès. p. 77
4. Geber, La Somme de la Perfection. p. 85
5. La Tourbe des Philosophes. p. 1
6. Entretien du Roi Calid et du Philosophe Morien, sur le Magistere d'Hermès. p. 56
7. Artephius, Le Livre. p. 112
8. Synesius, Le Livre. p. 175
9. Flamel, L'explication des Figures Hyérogliphiques. p. 195
10. Flamel, Le Sommaire philosophique. p. 263
11. Flamel, Le Désir désiré. p. 285
12. Trévisan, Le Livre de la Philosophie Naturelle des Métaux. p. 325
13. La parole délaissée. p. 400
14. Le Songe Verd. p. 437
15. Basile Valentin, Les douze clefs de Philosophie. p. 1
16. Basile Valentin, L'Azoth, ou le Moyen de faire l'or caché des Philosophes. p. 84 [ le traité est apocryphe et le titre exact est : Aureliae Occultae Philosophorum, cf. Bibliotheca Chemica Curiosa, vol. II, p. 198 ]
17. L'Ancienne Guerre des Chevaliers, ou le Triomphe Hermétique [Limojon de Saint Didier.] p. 181
18. La Lumiere sortant par soi-meme des Ténèbres, poème sur la Composition de la Pierre des Philosophes, traduit de l'Italien, avec un Commentaire. p. 322
[Ferguson : The original Italian poem is in three Canzoni of 7, 8, and 10 stanzas respectively, and the title runs:
" A i veri Sapienti si discorre teoricamente sopra la compositione della pietra de Philosophi: di Fra Marc-Antonio Crassellame Chinese. I do not know if it was published separately, but it was printed face to face with the French translation. The commentator, describing his long continued labour in trying to understand the writings of the
philosophers, says that an anonymous MS. in Italian fell into his hands and, finding it skilfully written, he translated it and added an exposition so that its light should be diffused as widely as possible. Of the author he knew nothing except his anagram, so that the name appears to be a made up one. The Commentary was apparently written in Latin, but this version I have not seen. It was translated into French, with the Italian poem included, and was published with the title: La Lumiere sortant par soy meme des Tenebres ou veritable theorie de la Pierre des Philosophes . . . Paris. L. d'Houry, 1687. » 12°. The second edition " reveue et augmentee de CLIll. aphorismes chymiques," was published by d'Houry at Paris in 1692, 12°. I have not seen it. The translator says that he knows nothing about the author. The translation and commentary, but not the Italian, were reprinted by Richebourg (q.v.). The treatise is referred to by Tollius with grate. ful thanks to the learned translator, and the author is called by him Frater Antonius Crasselamius.
The present German version is from the French, but seemingly not from the edition of 1687. For instead of giving the assigned author's name as it appears there, the German translator, C. F. K., quotes it from Tollius and at the same time transcribes it incorrectly as " Marcus Antoninus Crastalamius." Both translations are included by Kopp among
alchemical books with ' light' for their title, but he has not noticed that one is translated from the other, and he makes no allusion either to the Italian verses or the reputed author. ]
19. Philalèthe, Traité de l'Entrée Ouverte du Palais fermé du roi. p. 1
20. Philalèthe, Explication de ce Traité. p. 121
21. Philalèthe (Irénée), Expériences sur l'Opération du Mercure philosophique. p. 138
22. Philalèthe (Irénée), Explication de la lettre de Georges Riplée, à Edouard IV. p. 148
23. Philalèthe, principes, pour la Conduite de l'Oeuvre hermétique. p. 174
24. L'Arche ouverte, ou la Cassette du petit Paysan. p. 186
[ce traité est de Grasseus ou Grasshoff. Voici des notes de Ferguson : Johann Grasshoff, a native of Pomerania, doctor of laws, Syndic of Stralsund, and afterwards councillor of Ernest, archbishop and elector of Cologne, wrote partly anonymously, but also under the names Grassaeus (Crasseus, Grossaeus), Chortolasseus and Hermannus Condeesyanus. Of his chief work, "Der kleineBauer," a good many editions are mentioned, Franckfurt, 1617, 1623, Breslau, 1658, Leipzig, 1658, Halle, 1705, Hamburg, 1705, in addition to the above. Other works ascribed to him are: Dyas chymica tripartita, Franckfurt, 1625, 4°; Harmoniae imperscrutabilis chemico-philosophica. Ibid. 1625, 8°, but the Harmonia is also assigned to Rhenanus. Latterly he lived privately in Livona. and died at Riga, according to Witte's conjecture. - on trouvera ce traité dans la Bibliotheca Chemica curiosa, vol. I, p. 585 et dans le Theatrum Chemicum, vol VI, p. 294. ]
25. Philippe Rouillac, Abrégé du grand Oeuvre des Philosophes. p. 234
frontispice de la Bibliothèque des Philosophes Chimiques, seconde partie, Cailleau, 1754
26. Raymund Lull, L'Elucidation ou l'Eclaircissement du Testament. p. 297
27. Esprit Gobineau de Montluisant, Explication des Enigmes et Figures hierogliphiques, qui sont au grand Portail de l'Eglise . . . de Notre Dame de Paris. p. 307
28. Le Pseautier d'Hermophile, envoyé a Philalèthe. p. 394
29. Traité d'un Philosophe inconnu, sur l'oeuvre Hermétique, revu & élucidé par le Disciple Sophisée. p. 461
30. Lettre Philosophique de Philovite à Héliodore. p. 511
31. Préceptes et instructions du Pere Abraham à son fils contenant la vraie Sagesse hermétique traduits de l'Arabe. p. 552
32. Wenceslaus Lavinius: Traité du Ciel terrestre. p. 566
33. Dictionnaire Abrégé des Termes de l'Art & des anciens Mots. p. 570
2)-De alchemia. Petreus, Nurnberg. 1545
frontispice de l'Alchemiae Gebri, Excusum Bernae Helveticae per Mathiam Apiarium, sumptu & expensis honesti viri, Joannis Petrei, Norimbergensis typographi (Berna), 1545
Ferguson sur le personnage demi-chimérique de Geber : Hitherto it has been the custom, though not a universal one, to identify Geber with the Arabian alchemist Dschabir Ben Hayyan. If this be correct all that is necessary if to produce proof of the identity by exhibiting the connection of their respective writings. Then what is known of the biography of the Arabian will of course serve for that of Geber. The results of investigation so far have not led to say satisfactory result, for there are several different notices of Dschabir which do not agree, and which have caused Hammer-Purgstall to say that his biography is overshadowed by considerable contradiction and obscurity, and have led Steinschneider to call him an almost mythical personage. There seems, however, to be no reason for doubting that he lived and wrote the alchemical treatises enumerated in some Ambic book; of reference. According to the Kilab-al-Fihrist (10th century) he was born at Tarsus, lived at Damascus and as Kufa, and died A.H. 160, that is A.D. 776 - 777. Other accounts which make him a native of Harran and flourishing in the third century of the Hegira, or an apostate Greek, or a native of Spain, have not the authority of the narrative in the Fihrist which is adopted by Hammer-PurgstaIl. According to native accounts he was a voluminous writer, and did not confine himself by any means to alchemy. His writings on this subject have been long known by MSS. in Arabic preserved at Leyden and Paris, and probably in other libraries. The contents of these MSS. however were not readily accessible until they were published by Berthelot in 1893. [cf. Idée alchimique I, II et VI. Cf. Origines de l'Alchimie et Chimie des Anciens.] As a result of his examination of them Berthetot has come to the conclusion that the Latin works of Geber have nothing really to do with the Arabic works of Dschabir, but that they are considerably later. If this view be correct it opens up an entirely new question, for if we know but little about Dschabir, of Geber we know nothing at all, except that he cannot be later than the fourteenth century, seeing that his raffle occurs in MSS. of that date. But to his nationality, to his exact date, to the origin of his name, there is no clue, and a still more difficult thing to account for is the clearness of the writings ascribed to him as compared with those of afs presumed contemporaries and of many of those in succeeding centuries. The earliest printed work with a date bearing Geber's name is entitled Flos Naturarum. There was a copy in the Pinelli collection, exemplar nitidissimum, as it is called, but the date is misprinted ; 'III. Nonas Augusti.' A copy is mentioned in the catalogue of the Musco Borbonico, and there was one in Count Mac-Carthy's sale which brought 51 fr. There was formerly one in the Ste Geneviève Library at Paris, but it has been missing for a long time. The description given by Ham is merely copied from that in the Pinelli Catalogue, for he repeats the mistake in the date. He never saw a copy, and the book is passed over by Copinger, so that neither has ho come across a copy anywhere. It is quoted by Denis, Maittaire, Panzer, Brunet, And Graesse but they give no definite information about it. The book is a small 4°, without place or printer's name, but printed in Italy. It is in Roman letter, 24 lines to the page. and the copy before me has 16 leaves. The book has no signatures, catchwords, or numbers. The colophon, printed in capitals, runs thus:
Opus Maximi Philosophi | Ac Regis Indiae Ge| beri Foeliciter | Hic Comple | tum Est Ac | Impres | sum | Anno lesu Christi. M.CCCC | LXXIII. IIII. Nonas Augusti. |
Two or three of the paragraphs refer to alchemy, but the bulk of the book consists of 'secrets' based on the 'occult' properties of certain substances, and it closely resembles the style of the 'Magic of Kiranus.' There can be no doubt that this is one of the very rarest of books. The chemical writing's of Geber, with which the preceding has nothing to do, passed through a number of editions. Besides those in the present collection there are the following. The first is in Roman letter, printed between 1470 - 1480 (B. M. says Rome, 1473), without number or mark of any kind. It contains ff. 122, 25 - 26 lines to the page. It is called a 4°, but the copy before me has the original manuscript signatures, and they are in eights; Rome, printed from a MS. in the Vatican by Marcellus Silber, no date, 1490 - 1520, in small square 8°, of which there were two issues at least; Strasburg, 1528, 1529, 1530 (?), 1531, all in folio; Nuremberg, 1541, 4° (with other works); Venice, 1542, 8°; Nuremberg, 1545, 4° (with Other works); (1562 ?); Basel, 1572, 8°; Strasburg, 1598. 8° (1649, i2°); (1670 ?). These are in Latin. The German translation primed in the same style, and with the same illustrations as in the Latin, Strasburg. 1529, 1530, folio; (1581 ?); 1625, 8°; Frankfurt, 1710, 8°; Vienna, 1753, 8°. There are two translations in. English, that by Richard Russell, London, 1678, and with a new title-page, 1686; Salmon's version, 1692 (as above). The French version was not printed by itself, but in the Bibliothèque, 1672, 1678, 1741. Besides these printed editions I have met with several us. copies both on paper and vellum, of various dates, some of them as early as the fourteenth century. They are all in Latin, except one in Italian, in which language, so far as I am aware, there is no printed edition. Numbers of mss. are preserved in the large libraries.
illustrations tirées de cet ouvrage (p. xx) : 1 (84) - 2 (88 - De Sublimatione Mercurii sine Argenti vivi) - 3 (95 - De Sublimatione Magnesiae & Tutiae, item corporum imperfectorum, & de additione materiae sublevantis ea) - 4 (99) - 5 (104) - 6 (111 - De Solutione) - 7 (114 - De coagulatione & eius causis ... divertis modis coagulandi Mercurii, & medicinarum solutarum.) - 8 (120) - 9 (122) - 10 (231 - De furno sublimatorio) - 11 (231 - l'image est identique à celle de la page 111, image 6) - 12 (232 - idem pour la page 84, image 1) - 13 (233 - De Furno distillatorio - idem pour la page 104, image 5) - 14 (235 - De Furno fusorio) -
1. Geber. De investigatione perfectionis metallorum, Liber I. p. 1
2. Geber. Summæ perfectionis metallorum, sive perfecti magisterij, Libri II. p. 16
3. Geber. De inventione veritatis seu perfectionis metallorum. Liber I. p. 165
4. Geber. De fornacibus construendis. Liber I. p. 184
5. Speculum alchemi, Rogerij Bachonis. p. 208
6. Correctorium alchemiæ Richardi Anglici. p. 220
7. Rosarius minor, de alchemia, incerti authoris. p. 250
8. Liber secretorum alchemiæ Calidis filij Iazichi Iudæi. p. 274
9. Tabula smaragdina de alchemia, Hermetis Trismeg. p. 294
10. Hortulani philosophi, super Tabulam smaragdinam Hermetis commentarius. p. 295
2 bis : Practica vera alkimia - In hoc volumine de alchemia continentur haec. Gebri Arabis philosophi solertissimi, rerumq[ue] naturallum, praecipue metallicarum peritissimi.
frontispice du De Alchemia Gebri, Nuremberg, 1541
On lira avec intérêt ces notes de Ferguson concernant ces deux traités, semblables pour le fond, datant de 1541 et de 1545 et surtout, les controverses autour de l'origine du mystérieux auteur du Commentaire à la Table d'Emeraude.
Ferguson : The present edition of 1541 is of importance, for it was the first both of the Tabula Smaragdina of Hermes and of the Commentariolus written by Hortulanus to elucidate it, The whole book appeared again in 1545 with a new title: Alchemiae Gebri Arabis philosophi solertissimi, Libri, cum Reliquis, ut uersa pagella indicabit. loan: Petreius Nurembergett. denuo Bernae excudi faciebat. Anno M.D.XLV., 4°, pp.  302 . It has an elaborate ornamental title-page.. It was printed at Berne by Mathias Apiarius at the expense of Petreius, and is a reprint of the previous edition. The Commentariolus begins on p. 295. So far as I have observed hardly anyone who has discussed the question in connection either with Hortulanus or Garland has taken notice of these two earliest editions of the commentary, but has quoted only those of 1560 and 1571. These may now be described. The 1560 edition has this title:
Compendium Alchemiae. loannis Garlandii Angli philosophi doctissimi: cum Dictionario eiusdem artis, atque de metallorum tinctura praeparatio neq: eorundem Libello, ante annos DXX. [A.D. 1040] eodem authore conscripto. Adiecimus eiusdem compendij per Arnoldum de Villanova explicationem. Cum tractatu de SaIium Aluminumque varietate, compositione & usu, Scriptoris incerti. Omnia nunc primum in lucem edita. Basileae Anno M.D.LX.
The contents are as follows:
1- Praefacio to Melchior, Bishop of Basel, by Basilius Joannes Herold. : loannis Garlandii Angli Philosophi doctissimi
2- Compendium Alchimie sive in tabulam Smaragdinam Hermetis Trismegisti peri chmeiaV Commentarij, p. 1
- Praecatio, p. 1
- Tabula Smaragdina, p. 2.
- Commentarij. p. 5.
3- Arnoldus de Villanova, in commentarios Hortulani expositio, p. 33.
4- Joannes Garlandius, Synonymorum in arte alchimistica expositio, p. 53.
5- Joannes Garlandius, De praeparatione Elixir libellus, p. 72.
6- Joannes Garlandius, De Mineralibus liber, p. 93.
7- Joannis Garlandij vita, p. 172.
At the end of the life is a list of Garland's works taken from Bostonus Buriensis, in which appears the title: Ortolanus, Lib. i., followed by the words: ' Laus, honor, virtus & gloria.' This is merely the present commentary to which Boston has erroneously given the name of the author, and the four words fonn the opening of Hortulanus' 'Praecatio' with which the commentary begins. The 1571 edition is a reprint of that of 1560, but differs from it in the title and other particulars;
Laurentii Venturae Veneti, Artium et Medicinae Doct .De Ratione conficiendi Lapidis philosophici, liber unus. Ad Othonem Henricum Principem Palatinum. Huic accesserunt eiusdem argumenti loan. Garlandij Angli liber unus. Et ex speculo magno Vinccntij libri duo. Cum Privilegio Caesar. Maiest. Basileae M.D.LXXI. 8 vo. pp.  203 [19, 2 blank]; 121 [7. 2 blank]; 173 [1 blank].
The contents of Part I. are as follows:
- Epistle to Count Otho Heinrich, dated: Venet. Idibus Maij, 1557. The printer to the reader.
- Liber de Alchimia, p. 1.
- AEnigma della pietra phisica di Lorenzo Ventura, &c., p. 200.
Part II. contains the following:
- Joannis Garlendii Angli Philosophi doctissimi Compendium Alchimiae, siue in tabulam Smaragdinam Hermetis Trismegisti peri chmeiaV Commentarij, p. i.
- Arnoldus de Villanova, In Commentarios Hortulani Expositio, p. 23.
- Joannes Garlandius Anglus, Synonymorum in arte Alchimistica expositio, p. 36.
- Garlandius: De preparatione Elixir libellus, Garlandius: De Mineralibus liber, p. 67,
- Jonnnis Garlandij philosophi excellentissimi Vita, p.120.
- Leonardi Proebstelij Carmen, p. .
- Summa Capitum, pp. [124-128].
The ' Summa' is new, but Herold's ' Praefatio' is omitted.
Part III. consists of articles taken from the Speculum majus of Vincentus and others.
Except Mansi, those who have quoted this reprint refer to it as if it were a separate publication and had not appeared under the title of another work. If there be a separate edition of 1571, which is quite possible, I have not seen it. The commentary is the same in both these editions, so that the distinction drawn between them by Dom Rivet, namely that the edition of 1560 is an abridgement of that of 1571, made by the author himself or by some other person subsequently, has not only no foundation in fact, leaving the dates out of the question, but has not even any support from the actual titles. Dom Rivet, however, took his description not from copies of the books, but from the entries in Lipenius and the Bibliotheca Barberiana, 1681, p. 453, 2. The only difference is in the first chapter, which in the 1560 edition Is lengthened by the insertion of the 'Tabula Smaragdina,' omitted in the 1571 edition. In every other respect the two issues are identical. So far as I know these books also are rare. When the 1541 and 1560 editions are compared with each other there are several points of difference to be observed.
1. The title.
2. The introduction of Garland's name.
3. The additional tracts.
4. The statement that the edition of 1560 is the first.
5. The differences in the two versions.
1 and 2. It will be noticed that the phrase ' Compendium Alchymiae' and Garland's name do not occur in the titles of the earlier editions, but were introduced by Herold either of his own initiative, or, more probably, front the manuscript he used, while that of Hortulanus has disappeared from the 1560 and 1571 editions.
3. As to the additional tracts they do not occur in the editiom of 1541 and 1545, and they are assigned not to Hortulanus, but to Garland. That they are by him is a question of evidence, but their authenticity has been categorically denied by Haureau.
4. The statement that the edition of 1560 is the first, signifies: either that Herold did not know the editions of 1541 and 1545, which seems unlikely, or that be meant that the version of Hortulanus' Commentary, which he was giving, as well as the other tracts were now printing for the first time, and in this sense he may have been correct, as will be seen from the following.
5. The differences between the earlier and later editions are well marked. There are thirteen chapters in the editions of 1541 and 1545 as against twenty-one in those of 1560 and 1571. There are different readings throughout and different arrangement of words, and in the 1560 and 1571 editions chapter v. has an introductory part which is not contained In the previous editions. As an illustration of the differences the opening words, of Hortulanus' 'Praefatio' may be given. In the 1541 edition they are: Ego dictus Hortulanus, ab hortis maritimis nuncupatus, pelle Jacobina inuolutus, indignus uocari discipulus philosophiae' . . . In the 1560 edition: Ego quidem Hortulanus, ab horto, vel ab arce maritima dictus, Jacobina pelle inuolutus, nouissimus philosophorum, indignus vocari discipulus philosophiae' . . . It may be inferred, therefore, that the editors of the two editions drew from different manuscript sources, and this is confirmed by Herold giving on the margin of his edition a few various readings which happen with one exception to be those of the edition of 1541. The existence of these two different printed versions has not, so far as I am aware, been noticed or mentioned before. The authorship of the 'Commentariolus' has given rise to some diversity of opinion. Most of the older writers have accepted toe identity of Garlandia and Hortulanus without criticism, though they are not unanimous as to the date at which he flourished. Recent researches have settled that John de Garlandia, a native of England, resident in France, poet, musician, mathematician, grammarian, was born in the latter half of the twelfth and lived on to the middle of the thirteenth century, and was thus a senior contemporary of the scholars who have made this period conspicuous in the annals of learning. On the ground of identity this would be the date also of Hortulanus. Fabricius, however, did not admit it and Kopp has made the remark that the question was not to be so readily answered as Morhof appeared to think. More recently still, Haureau, who in 1879 corrected the patent misconceptions of Dom Rivet about the editions, alluded to above, has denied altogether that Garland had anything to do with alchemy, and has rejected the works on the subject attributed to him. Influenced by certain manuscripts he is of opinion that Hortulanus is the same as a person called in them Martinus Ortholanus, who wrote a treatise which is contained in the Theatrum Chemicum (see ORTHOLANUS) and is dated 1358. If there be doubt about the connexion of Hortulanus and Garlandia, there is equal if not more about the existence of Marlinus Ortholanus. That the name occurs in manuscripts is hardly sufficient to establish the existence of the person. For, in a manuscript at St. Gallen of the fourteenth century, referred to by Kopp (Beitrage, 1860. p. 381), the opening of the 'Praefatio' runs thus: Ego a. dictus Ortulanus ab ortis Martini nuncupatus, &c., instead of 'ab hortis maritimis.' That one of these leadings is an error of transcription is pretty obvious. The meaning in either case is somewhat obscure, but it would not take much effort on the part of a possibly puzzled scribe to convert Ortulanus, ab ortis Martini' into 'Martinus Ortulanus.' All this is a matter for investigation, and anyhow it would be premature to assign the 'Commentariolus' of Hortulanus to a Martin Ortolan or Lortholain, about whom Haureau admits that he had no lasting fame, or, it would be more correct to say, had none at all. While something has been said in support of the various opinions, no argument sufficiently cogent and conclusive has been put forward to induce belief that the problem of authorship hits been solved. As to the 'expositio' assigned to Arnoldus de Villanova, its authenticity, other things being equal, must obviously depend on the date fixed for Hortulanus. If he be identical with Garlandia the exposition could quite well be by Arnoldus, who flourished in the latter part of the thirteenth century. But if he be the same as Ortholanus and lived in the fourteenth century or later, the exposition could not be by Arnoldus, and Haureau in his dissertation on Arnoldus, quite logically considers it not to be by him. Kopp, too, has pointed out that this 'expositio' does not appear in any list of Amoldus' writings, so that apart from the date, it is possibly not a genuine writing of Arnoldus. Dom Rivet speaks of a treatise: La clef de l'abrégé, of which there is a manuscript 'à l'abbaie des Dunes.' Can this be a translation of the 'expositio' ? The Commentary was often printed and it was translated into English, French, and German. The translation into English was made from the 1541 text [notons que le texte anglais ne reproduit pas l'erreur du texte français, c'est-à-dire de reproduire meditatione mais bien mediatione ce qui change tout, puisque « méditation » devient « médiation ». Il est remarquable d'observer que Hoefer et Fulcanelli donnent la version « médiation » là où Chevreul donne « méditation », cf. Table d'Emeraude], and was printed along with Roger Bachon's The Mirror of Alchimy, London, 1597, pp. 17-27. The French translation was also made from the 1541 text, and was published alone with Le Miroir d'Alquimie de Rogier Bacon, Lyons, 1557, pp. 30-56. The German version by Johann Schauberdt is appended to Pantheus' Vorarchadumia (sic), Magdeburg, 1600, 1608. As it is somewhat difficult to disjoin Hortulanus and Garland some of the following references apply to both and some to the two individually. Reference may be made also to ORTHOLANUS, where the connection with Hortulanus is further considered.
1. De inuestigatio[n]e p[er]fectionis metallor[um]. Liber I. f. 1
2. Summae perfectionis metallorum, siue perfecti magisterij. Libri II... f. 20 [Libro Primo] - f. 126 [Libro Secundo]
3. Eiusdem de inuentione ueritatis seu perfectionis metalloru. Liber I. f. 206
4. De fornacibus construendis. Liber I. f. 229
5. Speculum alchemiae... Rogerij Bachonis. f. 257
6. Correctorium alchemiae... Richardi Anglici. f. 272
7. Rosarius minor, de alchemia, incerti authoris. f. 309
8. Liber secretorum alchemiae Calidis filij Iazichi Iudaei. f. 336
9. Tabula smaragdina de alchemia, Hermetis Trismeg. f. 363
10. Hortulani philosophi, super tabulam smaragdinam Hermetis commentarius. f. 364
3)-Theatrum Chemicum Theatrum chemicum, præcipuos selectorum auctorum tractatus de chemiæ et lapidis philosophici antiquitate, veritate, jure, præstantia et operationibus, continens In gratiam Verae Chemiae, & medicinae Chemicae studiosorum (ut qui uberrimam inde optimorum remediorum messem facere poterunt) congestum, & in Sex partes seu volumina digestum; Singulis voluminibus, suo Auctorum et Librorum Catalogo primis pagellis: rerum vero & verborum Indice postremis annexo. Heredum Eberh. Zetzneri M.DC.LIX.
. . . Volumen Primum. Argentorati Sumptibus
Heredum Eberh. Zetzneri M.DC.LIX.
8°. Pp.794. Index . Woodcuts in the text.
. . . Volumen Secundum.
8°. Pp. 549. Index . 1 folding table. Woodcuts to the text.
. . . Volumen Tertium.
8°. Pp. 859. Index . 1 folding table. Woodcuts in the text.
. . . Volumen Quartum.
8°. Pp.  1014. Index  [1 blank]. 4 folding tables. Woodcuts in the text.
. . . Volumen Quintum, M.DC.LX.
8°. Pp.  912. Index [29, 3 blank]. A woodcut in the text.
Theatri Chemici Volumen Sextum, Theologis, Medicis, et tam Vulgaribus quam Hermeticae, Chemiae Studiosis utilissimum, Praecipuos Selectorum Auctorum huius Seculi Tractatus de Chemia & Lapidis Philosophici Antiquitate, veritate Jure praestantia & operationibus continens, ex Germanica & Gallica lingua io Latinam translatum per Johannem Jacobum Heilmannum Bipontino-Palatinum M.D. Argentorati, Sumptib. Haeredum Eberhardi Zetzneri, M.DC.LXI.
8°. Pp.  773 [25, 1 blank]. Woodcuts in the text.
Volumes I - II - III - IV :- Zetzner, Ursel. 1602. (Reprinted in 1659 by Zetzner in Strasburg). - Volume V :- Zetzner, Strassburg, 1622. -Volume VI :- Zetzner, Strassburg, 1661.
Ferguson :The THEATRUM CHEMICUM made its first appearance at Ursel, 1602, in four volumes. Just a century before the collection of Manget. It was reissued at Strasburg in 1613, in four volumes; a fifth volume was added in 1622, after which came the present edition of 1659 -1661. A list of the tracts to the first four volumes of the 'Theatrum Chemicum,' arranged alphabetically with those in Manget's 'Bibliotheca' in parallel columns, was published by Fabricius. It is thus possible to ascertain easily the writings which occur in both collections, as well as those to be found in only one of them. To complete the survey the contents of the fifth and sixth volumes of the 'Theatrum' would require to be incorporated with Fabridus' list. Collections of alchemical tracts by various authors were made at a comparatively early period, for the Greek manuscripts which remain consist of treatises by different persons, varying in number from four to forty-three. A similar fashion seems to have been followed in the fourteenth century, when works translated from Eastern originals were gathered together. A manuscript of such a collection to referred to by Wood Brown, and it is quite possible, as he suggests, that such manuscripts were laid under contribution by the editors of the printed collections which we now possess. There is, therefore, some ground for believing that, while the greater part of the 'Theatrum Chemicum' is recent, a tract here and there may belong to the time when alchemy was first introduced into Europe. The earliest of the quite modem collections is probably that entitled: 'De Alchemia.' Norimbergae, 1541, containing the tracts of Geber and others, of which a new edition appeared in 1545. Then came another; 'De Alchemia Opuscula,' Francoforti, 1550, after which was Gratarolo's big gathering in 1561, reprinted in part by Perna at Basel, in 1573. This same year Perna published another volume called 'Auriferae Artis . . .Authores,' which was reprinted by Waldkirch at Basel in 1593, a new edition appearing there in 1610 (q.v.). The Ars Aurifera was translated into German by Morgenstern, and printed at Basel in 1613. The French collection, by Sieur S., appeared in 1672 - 1678; Salmon's, of half-a-dozen tracts, in English, in 1692; Manget's 'Bibliotheca' in 1702, followed by Horlacher's abridgement In 1707; a new French collection by Richebourg in 1740, and a reprint of the German in 1750. These are the most comprehensive collections, but there were a good many others containing from two to seven or more tracts. An enumeration of these is made by Kopp.
Zetzner Lazarus : A printer at Strasburg In the first half of the seventeenth century, who printed many books, but I cannot say that those which I have seen impress me favourably as specimens of the typographic art. Still he is commended as a craftsman who deserves to be kept in remembrance. The present collection is a monument of his belief in the ' great work,' or in the literature of it. rather than of his taste as a printer. Perhaps one ought to admire his courage in collecting, reprinting and editing the tracts in this collection, instead of complaining of the undoubtedly shabby and unattractive appearance of the volumes.
sources : Borel, Bibliotheca Chimica, 1654, p. 217 (1613 edition in five volumes). - Fabricius, Bibliotheca Graeca, Hamburgl, 1724, xii. pp. 714-723. - Beytrag zur Geschichte der höhern Chemie, 1785, pp. 585 (edition of 1602), 596 (editions of 1613 - 1622, 1658 - 1661). - Ladrague, Bibliothèque Ouvaroff, Sciences Secrètes, 1870, No. 603. - Kopp, Die Alchemie, 1886, ii. p. 341. J. Wood Brown, An Enquiry into the Life and Legend of Michael Scot, 1897, pp. 76 - 77.
Theatrum Chemicum, volumen primum, 1659
1. Robertus Vallensis. De veritate & antiquitate artis Chemicæ & pulveris sive Medicinæ philosophorum vel auri potabilis, testimonia & theoremata ex variis auctoribus, p.1
2. Libellus qui Testamentum Arnaldi a Villa Nova inscribitur, p. 28
3. Johannes Chrysippus Fanianus, De Arte metallicæ metamorphoseos, p. 31
4. Johannes Chrysippus Fanianus, De Jure Artis Alchemiæ, hoc est, variorum authorum & præsertim Iuris consultorum judicia & responsa ad quæstionem quotidianam p. 48
5. Thomas Mufett. Dialogus Apologeticus de jure et præstantia Chemicorum Medicamentorum, p.70.
6. Thomas Mufett. Epistolæ quinque medicinales. p. 89
7. Theobaldus de Hoghelande Mittelburgensis. De Alchemiae difficultatibus. p. 109
8. Gerardus Dorneus. Clavis totius philosophiæ chemisticæ per quam potissima philosophorum dicta reserantur. p. 192
9. Gerardus Dorneus. Liber Naturæ luce physica, ex Genesi desumta in quo continetur, Physica Genesis (p. 333) ; Physica Hermetis Trismegisti, Tabula Smaragdina (p. 362) ; Physica Trithemii (p. 388) ; Philosophia Meditativa (p. 399) ; Philosophia Chemica. (p. 418) p. 326
10. Gerardus Dorneus. Tractatus Alter. De Tenebris contra naturam et vita brevis (p. 457) - De Duello animi cum corpore (p. 472) - De Lapidum preciosorum structura - p. 485.
11. Gerardus Dorneus. Congeries Paracelsicæ Chemiae de transmutationibus metallorum. p. 491
12. Gerardus Dorneus. De genealogia Mineralium atque metallorum omnium. p. 568
Ferguson : Trevisanus de Chymico Miraculo quod Lapidem Philosophiae appellant. Dionys. Zecharius Gallus de eodem. Auctoritatibus varijs Principum huius artis, Democriti, Gebri, Lullii, Villanovani, confirmati & illustrati per Gerardum Dorneum. Cum Gratia & Priuilegio Caes. Maiest. Basileae, Typis Conradi Waldkirchii. Anno clc lcc.
frontispice du Trevisanus de Chymico Miraculo, Basilae, 1583
8°. Pp. [5, i blank] 198 [4 blank]The tracts in this collection are the following:
- BernhardusTrevisanus, De Alchimia Liber, p. 1.
- Dionysius Zecharius, Opusculum Philosophiae Naturalis Metallorum, p. 49.
- Annotate quaedam ex Nicolao Flamello, p. 117.
- Testamentum Arnaldi Villanovani, p. 126.
- Aliae quaedam Annotationes ex variis authoribus, p. 127.
- Collectanea quaedam ex antiquis Scriptoribus, p. 152.
- Collectanea ex Democrito, p. 167.
- Summaria Declaratio eorum, quae dicta sunt hactenus ex Democrito, per aenigmata, p. 194.
The first edition is that of Basel, 1583, 8°. This collection was reprinted in the Theatrum Chemicum, 1602, i. pp. 773-901, and again in 1659, i. pp. 683-794; but although in the table of contents they are run together inaccurately, the mistake is not made in the book itself of deliber-ately describing the Annotata ex Flamello as if they formed a commentary on Denis Zachaire's tract. Gmelin (Geschichte der Chemie, 1799, i. pp. 60-61) seems to have misunderstood the title of the tract as given both in this Collection (p. 117) and in the Theatrum Chemicum, i. p. 748. The error was apparently introduced by Manget, of entering Flamels Annotata as if they were written upon Denis Zachaire. See note on Zachaire. Gerard Dorn flourished in the latter half of the XVI. century at Frankfurt a. M. He was a devoted adherent of Paracelsus and defended him from the attacks of Erastus and others, while he himself had a controversy with Jacques Gohory. He translated several of the works of Paracelsus into Latin, wad besides those in the present collection wrote a good many others. [Dans son Histoire de la Médecine, vol. III, p. 341, Kurt Sprengel dit ceci de Dorneus :
« Gérard Dorn, médecin à Francfort sur le Mein, s'est fait beaucoup conaître par son atachement à Paracelse. Il était entièrement animé de l'esprit de son maître : la cabale passait à ses yeux pour la source de toutes les connaissances humaines, et il préférait Trithemius à tous les philosophes. Sa grossièreté nele cédait en rien à celle de Paracelse, et il accablait d'injures tous ses antagonistes. En sa qualité d'adepte, il ne lui fallait que quinze mois pour préparer la pierre philosophale, tandis que tous les autres consacraient deux années à ce travail - Lapis metaphysicus aut philosophicus, in-8°, 1570 -. Il dérivait la chimie entière des premiers chapitres du premier livre de Moïse, dont il expliquait alchimiquement les mots. Ces paroles surtout : Dieu sépara l'eau qui est sur la terre de celle qui est au-dessous, et nomma la première Firmament, lui paraissaient renfermer l'idée du grand oeuvre. En même temps il accumulait des explications tirées de la philosophie des nouveaux platoniciens, ce qui donne à son livre un aspect si bizarre, qu'il serait difficile d'imaginer un galimatias plus savant - De naturae luce physicâ ex Gensi desumtâ, in-8°, Francof. 1583, p. 47. Il publia aussi contre Thomas Eraste, le plus ardent ennemi de Paracelse, un écrit polémique, qui n'est autre chose qu'un extrait des invectives auxquelles son maître lui-même s'était abandonné - Ad Thom. Erastum admonitio modesta satis, in-8°, 1583 » ]
13. Bernardus G. Penotus. De vera praeparatione & usu Medicamentorum Chemicorum, Tractatus varii. p. 592
- Precatio Raymundi Lullii ante medicinarum exhibitionem, p. 682.
14. Bernardus Trevisanus, De Chemico miraculo, quod lapidem philosophiae appellant [sive De Alchemia Liber], p. 683.
15. Dionysius Zacharias. Opusculum philosophiæ naturalis metallorum. p. 710
16. Annotata quædam ex Nicolao Flamello (Summarium philosophicum). p. 748
- Aliae quaedam annotationes ex variis auctoribus, p. 754.
- Collectanea ex Democrito, p. 776.
- Summaria Declaratio eorum, quaa dicta sunt hactenus ex Democrito, per aenigmata, p. 792.
Theatrum Chemicum, volumen secundum, 1613
17. Bernardus G. Penotus. Præfatio, p. 4.
18. Gaston Claveus. Apologia Chrysopæia & Argyropoeiæ adversus Thomam Erastum, p. 6.
19. Bernardus G. Penotus. Præfatio p. 81.
20. Ægidius de Vadis. Dialogus inter naturam et filium Philosophiæ, p. 85.
21. Tabula, diversorum Metallorum vocabula, quibus usi sunt veteres ad artem celandam, explicans. Inserted after p. 109.
22. Georgius Ripleus. Duodecim portarum Epitome, duobus modis concinnata (Axiomata Philosophica), p. 109.
23. Albertus Magnus. Compendium, De ortu & metallorum materia, supra quam Spagyricus radicalia principia fundet, p. 123.
24. Isaac Hollandus. Fragmentum de opere philosophorum, p. 126.
29. Bernardus G. Penotus. Quæstiones tres de corporali Mercurio, An arte ex corporibus perfectis extractus, suo corpori commixtus faciat ad generationem lapidis physici, sicut est quorundam firma opinio, p. 129.
30. Bernardus G. Penotus. Quinquaginta septem Canones de opere Physico, quibus ars dilucidior fit, p. 133.
31. Vera Mercurii ex auro extractio cum sua historia, p. 137.
32. Chrysorrhoas, sive de Arte Chemica Dialogus, p. 139.
33. Josephus Quercetanus. Ad Jacobi Auberti Vendonis de ortu & causis metallorum Epistolam conviciatoriam responsio, p. 150. [Quercetanus, alias Joseph Du Chesne mérite une attention particulière parce que Fulcanelli assure que c'est le seul Adepte qui ait, avec Nicolas de Valois, donné le nom vulgaire du Soufre rouge ou teinture... Cf. en outre ce qu'en dit Kurt Sprengel dans son Histoire de la Médecine, vol. 3 dans le commentaire à l'Aureum Seculum Redivivum de Mynsicht]
frontispice du Ad Jacobi, etc., Quercetanus, Lugduni, 1625 - cliquez pour un portrait de Joseph Du Chesne [gravure de C. Ammon, 1652]
Ferguson : Joseph Du Chesne, or Duchesne, Latinized into Quercetanus, was born at l''Esture, or Esturre, in Armagnac, in Gascony, about 1544. Like Quattrami, he affords an instance of a person out of whose names two individuals have been constituted. He was styled Sieur da la Violelte, even Patin allows that, and Baron de Morence et d'lserable (Senebier), or Lyserable (Du Maine). Zedler, however, has drawn a distinction between Sieur de la Violelle, the chemist, who was a protestant, and had quarrels with his contemporaries, from the Baron de Morence, who lived in the sixteenth century, was the author of a surgical treatise [on gunshot wounds, Lyons, 1576, 8°], and believed that he could discover stolen articles by the divining rod. This distinction was repeated by Gundling, but there is no authority for it from La Croix du Maine, on whom apparently Zedler relies. Of his early life there is nothing recorded, but he is said to have spent a long time in Germany, engaged especially with chemistry. But in one of the many epigrams upon him, his stay is made out to have been much shorter, Quercetanus, 'faiseur de vinaigre,' is made to give a pupil the following advice how 'to get on';
Dedans trols mois en soufflant I'AlchimIe
Tu deuiendras gran docteur medicin
E si pourras pour ceste soufflerie
D'or e d'argent remplir un magazin.
Dehet bon cueur, sachant faire l'or fin,
Autant en droit, comme en Theologie
Te faut uaquer: e uerras à la fin
Tes biens, ton corps, e ton ame perie,
which presumably sums up the charges against Quercetanus, and defines we estimate which his opponent had formed of him. Du Maine is the authority for the statement that Quercetanus was physician of François de France, Duke d'Alençon, but he gives no date. He graduated at Basel about 1573, and in 1575 published his reply to Aubertus ' criticism of the chemists' theory of the origin of metals. By this work he drew upon himself both rage and ridicule. Among these attacks may be mentioned that of Fenotus:
Alexipharmacum, sive Antidotus Apologetica, ad virulentias losephi cuiusdam Quercetani Armeniaci, euomitas in libellum Jacobi Auberti, de ortu & causis Metallorum contra Chymistas. lo. Antonio Fenoto Autore, In quo, praeter quorundam Paracelsicorum medicamentorum discussionem, omnia fere argumeta refelluntur, quibus Chymistae probare conantur, aurum argentumq; arte fieri posse. Addita est in fine Epistola M, Antiti de Cressonieres, ad eundem Quercetanum. Desinant maledicere, malefacta ne noscant sua. Basilae»; no date, but about 1575, 8°, pp.  101 [1 blank].
Fenotus' tract is a discussion on the theory of transmutation, and is of historical interest as showing what could be said against it at the time when perhaps it was most in vogue. The epistle of Antitus de Cressonieres is written in the macaronic style, and in It Quercetanus and his alchemical views are simply laughed at. A number of epigrams follow in the same vein in Latin, French, Italian, Greek. Quercetanus was, therefore, not in favour with certain of his contemporaries. He took up his residence at Geneva, the citizenship of which was conferred upon him in 1584. Then in 1587 he was received into the Council of the Two Hundred, and, in 1589, was sent along with De Sillery and De Sancy, ambassadors from France to Switzerland, to ask assistance and to prevent the peace which the Bernese wished to conclude separately with Emmanuel Philibert, Duke of Savoy. In 1592 he helped to bring about the terms of the peace which the Republic of Geneva made with its neighbours. Apparently, therefore, he was a person of considerable standing and influence. The year following. 1593, he went to Paris, and was appointed physician in ordinary to Henry IV and Du Verdier says that he was councillor and physician to Monseigneur, the king's only brother. As the result he acquired a wide connection, and an enhanced reputation. On the other hand it is said that his vanity and contempt of other physicians made him disliked and brought on disputes. Perhaps his attitude was not altogether without justification, when one remembers how very humble the Galenic physicians of the time were and how considerate and friendly towards the Spagyrists and Paracelsists ! Quercetanus was not prevented by criticism or controversy from advocating his views and throwing off the shackles of routine and the mere authority of names. As a chemist who had had a training which none of' the school physicians obtained, he did his best to upset the Galenic physic in France and to substitute chemical remedies. He did not succeed in introducing Paracelsus' doctrines, but he was one who helped to overthrow the ' old colossus of humorism' and to inaugurate the new epoch of iatro-chemistry. All this was, of course, obnoxious to the Paris faculty, which ' persecuted him as its most mortal foe and forbade its members to have any professional dealings with him'; he had violent controversies with Riolanus and others, and he did not hesitate to return without stint the injuries which were showered upon him. The embers of these heated discussions look a long time to cool. Years after his death he was exhumed and reviled by Gui Patin, who was a mere child of seven years of age when Quercetanus died. The whole is so characteristic that it may be quoted for Patin's benefit;
Cette meme annee (1609) Il mourut ici un mechant pendard de Charlatan, qui en a bien tue durant sa vie et apres sa mort par les malheureux ecrits qu'il nous a laisses sous son nom, qu'il a fait faire par d'autres Medeclns et Chymistes deça et de dela. C'est Josephus Quercetanus, qui se faisoit nommer à Paris le Sieur de la Violette lequel étoit un grand Charlatan, un grand yvrogne et un franc Ignorant, qui ne savoit rien en Latin et qui n'étant de son premier Métier, que garçon Chirurgien [à Journeyman-barber] du Païs d'Armagnac, passa à Paris et particulièrement à la Cour pour un grand Medecin, parce qu'il avoit appris quelque chose de la Chimie en Allemagne: je ne vous dirai rien de ce Monstre davantage. . . . (N. L. i. p. 269).
Metzger, who quotes this, adds: 'May not one ask Tantae ne animis Galenici irae?' Of this piece of coarse humour parts have been reproduced in other estimates. Boerhaave calls him ' indoctus homo, et alieno calamo usus'; Eloy says that some of his works were written for him by hired writers; and so the reports spread. He was a protestant, and that may have been the reason, says another, of Bayle's favourable notice of him. But why should Bayle be denied the right of commending one whom he thought commendable even from the alleged motive, when Gui Patin is not challenged for condemning what his biliousness made condemnable? Quercetanus was not in advance of his time to many of his doctrines: he believed In signatures; he was one of the first to give an account of the notion of palingenesis, and he accepted the philosopher's stone and transmutatlon as a matter of course. It is said that he had some glimmering idea of uric acid, and may have come across phosphorus. In certain diseases he prescribed • Mercurius dulcis,' under the name of Panchimagogue,' made up in pills known as' Pillules de M. de la Violette.' His death took place in 1609, His wife was a grand-daughter of the celebrated scholar Gulielmus Budaeus. Quercetanus' efforts were not limited to diplomacy, medicine awl controversy, but he ventured on the construction of a tragi-comedy, and composed a good many poems. The following are mentioned: "La Morocosmie ou de la folie, vanité et inconstance du Monde,' Lyon, 1513, 1601; ' Le grand Miroir du Monde,' Lyon, 1584; ' Poesies chrestiennes,' Geneva, 1594, and his poetic talent has been reckoned as of no mean order by Chéreau. Possibly his poetry has stood Time's ordeal better than either his medicine or his chemistry. Several works on medicine came from his pen, of which the following may be mentioned in addition to the above:
- Sclopetarius, sive de curandis vulneribus quos sclopetorum ictibus acciderunt, Lugd.,1576, 8°, pp.  209 [1 blank] [13. 1 blank}. This was translated into French, Lyon, 1576.
- Liber de priscorum Philosophorum verae medi-cinae materia, praeparationis modo, atque in curandis morbis, praestantia. Deque simplicium, & rerum signaturis . . . duo tractatus . . . de dogmaticorum medicorum legitima, & restitua medicamentorum praeparatione, libri duo . . . consilia medica, clarissimis medicis Europaeis dicata. S. Gervasii, M.DC.III. 8°, pp.  432.
- Diaeteticon Polyhistoricon. Paris, 1606, 8°; Lipsiae, 1607; excudebat David Anastasius, 1607, 8°. pp. 418 [a], without place.
- Tetras gravissimorum totius capitis affectuum, Marburgi, 1606, 8°.
- Spagirica, . . . gründliche Beschreibung der Mineralischen, Animalischen und Vegetabilischen Artzneyen, derselben rechten Gebrauch und Spagirische Bereitung, . . , durch . . . lohannem Cupium Borussum, . . . ins Deutsche transferiret. Hall, M.DC. VIII. 8°. SIgs. A to H in eights, I4. This is different from Kessler's translation above.
- Pestis Alexicacus, Paris, 1608, 4°, Lips., 1609, 8°, pp.  461 [1 blank] [25, 1 blank].
- Conseils de Medecine, dediez aux plus celebres Medecins de l'Europe, Paris, 1626, 8° pp. 316 [1, 3 blank].
- Quercetanus redivivus, seu Ars medica hermetica, ex Quercetani scrlptis dIgesta opera Johan. Schrodi, Francoft, 1648, 3 vols., 4°
- Recueil des plus curieux et rares Secrets touchant la Medecine Metallique & Minerale tirez des Manuscripts, de feu Mre loseph Du Chesne, Paris, 1648, 8°, pp. (8, including an engraved title-page and portrait] 370 [13, 1 blank]. [ce dernier titre est disponible sur le site hermétisme et alchimie, nouvelle collection]
Two or three of his books were translated into English:
- The Sciopetarie of J. Quercetanus . . . or his booke containing the cure of Wounds received by shot of gunne or such like engines of warre. Published into English by J. Hester. London, 1590, 8°; and the edition along with Paracelsus' 'A hundred and foureteene experiments and cures,' London, 1596, small 4°, pp.  82; and with Penotus, London, 1642, small 410.
- A Breefe Aunswere of losephus Quercetanus Armeniacus, Doctor of Phisick to the exposition of lacobus Aubertus Vindonis, concerning the original, and causes of metalles, set foorth against chimists. Another exquisite and plaine Treatise of the same Josephus, concerning the Spagericall preparations, and vse of minerall, animall and vegitable Medicines. Whereunto is added divers rare secretes not heeretofore knowne of many. By John Hester, practitioner in the Spagericall Arte, London, 1591, small 8*, ff.  61 . The second tract has a separate title-page, but the folio numbers run on consecutively.
- The Practise of Chymicall and Hermeticall Physicke for the preservation of health . . . translated by Thomas Timme. 2 parts. London, 1605, 4° ff.  .
- The method of preparing certain of big remedies is given by GREIFF (Friederich) (q.v.).
voyez encore sur Quercetanus l'introduction - sous l'angle R+C - à l'Aureum Seculum Redivivum ; il faut se garder de confondre Joseph Du Chesne, alias Quercetanus, avec Andreas Quercetanus (1584-1640) -
34. Joannes Dee. Monas Hieroglyphica, p. 192.
35. Laurentius Ventura. De Ratione conficiendi Lapidis philosophici Liber, p. 215.
36. Joannes Franc. Picus Mirandulanus. Opus Aureum de Auro, p. 312.
37. Rogerius Bacho. De Alchemia Libellus cui titulum fecit speculum Alchemiæ, p. 377.
38. Richardus Anglicus. Libellus utilissimus Peri ChmeiaV, Cui titulum fecit Correctorium, p. 385.
Ferguson : Of Ricardus Anglicus Bale can say no more than that he is mentioned by Symphorianus Champerius as a notable physician, distinguished by his learning, skill and success; that he wrote various works on medicine and alchemy, but that the time at which he flourished was unknown to him. Gmelin places him doubtfully in the thirteenth century, Lenglet Dufresnoy says he died in 1336, which date is given by Fuchs as that at which be flourished, both borrowing from Justus. Schmieder, untrammelled by facts, has constructed a. pretty and plausible biography for him; but, as far as I know, it is purely Imaginary. Unfortunately some of it has been quoted by Kopp, and It has thereby got currency which it does not merit. Matthias's account to quite dear and succinct: Richardus Anglicus de Wendoure, Canonicus S. Pauli Londinensis, Professor Medicinae Parisinus, Archiater Gregorii IX, PP. † a. 1252. So far as it goes this seems correct. He was the same as Richard of Wendover, who was a physician and a canon of St. Paul's, in which he held the prebend of Ealdland, about 1229. Matthew Paris says he was physician of Gregory IX., who at his death gave Richardus a crucifix with relics, which he in turn bequeathed to St. Albans. He died in 1252, leaving various bequests. There are several persons of similar name, from whom he is to be distinguished. One is Richard of Wendover, bishop of Rochester; another is Richardus Anglicus, the jurist, and still another is Richardus, a physician of Montpellier, at the beginning of the thirteenth century. He is identical with another famous physician, Richardus Anglicanus, or Salernitanus, author of a work, ' Practica sive medicamenta,' and 'Tractatus da Urinis,' quoted by Gilbertus Anglicus. The chief work of Richard of Wendover is called 'Micrologus,' a cyclopaedia. of medicine, of which parts or sections apparently exist under their special names. Numerous manuscripts of his various works are extant in the Bibliothèque Nationale, the Bodleian, Cambridge University, and in college libraries at Oxford, and Cambridge. These are enumerated by Kingsford in his article in the Dictionary of National Biography. As the present work is not included by him or by Littré among the works of the physician one may doubt if it be by him stall. On the other hand, Jöcher, who says be flourished to 1230, and had studied at Paris and Oxford, assigns to him De Urinis, De crisi, and other medical works, and also the Correctorium Alchymiae. Borel ascribes to him besides the present, Rosarius minor and Speculum Alchimiae. But this seems a mistake, for the Rosarius minor is by an unknown author add the Speculum Alchimiae is by Roger Baron. The 'Correctorium' is practically the same as the 'Correctio Fatuorum' (g.v).
39. Libellus Alius Peri ChmeiaV ultissimus, et rerum metallicarum cognitione refertissimus, Rosarius Minor inscriptus, incerti quidem sed harum tamen rerum non imperiti Auctoris, p. 406.
40. Albertus Magnus. De Alchemia, p. 423.
41. Joannes Augustinus Pantheus. Ars & Theoria transmutationis metallicæ, cum Voarchadumia, numeris & iconibus rei accommodis illustrata, p. 459.
Theatrum chemicum, volumen tertium, 1659
42. De magni lapidis compositione & operatione liber, also called De Alchemia Incerti Authoris, p. 5.
43. De eadem Materia Capita aliquot, [De Lapide Philosophico], p. 53.
44. Aristoteles. De Perfecto Magisterio, p. 76.
45. Arnaldus de Villanova. Liber Perfecti Magisterii, qui lumen luminum nuncupatur. Vocatur etiam Flos florum, p. 128.
46. Arnaldus de Villanova. Practica, ex libro dicto Breviarius librorum Alchemiæ, p. 137.
47. Arnaldus de Villanova. De Decoctione Lapidis Philosophorum, et de regimine ignis, p. 137.
48. Efferarius. De Lapide Philosophorum secundum verum modum formando, p. 143.
49. Efferarius. Thesaurus Philosophiæ, p. 151. Raymundus Lullius. Praxis universalis magni operis, p. 165.
50. Odomar. Practica, p. 166.
51. De Argento in Aurum verso, p. 170.
52. De Marchasita, p. 173.
53. De Arsenico, p. 177.
54. Præparatio salis Armoniaci secundum Rasim, p. 179.
55. De Sale Alkali, p. 180.
56. Quæstio an lapis Philosophorum valeat contra pestem, p. 181.
57. Vetus epistola de metallorum materia & artis imitatione, p. 187.
58. Practica Caravantis Hispani, p. 188.
59. Joannes de Rupescissa. Liber de confectione veri lapidis philosophorum, p. 189.
60. Joannes Aurelius Augurellus. Chrysopæia carmine conscripta, p. 197.
61. Thomas Aquinas. Secreta Alchemiæ Magnalia: de corporibus supercælestibus, quod in rebus inferioribus inveniantur, quoque modo extrahantur, p. 267.
62. Thomas Aquinas. De Lapide Minerali, animali & plantali, tractatus, p. 276.
63. Thomas Aquinas. Thesaurus Alchemiæ secretissimus ad fratrem Reinaldum, p. 278.
64. Joannes de Rupescissa. Liber Lucis, p. 284.
Ioannis De Rupescissa - Sequitur descriptio et forma furni physici (pp. 292-295) [cf. aussi Bibliotheca Chemica Curiosa, vol. II, p. 87]
65. Raymundus Lullius. Clavicula & Apertorium, p. 295.
66. Joannes Isaac Hollandus. Opera Mineralia, sive de Lapide Philosophico omnia, p. 304.
67. Ewaldus Vogelius. Liber de Lapidis physici conditionibus; quo abditissimorum Auctorum Gebri & Raymundi Lullii methodica continetur explicatio, p. 515.
Ferguson : The statements about this person are rather conflicting, due to the fact that some regard him as identical with Hoghelande, while others consider him distinct. Even among those who take the former view there is want of unanimity. The earliest allusion to the question which I have seen is by Conring in the second edition of his Hermetica Medicina, 1669. He there speaks of Vogel ' who was in the habit of calling himself at one time Theobaldus, and at another de Hogelande, with an unpraiseworthy lack of decision, a man specially devoted to chemistry.' Conring, who found any stick good enough to beat the chemists with, here falls foul of the pseudonym, — which, by the way, with an unpraiseworthy lack of accuracy be divides into two — as if Vogel was the only author who bad ever used another name. He assigns to Vogel the present treatise: he could hardly do otherwise; but be credits the ' Historiae transmutationis' to 'Ewaldus,' without specifying the surname. From this it would appear that Conring considered that Hogelande was the pseudonym, and Vogel the orthonym. Morhof, who wrote his Epistle in 1673, says just exactly the opposite of Conring: Theobaldus ab Hogelande qui se ficto nomine appellat Ewaldum Vogelium. König followed in 1678: Theob. ab Hogeland ficto nomine Ewaldum Vogelium sese vocare solet, he says under Hogelande, but does not quote a single book by him. Under the heading Vogelius, however, he makes no allusion whatever to this statement, and deals with him as a distinct person: ' Brabantus, Medicus,' and as the genuine and independent author of the present work, and mentions none of Hoghelande's writings. Now though Conring might be justified in the use of the word ' solet,' it was certainly not correct for König to employ it. For while Vogel under the pseudonym of Theobaldus or Ewaldus de Hoghelande wrote two books, Hoghelande under that of Vogel wrote only one, and one instance does not constitute a custom. The following year, 1670, Lipenius brought out his Bibliotheca realis Medica, and the problem is not simplified by his treatment of it. To Vogel is correctly assigned the present work; to Theob. de Hoghelande, the treatise ' De Alchemiae Difficultatibus,' 1594, and in the Theatrum Chemicum [vol. I, p. ]; but the tract 'Historiae aliquot transmutationis Metallicae pro Defensione Alchymiae,' Coloniae Agr., 1604, is said to be by ' Ewaldus Vogelande s. Theob. Hogelande.' The name Vogelande is a piece of confusion, and the author of this tract calls himself Ewald von Hohelande and not Theobaldus, unless these two be identical, which I doubt. König was quoted as the authority for the pseudonymity by de la Rue in 1734. and so it filtered down to Baumer, who in 1782 puts the present work under Theobaldus von Hogeland with the ' nomine ficto Ewaldi Vogel,' and ultimately to Van der Aa. On the other hand there if no evidence in the case of a large number of authorities that identification was ever thought of. Van der Linden in 1637 keeps them entirely apart, Borel in 1654 does the same, and these, are followed by Mercklin and Manget. Andreas in 1643 makes no allusion to Vogel at all, but only to Theobaldus de Hoghelande. Eloy, so far from identifying them, has taken some trouble to distinguish them, and he seems also to doubt the identity of Theobaldus and Ewald von Hoghelande. He quotes Paquot's analysis of Vogel's book. Later writers have almost forgotten them. Gmelin treats them as distinct, and Schmieder does not mention Vogel or this book, and says nothing about the name Ewald as an alternative of Theobaldus. Kopp does not include any of these names or the books in his history of Alchemy. In the note to HOGHELANDE (i., pp. 411, 412) I referred to this question of identity. So far as the evidence goes there is no reason for believing that Hoghelande and Vogel were identical. When the statements of Conring and Morhof are reconciled and established, it will be time to speak of identification. They cannot both be right.
68. Justus à Balbian. Tractatus Septem de Lapide Philosophico, p. 649.
69. Jodocus Greverus (Grewer). Secretum, p. 699.
70. Alanus. Dicta de Lapide Philosophico, p. 722.
71. Conclusio summaria ad intelligentiam Testamenti seu Codicilli Raymundi Lullij, et aliorum librorum ejus; nec non argenti vivi, in quo pendet intentio tota intentiva, qua aliter Repertorium Raymundi appellatur, p. 730.
72. Joannes Pontanus. Epistola in qua de lapide quem Philosophorum vocant, agitur, p. 734.
73. Nicolaus Barnaud. Commentariolum in quoddam Epitaphium [Ælia Lælia Crispis] Bononiæ studiorum, ante multa secula maæmoreo lapidi insculptum, p. 744.
[Compare iv. p 805. L'épitaphe de Bologne est :
D M ELIA LAELIA CRISPIS, NEC VIR , NEC MVLIER, NEC ANDROGINA , NEC PVLLLA , NEC IVVENIS, NEC ANVS.NEC MERETRIX, NEC PVDICA, SED OMNIA SVBLATA NEQVE FAME . NEC TERRO NEQVE VENENO SED OMNIBVS NEC COELO, NEC AQVIS NEC TERRIS SED VBIQVE lACET LVCIVS,.AGATHO, PRISCIVS, NEC MARITVS , NEC AMATOR , NEC NECESSARIVS , NEQVE MOERENS , NEQVE GAVDENS, NEQVE FLENS, HANC NE QVE QVE MOLEM, NEC PYRAMIDEM, NEC SEPVLCHRVM, SED OMNIA SCIT, ET NESCIT QVID CVI POSVERIT. HOC EST SEPVLCHRVM, INTVS CADAVER NON HABENS, HOC EST CADAVER, SEPVLCHRVM EXTRA NON HABENS, SED CADAVER IDEM EST , ET SEPVLCHRVM SIBI
Ferguson : This is an epitaph cut on a block of white and red marble, which existed at Bologna. As it is a complete enigma, it has exercised the wits of many persons for three hundred years to find out its meaning and application. Marius L. Michael Angelus published a 410 pamphlet on it at Venice, in 1548; Sir W. Scott alludes to it as a perennial antiquarian problem (The Antiquary, ch. xiv.). In 1683 Caesar Malvasia in his pamphlet enumerates forty-three attempted solutions of it. It has been thought to denote rain, the soul, Niobe, Lot's wife, a child promised in marriage that died before its birth, and so on. See the notices in Acta Bruditorum 1684, p. 263 ; 1706, p. 88; 1720, p, 6; in Christoph. August. Hermann's Potcile, Halae, 1726, ii. p. 306. Here of course it is applied to the philosopher's stone, for which interpretation we are indebted to Nicolaus Barnaud, who wrote a commentary on the inscription in this sense, reprinted in Theatrum Chemicum, iii. p. 744 (q.v.), and in Manget, Bibliotheca Chemica Curiosa, ii. p. 713 (q.v.). The epitaph with its puzztling antitheses was too choice a morsel to escape the alchemists, who were fascinated by obscurities like those of the Tabula Smaragdina and delighted in ascribing to the great Arcanum the most contradictory properties, so as to display its infinite perfections, and at the same time to baffle the uninitiated. Borel (Bibl. Chem. 1654, P. 3) must have considered the inscription to be alchemical; he quotes the explanation of it by Richardus Basinstockius, Dordrecht, 1618, in verses prefixed to the Mataotechnia Medicinae Praxeos of Noah Biggs, Lond, 1651, "Elia Lelia's Art" is referred to. Jung consacre un chapitre de son Mysterium conjunctionis, t. I à l'énigme de Bologne.]
74. Nicolaus Barnaud. Processus Chemici aliquot, p. 755.
75. Lambspringk. De Lapide Philosophico libellus, p. 765.
76. Philosophus Gallus Delphinas Anonymus. Liber secreti maximi totius mundane gloriæ, p. 774.
77. Extractum ex Cimbalo Aureo, antiquissimo libro manuscripto, ad rem nostram faciens, p. 780.
78. Arcanum Philosophorum, p. 783.
79. Nicolaus Barnaud. Brevis Elucidatio illius Arcani Philosophorum, p. 784. [The tracts from Lambspringk's constitute the work called Triga chemica, edited by Barnaud.].
frontispice du Triga Chemica, Paris, 1599
[de lapide philosophico tractatus tres, editore et commentatore Nicolao Barnaudo,... Ejusdem Barnaudi brevis elucidatio arcani philosophorum [Contient : Lambspringk, nobilis Germani philosophi antiqui, libellus de lapide philosophico, e germanico versu latine redditus per Nicolaum Barnaudum. - Antiqui philosophi galli delphinatis anonymi liber secreti maximi totius mundanae gloriae. - Extractum ex Cimbalo aureo, antiquissimo libro manuscripto. ex Officina Plantiniana, apud Christophorum Raphelengium (París). - une note particulière doit être ici faite au sujet du petit traité de Lambsprinck De Lapide Philosophorum, car, rappelons-le, il s'agit d'un des très rares écrits qui fut réédité dans un ouvrage de vulgarisation, publié par Georges Ranque - la Pierre Philosophale, Robert Laffont, 1972 - dont nous parlons dans le commentaire du Triomphe Hermétique de Limojon de saint-Didier. Malheureusement, G. Ranque ne donne pas les sources de l'édition originale : ce petit traité, constitué de 15 poèmes, fut édité pour la première fois par Nicolas Barnaud en 1599 et publié ensuite dans le Museum Hermeticum, en 1677. Mais auparavant, il avait été réédité en 1602 dans le Theatrum Chemicum. Ranque en donne la traduction sur l'édition du Museum Hermeticum. Nicolas Barnaud, de Crest dans le Dauphiné, qui vécut à Genève et en Hollande, est un des plus célèbres alchimistes du XVIe siècle et il passe pour avoir fabriqué des masses énormes d'or. Nous lisons dans le troisième volume du Théâtre Chimique deux traités de lui sur une inscription énigmatique trouvée à Bologne, et sur le grand oeuvre. Il a encore publié une collection d'ouvrages alchimiques : Quadrifera Aurifera, in 4°. Lugd. Bat. , 1599, cité in Histoire de la Médecine, Kurt Sprengel, T. III, p. 270, Deterville, Desoer, Paris, 1815.]
80. Nicolaus Barnaud. Quadriga Aurifera, p. 790. [The volume contains a dedication to Count Heinrich-Friedrich of Nassau, and a preface referring to the Triga.] The four Tracts, called Rotae, or Wheels, are :
81. Tractatus de philosophia Metallorum, p. 791.
82. Ripleus. Liber Duodecim Portarum, p. 797.
83. Ripleus. Liber de Mercurio et lapide Philosophorum, p. 821.
84. Scriptum [anonymi]è Elixir Solis Theophrasti Paracelsi tractans,
85. Coelum Philosophicum. p 832.
86. Auriga Chemicus sive Theosophiæ Palmarium, p. 834.
87. De Oculta Philosophia Epistola, p. 852.
88. Dicta Sapientum, p. 857.
Theatrum chemicum, volumen quartum, 1659
89. Raymundus Lullius. Theoria & Practica, pp. 1 and 135. Plates, pp. 150 and 156.
90. Raymundus Lullius. Compendium animæ transmutationis artis Metallorum Ruperto Anglorum Regi transmissum, p. 171.
91. Artefius. Clavis majoris sapientiæ, p. 198.
92. Heliophilus a Percis. Philochemicus Philochemicis, Nova Disquisitio de Helia Artista, p. 214.
93. Heliophilus a Percis. Nova disquisitio super metallorum transformatione, p. 220. [Compare p 300].
94. Hieronymus de Zanetinis. Conclusio & comprobatio Alchymiae, qua dispositioni & argumentis Angeli respondetur, p. 247.
95. Thomas Arsoncinus. De jure Alchymiæ responsum, p. 248.
96. Latin and German verses, p. 252.
97. Nicolaus Niger Happelius. Cheiragogia Heliana de Auro philosophico, nec dum cognito, p. 265.
98. Wenceslaus Lavinus Moravus. Tractatus de Coelo terrestri, p. 288.
99. Nicolaus Niger Happelius. Disquisitio Heliana, p. 300. [cf. Nova Disquisitio p 220.]
100. Nicolaus Niger Happelius. Aphorismi Basiliani sive Canones Hermetici de Spiritu, Anima et Corpore medio Majoris & Minoris Mundi, p. 327.
101. Andreas Brentzius. Variarum Philosophorum Sententiarum perveniendi ad lapidem benedictum Collectanea, p. 333.
102. Bernardus G. Penotus. Epistola, p. 364.
103. Gaston Dulco. De triplici præparatione Auri et Argenti, p. 372.
104. Gaston Dulco. De recta et vera ratione progignendi lapidis Philosophici, seu salis Argentifici & Aurifici, Tractatus duo, p. 388.
105. Gaston Dulco. Canones seu Regulæ decem, de Lapide Philosophico, p. 414.
106. Divi Leschi Genus Amo (Sendivogius). De Lapide Philosophico Tractatus duodecim, p. 420.
107. Divi Leschi Genus Amo (Sendivogius). Ænigma Philosophorum, p. 442.
108. Divi Leschi Genus Amo (Sendivogius). Dialogus Mercurii, Alchymistæ et Naturæ, p. 449.
109. Ænigma Philosophorum sive Symbolum Saturni, per Parabolas Azoth dilucide ostendens, p. 457.
110. Aureliæ Occultæ Philosophorum partes duz. M. Georgio Beato Interprete, p. 462. [c'est dans ce traité que se trouve l'écrit attribué à Basile Valentin, appelé Azoth. Cf. aussi MANGET (J. J.), Bibliotheca Chemica Curiosa, 1702, ii. p. 198 et OCCULTA PHILOSOPHIA, 1613. p. 47 :
Ferguson : This is ascribed by some to Basilius Valentinus (q.v.). It is a dialogue between an old man, called Senior, and a pupil or student, Adolphus. The first part is in prose, the second is an interpretation of some symbolic drawings, and in the German version is in verse. Other editions: "Azoth, sive Aureliae Occultae Philosophorum,. . . , Francofurti, Joannes Bringer, 1613"; "Occulta Philosophia von den verborgenen Philosophischen Geheimnussen der heimlichen Goldblumen, . . . Franckfurt, Johann Bringer, 1613" (q.v.); "Les Douze Clefs. . . de. . . Basile Valentin. .. Plus l'Azoth . . . Paris, 1624, and Paris,
1659." In certain editions this tract is preceded by the Aenigma Philosophorum, which is also inserted sometimes among Sendivogius' writings. It does not seem, however, to belong strictly to either.] - gravures contenues dans ce recueil : 1 - 2 - 3 - 4 - 5 - 6 - 7 - 8 - 9 - 10 - 11 - 12 - 13 - 14 -
111. Tabula Smaragdina, p. 497.
112. Arnoldus de Vina Nova. Speculum Alchymiæ, p. 515.
113. Arnoldus de Villa Nova. Carmen, p. 542.
114. Arnoldus de Villa Nova. Quæstiones tam essentiales quam accidentales ad Bonifacium Octavum, p. 544.
115. Tractatus de secretissimo antiquorum philosophorum arcano, p. 554.
Ferguson : Under this title are included three tracts, with a Praefatio. Tractatus primus consists of excerpts from the following writers:
1. Rogerus Baco.
2. Raymundus Lullius.
3. Rosarius Arnoldi.
4. Clamor Buccinae.
5. Rosarius Minor.
6. Richardus Anglicus.
7. Calid Rex.
9. Bernhardus Comes.
10. Turba Philosophorum.
XXII. Propositiones sive Maximae in quibus veritas totius Artis Chemicae brevissime comprebenditur. Tractatus secundus aureus de Lapide Phiosophorum Joannis de Lasnioro, with a folding table. Tractatus tertius nobilis Joannis Trithemii Abbatis Spanheimensis. The collection was published originally in Latin in 1611, without place or printer's name, small 8°, pp. [95, 1 blank]. Appended to it is a tract in German: Tractatus Chemicus des alten hocherleuchten Philosophi, Theologi und Medici, Arnoldi de Nova Villa, s vor vierhundert Jahren gelebt. Vor niemals im druck gesehen, Jtzo aber durcb einen Liebhaber der Spagyrischen kunst den Fillis doctrinae zu gut an tag geben, pp. [60,4 blank].
116. Propositiones XXII. In quibus veritas totius artis Chemiæ brevissimè comprehenditur, p. 577.
117. Joannes de Lasnioro. Tractatus aureus de Lapide Philosophorum, p. 579.
118. figure, p. 584.
119. Joannes Trithemius Abbas Spanheimensis. Tractatus Chemicus nobilis, p. 585.
120. Hermes Trismegistus. Tractatus Aureus de Lapidis Physici Secreto in cap. 7 divisus; Nunc vero à quodam Anonymo Scholiis illustratus (cum Epistola dedicatoria et præfatione), p. 587. [ce traité est cité à de nombreuses reprises par Jung. Il s'agit des Sept Chapitres Dorés d'Hermès avec une amplification anonyme.Voir Manget, I, p. 400]
121. David Lagneus. Harmonia seu Consensus Philosophorum Chemicorum, p. 718.
122. Table, p. 748.
123. Ænigmaticum quoddam Epitaphium [Ælia Lælia Crispis] Bononiæ Studiorum ante multa secula, marmoreo lapidi insculptum, p. 805.
124. Arcanum Philosophorum, per virum doctissimum olim versu hexametro conscriptum, p. 806
125. Albertus Magnus. De Concordantia Philosophorum in Lapide, p. 809.
126. Albertus Magnus. Compositum de Compositis, p. 825.
127. Albertus Magnus. Liber Octo Capitulorum de lapide philosophorum, p. 841.
128. Avicenna. Ad Hasen Regem Epistola de re recta, p. 863.
129. Avicenna. Declaratio Lapidis Physici Filio suo Aboali, p. 875.
130. Avicenna. De Congelatione et Conglutinatione lapidum, p. 883.
131. Guilhelmus Tecenensis. Lilium de Spinis evulsum, p. 887.
132. Ortholanus. Practica vera Alkimica Parisiis probata et experta sub Anno Domini 1358, p. 912.
133. Lumen Juvenis Experti Novum, p. 934.
134. Valentinus. Opus Præclarum ad utrumque. Quod pro testamento dedit filio suo adoptivo, qui etiam istum Cractatulum propria manu scripsit loanni Apot., p. 941.
135. Tractatulus super hæc verba: Studio namque florenti, p. 955
136. Opus ad Album, p. 957.
137. Thomas Aquinas. Liber lilii benedicti, p. 960.
138. Tractatulus super verba Mer fugi dum bibit, p. 974.
139. Opus breve ad Rubeum cum sole per aquas fortes, p. 984.
140. Petrus de Silento. Opus, p. 985.
141. Joachim Tanckius. Epistola, p. 998.
142. Tractatus Philosophicus ad Rubrum et Album, p. 1001.
143. Paulus Eck de Sultzbach. Clavis Philosophorum, p. 1007.
Theatrum chemicum, volumen quintum, 1622
1. Turba Philosophorum. p. 1.
2. In turbam Philosophorum Sermo unus anonymi. p. 52.
3. Allegoria Sapientum, & Distinctiones XXIX. supra librum Turbæ. p. 57.
4. Tractatus Micreris suo discipulo Mirnefindo. p. 90.
5. Platonis libri Quartorum, seu Stellici, cum commento Hebuhabes Harned, explicati ab Hestole. p. 101.
7. Regis Calid, Liber trium verborum. p. 186.
8. Senioris Zadith, filii Hamuelis tabula chimica, marginalibus adaucta. p. 191.
[cette figure est littéralement emblématique : en effet, on la retrouve sous une forme absolument transfigurée dans le MS. Rhenoviensis 172 de Zurich où figure le texte de l'Aurora consurgens - pseudo aquinate - avec de superbes aquarelles. La figure V qui forme l'une des plus belles de la série, est appendue au texte : elle reproduit notamment pour ainsi dire trait pour trait (voyez les aigles sagittaire) notre gravure, cf. Aurora consurgens I et II - Cette image de Senior - Hermès se trouve encore reproduite sur un MS. de Nuremberg, rédigé entre 1577 et 1583, cf. Van Lennep, Alchimie, p. 109, ill. 152 et on trouve une autre image qui reproduit le f. 73 du Codex Vossianus F. 29 que nous avons examiné dans l'Aurora consurgens, II -]
9. Guilielmi Menens Antuerpiani Aurei velleris libri tres. p. 240.
10. Consilium conjugii, seu de massa Solis & Lunæ libri tres, p. 429.
11. M. Petrus Bonus. Margarita Novella correctissima, p. 507.
12. Michael Scotus. Quæstio curiosa de Natura Solis et Lunae, p. 713.
13. Lucas Rodargirus. Pisces Zodiaci inferioris vel de Solutione Philosophica. Cum ænigmatica totius Lapidis Epitome. p. 723.
14. Alphonsi Regis Castellæ, liber Philosophiae occultioris, præcipue metallorum, profundissimus, p. 766.
Ce traité attribué à Alphonse X a été pour Chevreul l'occasion ou l'amorce d'une série d'articles traitant de l'attribution dudit traité à Artephius. Cf. Chevreul, critique d'Artephius. Chevreul, et c'est là le point le plus intéresant, a été amené à montrer l'identité remarquable entre la Clavis Majoris Sapientiae et les écrits des trois alchimistes de Flers : Nicolas Valois, Nicolas Grosparmy et Vicot, cf. Cinq Traités de Valois; le Trésor des Trésors de Grosparmy; Introïtus, VI où on lira d'autres notes sur les Adeptes de Caen. Voici les notes de Ferguson sur Alphonse X -
Ferguson : Alphonso or Alfonso X., El Sabio, King of Castile and Leon (1221 - 1284) "caused this book to be translated from the Arabic into his own Castilian tongue." It would appear therefore that Alfonso was not himself the author. The Arabic book is supposed to be the Clavis majoris Sapientiae ascribed to Artephius (q.v.), of which there were numerous edition. Comparison of the two tracts shows that they are identical (though not verbally so), however the Identity is to be explained. This tract tracts 1°; of the Aristotelian elements or qualities; 2°, of the generation of minerals, and 3°, of the generation of plants from minerals, and of animals from plants. It is a short treatise on cosmogony, and not on transmutation. It is not the same as that attributed to'' Alphonso. King of Portugall," included in Five Treatises of the Philosopher's Stone, London, 1652. Sources : Hendreich, Pandecta Brandeniburgicae, 1699, p. 123. - Nicolas Antonio, Bibliotheca Hispana Vetus, 1788, ii. p. 78. - Gmelin, Geschichte der Chemie, 1797, i. 64. - Schmieder, Geschichte der Alchemiet, 1832, p. 141. - Hoefer, Histoire de la Chimie. 1842, i. 383; 1866, i. p. 407. - Fabricius, Bibliotheca Latina media et infimae Aetatis, 1858, i. p. 68. - Lucien Leclerc, Histoire de la Médecine Arabe. 1876, ii. p. 441. - Kopp, Die Alchemie, 1886, i. p. 101.
Cf. Bibliothèque des Philosophes Chimiques, II, p. 112 - Bibliotheca Chemica Curiosa, I, p. 503 - Theatrum Chemicum, IV, p. 198 - Museum d'Histoire Naturelle : MS. 2026 extrait du Theatrum Chemicum, vol. IV, p. 198 - MS. 2027 (?) - MS. 2028, ex-libris d'Étienne Clavier - MS. 2029, de Claude Alexandre Séguier - MS. 2030 de J.B. Léonard Dion de Saint-Jory. Dans l'étude de Chevreul sur la Clavis Majoris Sapientiae, on se reportera aux correspondances que nous avons dressées entre les MS. du Museum et les manuscrits ou traductions A, B, C et D.
15. Aristoteles. Tractatus ad Alexandrum Magnum, De lapide Philosophico, p. 787.
Epistola Monachi cujusdam Benedictini ordinis, de Lapide Philosophico, opuscula Platonis & Arnoldi Villauovani recensens, p. 799.
16. Thomas Aquinas. Tractatus sextus de esse et essentia mineralium tractans, p. 806.
17. Cornelius Alvetanus Arnsrodius, de conficiendo divino Elixire, sive lapide philosophico, p. 815.
18. Animadversiones Chimicæ quatuor quibus ars universa, tam practice quam theorice enudatur, p. 821.
19. Epistola Fr. Rogerii Baconis, de secretis operibus artis & naturæ, & nullitate magiæ, cum notis, p. 834.
20. De auro medico philosophorum Dialogus Scholasticus Christophori Hornii, p. 869.
Theatrum Chemicum, volumen sextum, 1661
1. Blasii Vigenerii Tractatus de Igne et Sale. p. 1.
2. Johannes Collesson. Idea Perfecta Philosophiæ Hermeticae, seu Abbreviatio Theoriae & Praxeos Lapidis Philosophici observationibus aucta, p. 143.
3. Anonymi Philosophi Galli, Instructio Patris ad filium de Arbore Solari. p. 163.
4. Christophori Parisiensis Elucidarius seu Artis transmutatoriæ summa major cum appendice. p.195.
5. Johannis Grassei Chortalassei dicti Arca arcani artificiosissimi de Summis naturæ mysteriis, ex Rustico majore et minore ejus constructa. p. 294.
6. Lilium inter Spinas. p. 323.
7. Cabala Chemica. p. 344.
8. Admonitio. De Via ad Aurum Potabile. p. 382.
9. Responsiones duæ F. R. C. ad quosdam suos Clientes, p. 393.
10. Orthelius Commentarius in novum Lumen Chymicum Michaelis Sendivogii Poloni, XII. figuris in Germania repertis illustratum. p. 397. [cf. Orthelius in Bibliotheca Chemica Curiosa, t. II, p. 516] - gravures du recueil : 1 - 2 - 3 - 4 - 5 - 6 - 7 - 8 - 9 - 10 - 11 - 12 - 13 -
11. Orthelius Epilogus et Recapitulatio in Novum Lumen Chymicum Sendivogii. p. 430.
12. Epistola Andreæ de Blavven scripta ad Petrum Andream Matthiolum in qua agitur de multiplici auri potabilis parandi ratione. p. 458.
13. Discursus Orthelii de præcedente Epistola Andrez de Blawen, p. 470.
14. Epistola Anonymi de principiis artis Hermeticæ. p. 474.
15. Expositio & Practica Lapidis Adrop, Collecta ex Plinii Philosophi Libro qui intitulatur; Aromaticum Philosophorum Thesaurus & Secretum Secretorum. p. 477.
16. Excerpta ex interlocutione Mariæ Prophetissæ, è habita cum aliquo Philosopho dicto Aros de excellentissimo opere trium horarum. p. 479.
17. Orthelii Explicatio Verborum Mariæ Prophetiæ. p. 480.
18. Epistola Joannis Pontani in qua de Lapide quem Philosophorum vocant agitur. p. 487.
19. Orthelii Commentatio in Epistolam Pontani. p. 489.
20. Epistola Haimonis de quatuor Lapidibus Philosophicis materiam suam ex minori mundo desumentibus. p. 497.
21. Epistola Cornelii Alvetani de conficiendo Divino Elixire sive Lapide Philosophico. p. 501.
22. Astronomia inferior seu Planetarum terrestrium motus & variatio. p. 507.
23. Summa rhytmorum Germanicorum de Opere Universali ex coelo soloque prodeunte. p. 511.
24. Summa Libri qui vocatur Gloria mundi, seu tabula Paradisi. p. 513.
25. Opus singulare procedens ex Sale quodam Centrali aethereo, resoluto in igne minerali terreno, seu oleo vitrioli, quod cum Tinctura Solis extracta fermentatur, & externo igne Solympico aut igne radiorum Solis invisibili coquitur & maturatur. Ex Theophrasto redivivo Michaelis Pezelii circa finem. p. 518.
26. Sententia aut Compositio Litis Spiritus et Judicis Mercurii. Ex vetusto scripto Bellum seu Duellum equestre vocato, ad accusationem & responsionem Solis & Martis, per picturas repræsenta. p. 519. [traduction du Urtheil oder Vergleichung dans Sendivogius, Lumen Chymicum Novum; Epilogus Orthelii, 1624, p. 227.]
27. Summa rhytmorum parvorum Germanicorum, qui sunt ejusdem tenoris & sensus cum præcedentibus picturis, ad verbum expressa. p. 521.
28. Mysterium occultæ naturæ Anonymi Discipuli Johannis Grassei Chortalassei dicti. p. 523.
29. Guidonis Magni de Monte Philosophi Græci Discipuli Anonymi tractatulus, seu descriptio Philosophici Adrop, ejusque præparatio. p. 543.
30. De Ovo Philosophorum, p. 565.
31. Johannes Isaac Hollandus. Tractatus de Urina quomodo per spiritum ejus omnes Tincturæ sint extrahendæ. p. 566.
32. Johannis Chartier Scientia Plumbi sacri Sapientum seu cognitio, rararum potestatum & virtutum Antimonii. p. 569
33. Joachimi Polemanni Novum Lumen Medicum de Mysterio Sulphuris Philosophorum. p. 600.
34. Solini Saltzthal Regiemontani, de potentissima Philosophorum medicina Universali Discursus. p. 675.
35. Solini Saltzthal Brevis descriptio admirandæ Virtutis et Operationis summæ Medicinæ Lapis Philosophorum dictæ. p. 694.
36. Solini Saltzthal Discursus de philosophico fonte salino. p. 704.
37. Tabula Smaragdina seu verba Secretorum Hermetis. p. 705.
38. Henrici de Rochas tractatus de observationibus novis et vera cognitione aquarum mineralium et de illarum qualitatibus & virtutibus antehac incognitis. Et de Spiritu Universali. p. 716.
4)-Musaeum Hermeticum 1625 edition Musæum Hermeticum, omnes sopho-spagyricæ artis discipulos fidelissime erudiens, quo pacto summa illa veraque Medicina, qua res omne, qualemcumque defectum patientes, instaurari possunt (quæ alias Benedictus Lapis Sapientum appellatur) inveniri ac haberi queat inveniri ac haberi queat. Continens tractatus chymicos novem præatantissimos, quorum nomina et seriem versa pagella indicabit. In gratiam filiorum doctrinæ, quibus Germanicum Idioma ignotum, in Latinum conversum ac juris publici factum. Jennis, Frankfurt. 1625.
1. Tractatus aureus de Lapide Philosophico.
2. Henricus Madathanus, Aureum Seculum Redivivum.
3. Hydrolithus Sophicus, seu Aquarium sapientum.
4. Joannes de Mehung, Demonstratio Naturae.
5. Nicolas Flamel, Summarium Philosophicum.
6. Via Veritatis Unicæ.
7. Gloria Mundi, seu Tabula Paradisi.
8. Tractatus de Generatione Metallorum.
9. Liber, cuius nomen Alze.
10. Lambspring, de lapide Philosophorum Figuræ et Emblemata.
5)-Musaeum Hermeticum 1678 edition Musæum Hermeticum reformatum et amplificatum, omnes sopho-spagyricæ artis discipulos fidelissimè erudiens, quo pacto summa illa veraque lapidis philosophici medicina, qua res omnes qualemcunque defectum patientes, instaurantur, inventiri et haberi queat. Continens tractatus chimicos XXI. Præstantissimos, quorum Nomina & Seriem versa pagella indicabit. In gratiam filiorum doctrinæ, quibus Germanicum idioma ignotum est, Latina lingua ornatum. Sand, Frankfurt. 1678, 1749.
frontispice du Musaeum Reformatum et Amplificatum, 1678 - cliquez pour l'Incipit
Ferguson : This collection was first published: Francofurti, Sumptibus Lucae Jennisii, 1625, 4°, pp.  445 [2 with engravings, 1 blank], Lambspring, pp. 35 [1 blank]. The general title-page has an engraved border, representing the four elements, the sun and moon (gold and silver) and some emblematical designs. Each tract has an engraved title-page included in the pagination. Lambsping's tract, though dated 1625 and printed uniform with the rest of the book, has separate signatures and pagination. Of the tracts above enumerated this first edition contains only the first ten, namely from the ' Tractatus Aureus ' to Lambspring's verses, inclusive. A revised and much enlarged edition appeared fifty years later : Musaeum Hermeticum Reformatum et Amplificatum, Francofurti, Apud Hermannum à Sande. 1678, f, pp. [12, including the engraved title and a plate] 863 [i]. Four folding plates. The general title has an engraved border similar to that in the first edition, and it is dated 1677. The tracts have each a title-page included in the pagination. The engraved title-pages of the previous edition are repeated in this but of the added tracts some have only printed titles, This edition contains all the tracts above enumerated, the present edition of 1749 being merely a reprint of that of 1677-78. The Hermetic Museum was translated into English by Arthur Edward Waite, and published at London by James Elliott & Co., 1893, 2 vols., 4°; vol. 1. pp. xi. [1 blank] 357 [3 blank]; il, pp.  322 [2 blank]. Only 250 copies were printed. [On notera que le cartouche central, en bas, est analogue à l'emblème LXII de l'Atalanta fugiens ; que le 2ème médaillon, en haut et à gauche, rappelle le Zeus qui figure à l'emblème I. Le Soleil et la Lune rappellent l'emblème XXX ; les trois autres médaillons doivent être cherchés dans d'autres traités. A gauche, nous avons le phénix ; à droite, l'aigle et sa portée, cf. l'une des peintures de l'Aurora Consurgens. Dans ce recueil figurent les planches des Duodecim claves de Basile Valentin ; le frontispice du Tractatus Aureus ; les quinze emblèmes du De Lapide de Lambsprinck ; le frontispice du Crede mihi de Norton ; la médaille alchimique du Vitulus aureus d'Helvetius et les magnifiques planches du Janitor Pansophus. À noter que toutes ces planches se retrouvent dans le Dyas Chymica Tripartita, compilation attribuée à Grasseus.]
1. Tractatus aureus de Lapide Philosophico. p. 1
2. Henricus Madathanus, Aureum Seculum Redivivum. p. 53
3. Hydrolithus Sophicus, seu Aquarium sapientum. p. 73
4. Joannes de Mehung, Demonstratio Naturae. p. 145
5. Nicolas Flamel, Summarium Philosophicum. p. 172
6. Via Veritatis Unicæ. p. 181
7. Gloria Mundi, seu Tabula Paradisi. p. 203
8. Tractatus de Generatione Metallorum. p. 305
9. Author Liber, cuius nomen Alze. p. 323
10. Lambspring, de lapide Philosophorum Figuræ et Emblemata. p. 337
11. Michael Maier, Tripus Aureus, hoc est tres tractatus chimici selectissimi: nempe,
Basilii Valentini... Practica una cum XII Clavibus et Appendice. p. 373
12. Thomae Nortoni Crede mihi seu Ordinale ex anglicano manuscripto in latinum translatum. p. 433
[According to the author's concluding lines, this poem was begun in 1477. The first publication of it was in the Latin translation by Michael Maier in 1618, above mentioned. For in his book Symbols Auras Mensae, printed the previous year, he speaks of it as being still ' uneditus,' but ' to be published shortly by us,' and it appeared of course in the subsequent reprints of the Tripus aureus. The English poem was first printed In Ashmole's Theatrum from a fine manuscript. He says (p. 455): ' In the search I have made after Authentique Manuscripts to compleate this worke, a private Gentleman lent me a very faire one of Norton's Ordinall, which I chiefly followed; yet not omitting to compare it with fourteen other copies. It was written in Velame and in an auntient sett hand, very exact and exceeding neate.' This, Ashmole thinks from various circumstances, may have been the dedication copy to George Novell, Archbishop of York, whose magnificent entertainment of Edward IV. with lavish display of plate and other treasure was so thoroughly appreciated by the king that he took possession of the whole ' and made of the Arch-Bishop's Mitre (get with precious stones) a Crowne for himself. ' The poem appears to be anonymous, but as Ashmole has pointed out in language, worthy almost of Sir Thomas Urquhart, the author's name is contained in the poem itself. He says (p. 437) :
' From the first word of this Proeme, and the Initiall letters of the six following Chapters (discovered by Acromonosyllabiques and Sillabic Acrostiques) we may collect the authors Name and place of Residence: For those letters (together with the first line of the seventh chapter) speaks thus, Tomas Norton of Briseto, A parfet Master ye maie him trowe. Such like Fancies were the results of the wisdome and humility of the Auncient Philosophers, (who when they intended not an absolute concealement of Persons, Names, Misteries, &c.) were wont to hide them by Transpositions, Acrostiques. Isogrammatiques, Symphoniaques, and the lyke. (which the searching Sons of Art might possibly unriddle, but) with designs to continue them to others, as concealed things; And that upon the Question no other Answer should be returned, then the like of the Angell's to Manoah. [His name was Peli, to wit, admirable and secret]. '
The author of the Ordinall was the son of Thomas Norton, and was born at Bristol towards the end of the fourteenth century. He was member of Parliament for the borough of Bristol in 1436, member of privy chamber of Edward IV., acted on embassies and accompanied the king when he fled to Burgundy. At the age of 28 he is said to have visited George Ripley and to have asked to be instructed in the preparation of the red stone. His master, whether Ripley or another, seeing him to be a suitable person, ultimately put him on the right road and at the end of forty days (the appropriate period of a ' philosophic month') the pupil bad acquired the secret. In the Ordinall, chap. ii., he refers to his master in terms of the greatest admiration and affection. He describes (chap. vi.) a furnace of his invention by which he could get ' threescore degrees,' and carry on as many operations simultaneously, each with its own heat. He complains of the troubles which beset the adept; his perfected work was stolen by servants, and he says:
' I made also the Elixer of life
Which me bereft a Merchaunt's wife:
The Quintessens I made also,
With other secrets many moe,
Which sinfull people took me fro,
To my great paine and much more woe.'
The lady here referred to is said to have been Mrs. Canynges, the wife of William Canynges, who rebuilt the church of St. Mary Redcliffe at Bristol. His master mason was called Norton, and it has been sought to Identify him with the alchemist. The poem contains a number of interesting details and throws light on the beliefs of the period. Manuscripts of the work exist in the British Museum, the Bodleian, in Trinity College, Dublin, and in the library of the Marquis of Bath. Other works are ascribed to him, or bear his name: De transmutatione Metallorum; and De Lapide Philosophorum. They have not been printed. Cf. Theatrum Britannicum, p.1 et Bibliotheca Chemica Curiosa, vol. 2, p. 285]
13. Cremeri Testamentum... figuris cupro affabre incisis ornati. p. 533
14. Michael Sendivogius, Novum Lumen Chemicum e Naturæ Fonte & manuali Experientia depromptum. p. 545
Dialogus Mercurii, Alchymistæ et Naturæ.
15. Michael Sendivogius, Novi Luminis Tractatus alter de Sulphure. p. 601
16. Philaletha, Introitus Apertus ad occlusum Regis Palatium. p. 647
17. Michael Maier, Subtilis Allegoria super Secreta Chymiæ. p. 701
18. Philaletha, Metallorum Metamorphosis. p. 741
Brevis Manuductio ad Rubinum Coelestem. p. 775
19. Philaletha, Fons Chymicæ Veritatis. p. 799
20. Joannes Fridericus Helvetius, Vitulus Aureus quem Mundus adorat et orat. p. 815 [cf. Bibliotheca Curiosa Chemica, Manget, vol I., 9, p. 200 pour l'image d'une médaille alchimique p. 828]
21. Janitor Pansophus, seu Figura Ænea quadripartita cunctis Museum hoc introeuntibus, superiorum ac inferiorum scientiam Mosaico-Hermeticam, analytice exhibens. p. 864
6)-Bibliotheca chemica curiosa, Jean-Jacques Manget. Bibliotheca chemica curiosa, seu rerum ad alchemiam pertinentium thesaurus instructissimus: quo non tantum Artis Auriferæ, ac scriptorum in ea nobiliorum historia traditur; lapidis veritas argumentis & experimentis innumeris, immo & juris consultorum judiciis evincitur; termini obscuriores explicantur; cautiones contra impostores, & difficultates in tinctura universali conficienda occurrentes, declarantur: Verum etiam tractatus omnes virorum celebriorum, qui in magno sudarunt elixyre, quique ab ipso Hermete, ut dicitur, Trismegisto, ad nostra usque tempora de Chrysopoæ scripserunt, cum præcipuis suis commentariis, concinno ordine dispositi exhibentur. Ad quorum omnium illustrationem additæ sunt quamplurimæ figuræ æneæ. Chouet, Geneva, 1702. 2 volumes.
frontispice du tome I de la Bibliotheca Chemica Curiosa de Mangetus
Ferguson : Manget was born at Geneva, 19 June, 1652. His father was a wealthy merchant, and his uncle a physician of the King of Poland. To gratify his parents his studies were at first directed to divinity, bat afterwards be taught himsetf medicine by private study and reading, graduated as doctor in 1678 at Valence, in Dauphiné. and practised in his native place with great acceptance and success. He became dean of the Medical Faculty there, in 1699 the Elector of Brandenburg made him his first physician, and when he became king of Prussia, Manget still continued to hold the position until his death. His literary work, in which he is said to have been helped by Daniel Leclerc, consisted chiefly in collecting and reprinting in large volumes treatises on medicine and surgery, and these are valuable as works of reference to books which either are now difficult to obtain or which have disappeared. They are :
Messis Medico-spagyrica, Colon. (? Genevae). 1683. fol. - Bibliotheca anatomica, Genevae, 1685, 2 vols., fol.; 1699. 2 vols., fol. ; London, 1711, 3 vols., 4°. - Bibliotheca pharmaceutlco - medica, Genev., 1704, 2 vols., fol. - Bibliotheca chirurgica, Genev., 1721, 4 vols., fol. - Bibliotheca scriptorum medicorum, 1731, 4- vols., fol. (This contains the whole of Mercklin's Lindenius renovatus, with reprints of biographical notices and renews from a variety of sources, and additional authors subsequent to Mercklin's time. This last section, however, to not so full as it might have been.) - Bibliotheca medlco-practica, Genev., 1695 - 98, 4 vols., fol. ; Ib. 1739, 4 vols., fol. - Theatrum anatomicum, Genev., 1716-1717, 2 vols., fol.
He edited the works of some other writers on medical subjects. The present work is the largest of the collections of chemial authors, and though it contains a number of works which had already been printed in Zetzner's Theatrum chemicum, It contains a great number of others which Zetzner did not reprint. The originals of many of the treatises are now extremely scarce, so that for historical reference Manget's collection is indispensable. The only drawback under which it labours is that the text as printed differs sometimes from that of other editions. Manget died at Geneva, 15 (25) Augt., 1743, in his 91st year, without having had a day's illness during his lifetime.
sources : Journal des Savans, 1703, pp. 499-504. - Stolle, Anleintung zur Historie der Medicinischeit Gelahrheit, 1731, pp. 343, 465, 494. 497,540. - Manget, Bibliotheca Scriptorum Medicorum. 1731, II. i. pp. 217 - 257 (biography, and contents of Jacob Leupolds Prodromus Bibliothecae metallicae, 1732, P. 97. (' Bibliotheca chemica curiosa,' iv. vols. fol., Gen(e)uae-, 1695, 1702. It is in two volumes, and I have seen no other mention of a 1695 edition.) - Lenglet Dufresnoy, Histoire de la Philosophie Hermétique, 1742, iii. pp. 2 (Bibl. Scriptorum Medicorum), 60 ('Bibl. Chemica Curiosa,' with a reprint of the contents). - Mémoires pour l'Histoire des Sciences & des beaux Arts (Memoires de Trévoux), 1743, Mars 1743, pp. 549 - 551. - Jöcher, Allgemeines Gelehrlen-Lexicon, 1751, iii. col. 110; Rotermund's Fortsetzung und Ergänzungen, 1813, iv. col. 570. - Fictuld, Probier-Stein, 1753, Th. ii. p. 93. (Horlacher's abstract; Fictuld condemns both, and laments the loss of time in compiling them.) - Moréri, Le Grand Dictionnaire historique, 1759, vii. p. 159. - Osmont, Dictionnaire typographique, 1768, i. - Haller, Bibbliotheca Botanica, 1772, ii. p. 72. - Haller, BibIiotheca Anatomica, 1774, i. p. 803. - Haller, Bibliotheca Chirurgica, 1774,1. p. 520. - Eloy, Dictionnaire historique de la Médecine, - Haller, Bibliotheca Medicinae practicae, 1779. iii.p. 603 ('aliqua mecum adfinitate conjunctus, magnus collector'). - Baumer, Bibliotheca Chemica, 1782, p. 2 - Jean Senebier, Histoire littéraire de Genève, Genève, 1786. ii. pp. 316-18. - Gmelin, Geschichte der Chemie 1798, ii. pp. 255, 300, 371, 480 - Hutchinson, Biographia Medica, 1799, ii. p. 122. - Chalmers, The General Biographical Dictionary, 1815, xxi. p. 236. - Biographie Médicale, Paris, Panckoucke (1820-25), vi. p. 173. - Biographie Universelle, 1820, xxvi. p. 486; n.d. xxvii p. 340 (article by Weiss). - Schmieder, Geschichte der Alchemie, 1832, p. 513. - Querard. La France littéraire, 1833, v. p. 488. - Dezeimeris, Dictionnaire historique de la Médecine, 1837, III. ii. p. 509. - Bayle & Thillaye, Biographie Médicale. 1855, ii. p. 51, Phillippe & Ludwig, Geschichte der Apotheker, 1855, p. 588 - Nouvelle Biographie Générale, 1863, xxxiii. col. 301. - Ladrague, Bibliothèque Ouvaroff, Sciences Secrètes, 1870, No. 538. (Horlacher's abstract; there is no copy of the original work.) - Dictionnaire Encyclopédique des Sciences Médicales, 2ème Série, 1871, iv. p. 505. - Hirsch, Biographisches Lexicon der hervorragen den Aerzte aller Zeiten und Völker. 1886, iv. p. 115 (article by Pagel). - Kopp. Die Alchemie. 1886. i. p. 88; ii. p. 326, 340. - Billings, Index-Catalogue, 1887, viii. P. 578.
illustrations tirées de l'ouvrage (p. xx) : t. I : 1 (p. 87 : Arcanum II. Chymicum) - 2 (p. 200 : cf. ref. 9, Helvetius) - 3 (p. 540 : divers appareils qui paraissent dans des traités, tirés sans doute de Summa Perfectionis Magisterii) - t. II : 4 - 5 (p. 521 et 525 : 14 figures d'Orthelius tirées du Commentaire de la Nouvelle Lumière Chymique ; nous noterons que ces gravures sont différentes de celles publiées dans le Theatrum Chemicum, cf. vol. VI, p. 397. Elles ont été publiées par Van Lennep dans son Alchimie, chap. I, pp. 37-39 et pour les gravures de l'édition du Theatrum, complément, p. 436) - 6 (p. 565) - 7 - 8 (p. 416 et 421 : Douze Clefs de Philosophie, dans une version beaucoup moins soignée que celles présentées dans le Tripus Aureus - cf. Musaeum Hermeticum, p. 373 ou que la version, fort rare, des Chymische Schrifften, cf. gravures) - 9 (p. 87, Liber Lucis avec une image de fourneau, moins complète que celle donnée dans le vol. III, p. 292 du Theatrum Chemicum) - 10 (p. 218 - il s'agit de l'Azoth attribué au pseudo Basile Valentin : selon E. Canseliet, Fulcanelli tient Senior Zadith pour l'auteur du traité. Il y a là matière à recherche, cf. Bibliothèque des Philosophes chymiques de Richebourg, vol. III, n° 16. Notez que la fig. 2 apparaît dans l'une des deux éditions françaises des Douze Clefs de Philosophie. Certaines de ces gravures sont moins connues, telles les n° 8 - 12. ) - 11 - 12 - 13 - 14 - 15 - 16 - 17 (série de 160 médaillons du Jardinet Hermético-spagyrique de Soltzenberg, cf. infra vol. II, p. 895) - 18 (p. 275 : Douze Portes de Ripley, cf. vol. II, p. 275) - 19 (p. 287 : reproduction d'une gravure célèbre du Crede Mihi de Thomas Norton, cf. Tripus Aureus in Musaeum Hermeticum, 1678, p. 373 ) -
1. Olaus Borrichius. De Ortu et Progressu Chemiæ Dissertatio (contient Aelia Lelia Crispis, p. 26),
2. Olaus Borrichius. Conspectus Scriptorum Chemicorum Celebriorum, p. 38.
3. Athanasius Kircher. De Lapide Philosophorum Dissertatio p 54.
4. Athanasius Kircher. De Alchymia Sophistica, p. 82.
5. Salomon de Blauvenstein. Interpellatio brevis ad Philosophos pro Lapide Philosophorum contra Antichimisticum Mundum Subterraneum Athanasii Kircheri Jesuitæ, p. 113.
6. Gabriel Clauder. Tractatus de Tinctura Vniversali, ubi in specie contra R. P. Athanasium Kircherum pro existentia Lapidis Philosophici disputatur, p. 119.
7. Daniel Georg, Morhof. De Metallorum Transmutatione ad . . . Joelem Langelottum Epistola,
8. Philippus Jacobus Sachs a Levvenheimb. Aurum Chymicum, p. 192.
9. Joh. Fridericus Helvetius. Vitulus aureus quem mundus adorat et orat, in quo tractatur de rarissimô Naturæ Miraculô Transmutandi Metalla, nempe quomodo tota Plumbi Substantia, vel intra momentum, ex quavis minima Lapidis veri Philosophici particula in Aurum obryzum commutata fuerit Hagæ Comitis, p. 196.
médaille de transmutation de Ferdinand III, 1648, figurant dans le Vitulus Aureus de Helvetius, p. 200 de la Bibliotheca Chemica Curiosa, tome I, de Manget - [cliquez sur l'image pour visualiser la version du Vitulus Aureus contenue dans le Musaeum Hermeticum]
[Johann Friedrich Schweitzer, latinized Helvetius, great grandfather of the philosopher, was born at Köthen, in the Duchy of Anhalt, in 1625 (Roth-Scholtz says 1631), studied medicine, went to the Hague, and became physician to the Prince of Orange. He was the author of one or two medical and botanical books, and also of some on alchemy, as: De Alchymia opuscula complura veterum philosophorum, Francof 1650, which I have not seen, and which seems to me to be too curiously like a book with the same title printed at Frankfurt in 1550. He is now remembered by the present work, in which he gives an account of the transmutation of which he was witness In 1666. The book passed through several editions, and the case excited a great deal of discussion. By some it was looked on as conclusive proof of the actuality of transmutation ; by others it was considered too puerile for comment. [on s'en est fait l'écho dans les sections consacrées à Alexandre Sethon et dans chimie et alchimie] Kopp, however, asks if a man like Helvetius could have narrated such an occurrence either erroneously or untruthfully: and he thinks that it would not be reasonable to assume either. On the strength of this cautious view more energetic believers in the occult have brought it forward at the present moment as historically incontestable. See Dr. G. H. Berendt, Das Buch der Wunder (1901, the book is not dated, but it came out this year), ii. p. 700. Helvetius died at the Hague, 29 Augt., 1709. His portrait is given in Roth-Scholtz's Bibliotheca Chemica, 1727, frontispiece to Stück iv. The book was first published in Latin at Amsterdam, in 1667; at the Hague, 1702, 8*, pp. [1-6] 7-72, folding plate; and, it is said, also in 1705. The German version was published at Nürnberg, 1668; other editions quoted are 1675, 1727; Frankf. a- M. 1705,1726. Dutch: Gouden Kaff, waar in aangetoond wordt hoe door middel van den philosophischen Sleen het Lood in Goud is veranderd, Amsterdam, 1749. Kopp has made a curious statement which deserves notice, otherwise it may lead to mistakes. When describing Helvetius' " Vitulus Aureus," he adds in a parenthesis that he is not to be confusfed with a contemporary physician in Köthen of exactly the same name, who, in 1655, at Leyden. published iin alchemical writing " Ichts ausnichts." Now below Helvetius' portrait, as given by Roth. Scholtz, is the inscription: Johannes Fridericus Helvetius, Anhaltinus Göthönensis, Medicinae Doctor, et Practicus ab A. 1661. Hagae comitis, denique ab A. 1676. Amstelodamensis, verus de transmutatione Plumbi In Aurum testis ejus denique fabricator. Nat. A. 1631. On the Other Band, in the Beytrag zur Geschichte der höhern Chemie, 1785, p. 617, occurs the following: "214. lo. Frider. Helvetii Ichts aus nichts, leiden 1655. 12, — Von einem Manne, der sich getrauete, ein goldnes Kalb zu zengenkann man schon erwarten, das er etwas aus nichts hervorbringen konnte. (he did not, but that does not affect the present argument !) " There is not the slightest doubt in these passages as to the identity of Helvetius of Köthen with the author of the Golden calf, and of the identity of the author of " Icbts aus nichts " also with the author of the Golden Calf. I am not aware of any ground for the distinction Kopp draws. He is so very accurate that one hesitates to believe that he has here been in some son of misapprehension, but it seems to be the case.
Au sujet de cette médaille, nous avons trouvé cet extrait dans l'Alchimie de Van Lennep - Dervy, 1985 - à propos de Ferdinand III :
« En 1648, alors qu'il se trouvait a Vienne, Richthausen reçut un mot de son ami l'alchimiste Labujardière qui, à Prague se sentait à l'article de la mort. II l'enjoignait de venir chercher le plus rapidement possible une poudre de projection qu'il avait fabriquée et qu'il conservait dans un coffret. Richthausen arriva lorsque son ami était mort. II découvrit cependant le coffret. Le comte Schlick, qui s'était assuré les services de Labujardière, le réclama — mais Richthausen préféra lui en faire parvenir une réplique et remettre la poudre à l'empereur Ferdinand III. Celui ci, qui se méfiait des subterfuges, préféra opérer seul, se faisant assister du comte von Rutz, directeur des mines. Avec un grain de la poudre, l'empereur changea deux livres et demie de mercure en or pur, le 15 janvier 1648. La médaille commémorant cette réussite était ornée d'un Apollon héliocéphale avec cette inscription « Divine transmutation réalisée à Prague le XV janvier de l'an 1648 en présence de sa majesté l'empereur Ferdinand III » (Divina metamorphosis exhibita Pragae XV lan A° MDCXLIII in praesentia sac maiest Ferdinandi tertu). Sur l'autre face, on pouvait lire « Cet art appartient autant aux hommes remarquables qu'il apparaît rarement au jour — Dieu soit loué éternellement, lui qui confère une partie de sa puissance infime a nous ses humbles créatures » (Raris haec hominibus est ars ita raro in lucem prodit. Laudetur deus in aeternum qui partem suae infinitae potentiae nobis suis abiectissimis creaturis communicat). »
Van Lennep, en notes, donne des sources où le Vitulus Aureus de Helvetius n'est pas cité. Cette médaille est citée par Bernard Husson dans ses Transmutations alchimiques (J'ai Lu, 1974), p. 158-160. Cf. aussi Kopp, Die Alchemie, p. 89. ]
10. Joannes Chrysippus Fanianus. De Iure Artis Alchemiæ, hoc est variorum Autorum & praesertim Jurisconsultorum Judicia & Responsa ad Quæstionem An Alchemia sit Ars Legitima, p. 210.
11. Gulielmus Johnsonus. Lexicon Chymicum, p. 217.
12. Gulielmus lohnsonus. Lexicon Chymicum. Liber Secundus, p. 275.
13. Petrus Joannes Faber. Manuscriptum . . . Res Alchymicorum obscuras extraordinaria perspicuitate explanans, p. 291.
14. Petrus Joannes Faber. Epistolæ aliquot, p. 304.
15. Joannes Joachim Becher. Oedipus Chymicus, obscuriorum Terminorum & Principiorum Chymicorum Mysteria aperiens et resolvens, p. 306.
16. Theobaldus de Hoghelande. De Alchimiæ Difficultatibus Liber, in quo docetur, quid scire quidque vitare debeat vere Chemiæ studiosus ad perfectionem aspirans, p. 336.
17. Cato Chemicus, Tractatus quo veræ ac genuinæ Philosophiæ Hermeticæ & fucatæ ac sophisticæ Pseudo-Chemiæ, & utriusque Magistrorum Characterismi accurate delineantur p. 368.
18. Hermes Trismegistus. Tabula Smaragdina. Cui titulus Verba Secretorum Hermetis Trismegisti W. Chr. Kriegsmanni & Gerardi Dornei Commentariis illustrata, p. 380.
19. Arnoldus de Villa Nova. Testamentum, p. 389.
20. Hermes Trismegistus, Expositiones Dornei, p. 389.
21. Hermes Trismegistus. Tractatus Aureus de Lapidis Physici Secretô, in septem Capitula divisus, cum Scholiis Anonymi, p. 400.
22. Turba Philosophorum ex antiquo Manuscripto Codice excerpta, qualis nulla hactenus visa fuerat editio, p. 445.
Ferguson : It has been inferred by Schmieder that the anonymous tracts called 'Turba Philosophorum' were written tn the twelfth century, say about 1140, because authors before that date are definitely quoted, while others subsequent to it are not mentioned. Moreover, Alanus, who lived about that time or a little later, refers to the Turba, and it was commended by Albertus Magnus in the thirteenth century. There are two distinct collections which pass under this name. One contains 72 discourses, the other '78. Among the speakers are a few persons of classical antiquity whose names are familiar, such as Plato and Pythagoras, but the majority are quite strange, and their names are peculiar. So far as I am aware, they are met with nowhere else, and when they do occur in other writings it is because a passage is quoted from the 'Turba.' Borel, indeed, has transferred them to his list as if they were genuine alchemists, and for this he has been called to account by Morhof. The person to whom the work has been ascribed is called Arisleus, who is not to be confused with Aristaeus. Great importance was attached by later alchemists to the dicta contained in the 'Turba.' Bernhardus Trevisanus says that his labour was all in vain till he was put on the right track by what is said by Parmenides in the 'Turba.' From this Kopp has infterred that he used the second form of the collection, but Kopp has made a slip here, for Parmenides' name occurs in both versions. Kopp has devoted a special paragraph to the 'Turba,' and has criticised the age assigned to it by Schmeider, which he considers not substantiated by his arguments, though it is more probable than the great antiquity with which it has been credited. He doubts also if Arisleus is to be reckoned the author, a person of whom nothing exact is known. Schmieder translates the title 'Conflict of Philosophers,' but Kopp prefers to interpret the name as meaning 'Assembly' or 'Convention of Philosophers.' Either of these translations is possible, but anyhow, one has to regard the tractate as the report of a meeting of a ' Hermetic Association for the Advancement of Alchemy.' of which a certain Pythagoras was president, and Arisleus was the 'convener' and 'recorder.' But while agreeing with Kopp in the rendering of the term 'Turba,' it is possible also to share Schmieder'a opinion that the meaning is 'Streit der Philosophen,' which, without involving the notion of personal—but unphilosophical — violence, may be interpreted as the 'Clash of Scientific Opinion,' such as may be witnessed at more modem congresses. It must be admitted that the woodcut which accompanies the 'Turba' in some editions strongly rapports Schmieder's rather than Kopp's translation. The following index is given by Fabricius, the references being to the reprints in Manget's Bibliotheca Chemica Curiosa, T. I. In this volume the first version of tbe Turba, in seventy-two discourses, begins on p. 445; Allegoriae Sapientum et Distinctiones xxix. supra librum Turbae, p. 467; second version of the Turba, in seventy-eight discourses, p. 480; Allegoriae super Librum Turbae, p. 494; AEnigma ex visione Arislei Philosophi et allegoriis Sapientum, p. 495. A few inaccuracies in Fabricius' list, detected by comparing it with Manget's text, have been corrected.
23. In Turbam Philosophorum Sermo unus Anonymi, p. 465.
24. Allegoriæ Sapientum supra Librum Turbæ Philosophorum XXIX Distinctiones, p. 467.
25. Turbæ Philosophorum aliud exemplar, p. 480.
26. Allegoriæ super librum Turbæ, p. 494.
27. Ænygma ex visione Arislei Philosophi & Allegoriis Sapientum, p. 495.
28. Exercitationes in turbam Philosophorum, p. 497.
29. Artephius. Liber qui Clavis majoris Sapientiæ dicitur, p. 503.
30. Calid. Liber de Compositione Alchemiæ quem edidit Morienus Romanus, Calid Regi Ægyptiorum; quem 31. Robertus Castrensis de Arabico in Latinum transtulit, p. 509.
32. Geber. Summa Perfectionis Magisterii in suâ naturâ, p. 519.
33. Geber. Liber Investigationis Magisterii, p. 558.
34. Geber. Testamentum, p. 562.
35. Joannes Braceschus, De Alchemia Dialogus veram et genuinam librorum Gebri sententiam explicens, p. 565.
36. Joannes Gerhardus, Exercitationes perbreves in Gebri Arabis summi Philosophi libros duos Summæ perfectionis, p. 598.
37. Rogerius Baco. De Alcymia Libellus cui titulus Speculum Alchemiae, p. 613.
38. Rogerius Baco. De Secretis operibus Artis & Naturæ et de Nullitate Magiæ Epistola (ad Guilielmum Parisiensem conscripta), p. 616.
39. Avicenna. Tractatulus de Alchemiâ, p. 626.
40. Avicenna, De Congelatione et Conglutinatione lapidum, p. 636.
41. Aristoteles. De perfecto Magisterio Tractatus, p. 638.
42. Aristoteles. Tractatulus de practica lapidis philosophici, p. 659.
43. Arnaldus de Villanova. Thesaurus Thesaurorum & Rosarium Philosophorum, omnium Secretorum maximum secretum, de verissima compositione Naturalis Philosophiæ qua omne diminutum reducitur ad solificum & lunificum, p. 662.
44. Arnaldus de Villanova. Novum Lumen, I. p. 676.
45. Arnaldus de Villanova. Perfectum Magisterium & Gaudium transmissum ad inclytum Regem Aragonum, quod quidem est Flos Florum, Thesaurus omnium incomparabilis & Margarita, p. 679.
46. Arnaldus de Villanova. Epistola super Alchemia ad Regem Neapolitanum, p. 683.
47. Arnaldus de Villanova. Speculum Alchemiæ, p. 687.
48. Arnaldus de Villanova. Carmen, p. 698.
49. Arnaldus de Villanova. Quæstiones tam Essentiales quam accidentales ad Bonifacium Octavium cum suis Responsionibus, p. 698.
50. Arnaldus de Villanova. Semita semitæ, p. 702.
51. Arnaldus de Villanova. Testamentum, p. 704.
52. Raymundus Lullius. Testamentum, & primum de Theorica, p. 707.
53. Raymundus Lullius. Testamentum, pars Practica super Philosophico Lapide, p. 763.
frontispice du Testamentum attribué au pseudo Lulle
[Testamentum Raymundi Lulli doctissimi et celeberrimi philosophi. Duobus libris universam artem chymicam complectens, antehac nunquam excusum. Item ejusdem Compendium animae transmutationis artis metallorum, absolutum jam et perfectum. (Ludolphus Verdemanus edidit) apud Ioannem Byrckmannum (Colonia), 1573.]illustrations tirées de l'ouvrage (p. xx) : 1 - 1bis (p. 709, Lib. II, sect. III, subsect. V - cap. III) - 2 (p. 711, cap. III : de forma minori et de principus natura mineralis simplicis per extremitates et media) - 3 (p. 712, cap IV : De approximatione Temperamenti respecta natura, de genera secundum regulam scientiae, de extremitatibus et de mediis et de ipsorum divisione in principiis essentialibus) - 4 (p. 764, cap. V : de secunda distinctione, quae est de figuris prima partis solutive) - 5 (p. 765, cap. VI : de tertia distinctione quae est de figuris, de secunda parte solutionis) - 6 (p. 765 : cap. VIII : de figura prima triangularis, qua demonstrat principium practica et de intentione triangulari) - 7 (p. 766, cap IX : de prima dispositione incipiendo spus in fermae practica) - A noter que la Bibliotheca Chemica Curiosa ne reprend pas une illustration qui, pourtant, paraît des plus importantes, car elle est en forme de lettres chiffres : 8 - 9. La planche 9 donne l'explication des lettres de la planche 8. De même, la planche 10 n'est pas reprise non plus ; elle figure p. 170 de la Practica.
54. Joannes Gerhardus. Analysis Partis Practica Raymundi Lullii in Testamento, p. 778.
55. Raymundus Lullius. Compendium Animæ Transmutationis Artis Metallorum, Ruperto Anglorum Regi transmissum, p. 780.
56. Raymundus Lullius. Testamentum novissimum, Carolo Regi dicatum, p. 790.
57. Raymundus Lullius. Testamenti novissimi pars altera, p. 806.
58. Raymundus Lullius. Elucidatio Testamenti, p. 823.
59. Raymundus Lullius. Liber dictus Lux Mercuriorum in quo explicatur quod in aliis Libris occultatum est, p. 824.
60. Raymundus Lullius. Experimenta in quibus veræ Philosophicæ Chemicæ Operationes clarissime traduntur, p. 826.
61. Raymundus Lullius. Liber Artis Compendiosæ quem Vademecum nuncupavit, p. 849.
62. Raymundus Lullius, Compendii Animæ Transmutationis Artis Metallorum aliud exemplar, p. 853.
63. Raymundus Lullius. Epistola de Accurtatione Lapidis Benedicti missa Anno 1412. Roberto Anglorum Regi, p. 863.
64. Raymundus Lullius. Liber Potestas Divitiarum dictus, in quo optima expositio Testamenti Hermetis continetur, p. 866.
65. Raymundus Lullius. Clavicula quae & Apertorium dicitur, in qua omnia quæ in opere Alchemiæ requiruntur, aperte declarantur, p. 872.
66. Raymundus Lullius. Compendium Artis Alchemiæ et Naturalis Philosophiæ, p. 875.
67. Raymundus Lullius. Tractatus de Lapide et Oleo Philosophorum, p. 878.
68. Raymundus Lullius. Codicillus, seu Vademecum & Cantilena in quo fontes Alchemicae Artis ac Philosophiæ reconditioris uberrime traduntur, p. 880.
69. Joannes Braceschus. Lignum Vitæ, seu Dialoeus ex Italico in Latinum versus à G. Gratorolo Physicæ, quo 70. Raymundi Lulli Scripta explicantur, p. 911.
71. Liber Mutus Alchemiæ Mysteria filiis Artis nudis figuris, evidentissime aperiens (15 planches),
planche 8 du Mutus Liber, édition de la Bibliotheca Chemica Curiosa - cf. autres planches in gravures.
Ferguson : This is a series of fifteen engraved plates, without a word of explanation, portraying the preparation of the philosopher's stone. The plates are partly symbolical, partly pictorial, representing an alchemist and his wife engaged to chemical operations, such as sublimation, distillation, the hermetic sealing of flasks, and the old chemical apparatus is very well displayed. There is hardly a clue, however, to the substances symbolized, and none whatever to those obtained by the processes. The first edition of this work appeared at La Rochelle in 1677, in folio. [les gravures de l'édition rochelaise sont accompagnées de commentaires et de l'Hypotypose de Pierre Dujols de Valois, dans le Mutus Liber] Barbier (Dictionnaire des Anonymes, 1824, iii. No. 20997) has the following note upon it: L'auteur anonyme, dit Arcere dans son Histoire de la ville de la Rochelle, 1757, in-4, t. 2, p. 384, pourrait être Jacob SAULAT, sieur DES MAREZ, lequel demnda un privilége pour ce manuscrit. Je crois que le vrai auteur est TOLLÉ médecin de la Rochelle, grand chimiste ; le nom emprunté Altus le désigne assez. Quérard (Les Supercheries Littéraires Dévoilées, 1869, i. 282d) enters this book under Altus and agrees with Barbier in ascribing it to Tollé. Brunet (i. 203) also enters it under Altus, but prefers ascribing it to Saulat. May Altus not be meant for a kind or anagram of Saulat ? Vogt (Calalogus. . . Librorum Rariorum, 1747, p. 481), says merely that Saulat was the editor. - Kopp (Die Alchemia, 1886, ii. 318) mentions the book, but says nothing about the author, and Lenglet-Dufresnoy before him is equally silent (Hist. de la Phil. Hermétique, 1742, iii. pp. 68, 91, 249).
frontispice du tome II de la Bibliotheca Chemica Curiosa de Mangetus
72. Petrus Bonus. Margarita pretiosa novella, p. 1.
73. Joannes de Rupescissa. Liber Magisterii de confectione veri Lapidis Philosophorum, 4. 80.
74. Joannes de Rupescissa. Liber Lucis, p. 84.
75. Rosarium Philosophorum, p. 87.
76. Rosarii Philosophorum aliud Exemplar . . . per Toletanum Philosophum maximum, in p 119.
77. Rosarium Abbreviatum Ignoti, p. 133.
78. Guido de Montanor. Scala Philosophorum, p. 134.
Ferguson : Guido de Montanor, or Montano, or Guido Magnus de Monte, not Guido de Monte, was apparently a Frenchman, who flourished in the fourteenth or fifteenth century, judging from the fact that while he quotes Roger Bacon and Richardus, he in turn is referred to by writers of the fifteenth century, as by Ripley, who says that his,' fame goeth wide,' and calls him also ' sapient Guido.' Besides the Scala Philosophorum, he is credited with Decreta chymica, printed in Rhenanus' Harmoniae imperscrutabilis, and De arte chymica libellus, printed in Condeesyanus' Harmonia, Francofurti, 1625, 8°. Of this there is a German translation, Guidonis Magni de Monte Thesaurus chymiatricus, oder lange verborgener Schatz der Chymie, Halle, 1623, 8°. Borel says that he is praised by Ripley, and wrote an Epistola chemica to a certain Greek Bishop. He also quotes De arte Alchemiae libellus, which is probably only a variation of the above title. Some of these tracts I have not seen, and am consequently unable to say whether they are different or not. Nazari includes the Scala philosophorum in his list, but does not allude to Guido de Montanor. Baumer ascribes to him not only the Scala Philosophorum and Libellus de Arte chemica, but also the Clangor Buccinae, and Correctio Fatuorum.
79. Clangor Buccinæ, p. 147.
80. Correctio Fatuorum, p. 165.
81. Marsilius Ficinus. Liber de Arte Chemica, p. 172.
82. Calid Filius Jaici. Liber Secretorum Artis, p. 183.
83. Calid Rex. Liber Trium Verborum, p. 189.
84. Merlinus. Allegoria, p. 191.
85. Thesaurus Philosophiæ, p. 192.
86. Aurelia Occulta cum Senioris Zadith Tractatulô de Chemia, p. 198.
Ferguson : Schmieder does not hesitate to call this writer an Arabian, and thinks that Arabic MSS. of him may exist in the libraries of the Rhine towns. The epithet 'Senior' he thinks denotes his antiquity, as there is no Zadith junior ! His full name seems to be Zadith Ben Hamuel, and he is placed io the thirteenth century. Kopp does not allude to him and Hoefer, though he mentions bis name, has nothing to say about him. Schmieder quotes editions. Argent., 1566, 8°; Francof., 1605,4°. The 'Tabula Chymica' was included in the collection entitled: Philosophiae Chymicae quatuor vetustissima scripta, Francof. apud Johan. Bernerum, 1605, 8°. - Zadith est Abû Abdallâh Muhammad ibn Umayl al-Tamîmî. Il vécut au dixième siècle de notre ère. Si l'on ne connaît pas ses dates exactes et si l'on sait effectivement très peu de choses sur sa vie, il est toutefois possible de bien cerner l'époque où il vécut et les milieux qu'il fréquenta, par une série de renseignements indirects que l'on peut tirer notamment du Fihrist d'Ibn al-Nadîm et qui concernent des personnages mentionnés par ailleurs par cet auteur dans le De Chemia. Le nom latin de Senior Zadith, fils d'Hamuel s'explique ainsi : Senior traduit certainement l'arabe Cheikh; Zadith est très probablement une corruption de al- sâdiq, le véridique, le qâf final donnant un th, comme dans azoth (on rencontre également azoch) qui vient de al-zâwûq (le mercure); et filius Hamuel est la latinisation immédiate de Ibn Umayl. Ce dernier est l'auteur de plusieurs traités et poèmes, dont certains ne sont connus que par leur titre. On a pu émettre l'hypothèse que son Kitâb mafâtîh al-hikma al-`uzmâ était l'original de la Clavis majoris sapientiae attribué à Artephius. Le texte qui nous intéresse se compose en réalité du traité intitulé Kitâb al-mâ' al-waraqî wa al-ardh al-najmîya (Livre de l'eau foliée et de la terre étoilée), se présentant lui-même comme un commentaire de la Risâla al-shams ilâ al-hilâl (Epistola Solis ad lunam crescentem). Ce traité est un classique et un jalon important de l'alchimie musulmane. Il représente une synthèse de plusieurs enseignements antérieurs (parmi ses sources possibles, citons la version arabe de la Turba philosophorum, avec laquelle on peut relever nombre d'analogies très précises, ainsi que le Shawâhid d'al-Râzî). Il eut également une influence profonde et durable, puisque trois siècles plus tard al-`Iraqî en transcrivit un long passage dans son Kitâb al-`ilm al-muktasab fi zirâ`a al-dhahab (Livre de la science acquise concernant la culture de l'or), et que Jaldakî fit un long commentaire de la Risâla. En Occident, mentionnons que le texte intitulé Rosinus ad Euthiciam, qui se trouve dans le recueil Artis Auriferae quam Chemiam vocant... est une traduction d'un passage du De Chemia, lequel présente également de nombreuses similitudes avec les deux versions de la Turba que contient le même recueil. [d'après A. Allard]
87. Consilium Conjugii, seu de Massa Solis & Lunæ Libri III., p. 235.
88. Richardus Anglicus. Libellus utilissimus peri CemeiaV, cui titulum fecit Correctorium, p. 266.
89. Georgius Ripleus. Liber Duodecim Portarum, ii, p. 275.
90. Thomas Northon. Tractatus Crede Mihi, seu Ordinale dictus, p. 285. [cf. Theatrum Britannicum, p. 1 et Muaseum Hermeticum, p. 433]
91. Joannes Dausten. Rosarium alcanum Philosophorum Secretissimum, p. 309.
92. Dialogus inter Naturam & filium Philosophiæ, p. 326.
93. Dionysius Zacharias. Opusculum Chemicum, p. 336.
94. Nicolaus Flamellus. Commentarius in Dionysii Zacharii Opusculum Chemicum, p. 350.
95. Collectanea ex Democrito, p. 361.
96. Nicolaus Flamellus. Tractatus brevis, seu Summarium Philosophicum, p. 368.
97. Joannes Aurelius Augurellus. Chrysopoeia, & Vellus Aureum, seu Chrysopüia major & minor, p. 371.
98. Nathan Albineus. Carmen Aureum, p. 387.
99. Nathan Albineus. Ænygma, p. 388.
100. Bernardus Trevisanus Liber de Secretissimo Philosophorum opere Chemico, p. 388.
Hermes. Tabula Smaragdina, p. 389.
101. Bernardus Trevisanus. Responsio ad Thomam de Bononiæ . . . super eodem Opere, p. 399.
102. Basilius Valentinus. Liber de magno Lapide Antiquorum Sapientum, p. 409.
103. Basilius Valentinus. Liber duodecim Clavium, p. 413.
104. Basilius Valentinus. De prima Materia Lapidis Philosophici, p. 421.
105. Basilius Valentinus. Brevis Appendix & perspicua repetitio aut iteratio in librum suum de Magno lapide Antiquissimorum, p. 422.
106. Gerardus Dorn. Congeries Paracelsicæ Chemiæ de Transmutationibus Metallorum, p. 423.
107. Michael Sendivogius. Novum Lumen Chemicum, p. 463.
108. Michael Sendivogius. Parabola, seu Ænigma Philosophicum, p. 474.
109. Michael Sendivogius. Dialogus Mercurii, Alchemistæ et Naturæ, p. 475.
110. Michael Sendivogius. Tractatus de Sulphure, p. 479.
111. Michael Sendivogius. Apographus Epistolarum hactenus ineditarum super Chemia, p. 493.
112. Orthelius. Commentarius in Novum Lumen Chemicum Michaelis Seudivogii Xll. figuris in Germania repertis illustratum, p. 516.
113. Guilielmus Trognianus. De lapide, p. 530.
114. Hydrolithus Sophicus, seu Aquarium Sapientum, p. 537.
115. Joannes Franciscus Picus Mirandulæ Dom. Opus Aureum de Auro tum æstimando, tum conficiendo, tum utendo, p. 558
116. Joannes Grasseus, alias Cortalasseus. Arca Arcani artificiossimi de Summis Naturæ Mysteriis, constructa ex Rustico ejus majore & minore, & Physica naturali rotunda, per visionem Cabalisticam descripta, p. 585.
117. Anonymus Discipulus Joannis Grassei. Mysterium Occultæ Naturæ; De duobus Floribus Astralibus Agricolæ minoris in ejus Arca Arcani Artificiosissimi contentis, p. 619.
118. d'Espagnet. Enchiridion Physicæ restitutæ, p. 626.
119. d'Espagnet. Arcanum Hermeticæ Philosophiæ Opus in quo occulta Naturæ & Artis circa Lapidis Philosophorum materiam & operandi modum, canonice & ordinate fiunt manifesta, p. 649.
[Ferguson : Espagnet's history is nearly as great an Arcanum as that of which be has attempted the revelation. Though by the majority of writers — if not by all -he seems to be quite well known, he is still called "Anonymus Gallus," and the books ascribed to him appear under the two phrases " Penes nos unda Tagi " and " Spes mea est in Agno," which pass for anagrams of his name. It may, however, be as well to note that the anagrams are by no means strict, if " Joannes d'Espagnet" be the form of the name operated on. For the former of these contains the letter u, which is not in the name, and only two e's, while the name has three. This discrepancy is frankly acknowledged in Roth-Scholtz's reprint, where it is said: " Anagr. e in u mutat. - Borrichius says that '' Don Janus Espagnet" can be taken out of the anagram, which, certainly, it can be, letter for letter, but then the name never appears in that form. The other transposition is even farther astray, for it wants a d and an n, and it has an m which does not appear in the name at all. Apart, however, from this there is want of unanimity as to Espagnet's identity and as to the authorship of the tracts in question. Borrichius gives a very circumstantial account. He commends the Arcanum Hermeticae philosophiae Opus as the wisest, most open and free from obscurities and double meanings of all the works he had perused. The author was concealed in the anagram, but was believed to be Don Janus Espagnet, a senator of the parliament of Toulouse. In 1664, when Borrichius met the son, also a senator of Toulouse, who was about sixty years of age, a straight-forward, learned man, and a chemist wholly devoted to the study of Raymund Lully, he asked him if his father had been an adept, and had published the book. He received no satisfaction as to the first point, whether because the son did not know or would not tell Borrichius leaves doubtful, but he admitted the second. In this account Borrichius is followed by Fuchs. All other writers state that Espagnet was president of the parliament of Bordeaux; town-president Schmieder calls him, I presume, provost, or head of the town council, who adds that be followed Gaston Claveus as a defender of alchemy. Nothing more is on record about his life. There are various opinions as to the authorship of the books. Borel informs us that some affirmed that the Enchiridion was not by Espagnet, but by another who was called ' Eques Imperialis,' or ' le chevalier imperial,' which he admits he had difficulty in believing. Borrichius also says that it was a question whether he was author or editor, and the doubt turns up in Bayle, Lenglet Dufresnoy, and others. Hoefer holds a different opinion on the matter. After indicating the clear views and notable anticipations which he finds ia the Enchiridion he refuses to believe that the Arcanum . . . opus be by tbe same person because the ideas and we style are so different. There is no doubt, however, that the books announce themselves as being by the same author, and Schmiede r— not that he is an authority upon such a point — regards the Arcanum . . . opus as the second part of tbe Enchiridion, and apparently it did not occur to him to entertain doubts about the authorship. Morhof speaks of the Arcanum . . . opus as a work " added on to the Enchiridion of Espagnet," and apparently not by him. He says it is elegantly written, and shows by its very style mat it is genuine, which is further proved by the fact that Philaletha, who possessed the stone if ever any one did, mentions it and transcribes portions from it. The elegant diction in both if such that they seem to be by tbe same author, who was known as Anonymus Gallus. Dufresnoy expresses surprise that Morhof should have ascribed the works to Philaletha, but it seems to me that be has misunderstood his meaning. Morhof meant to convey that Philaletha, who was certainly an adept, would never have copied passages from it unless he had believed in its truthfulness. But he does not affirm that he was the author. Without any argument or hesitation Bayle ignores the two difficulties which had been in existence for a couple of centuries, and at once states Espagnet to have been president of the parliament of Bordeaux and one of the learned men of the seventeenth century and reputed author of the Arcanum . . . opus. In 1623, at Paris, the Enchiridion was printed, and this is known for his, because people who knew him well affirmed it to be this, and because the two anagrams are of his name. It was the first treatise in France which was in opposition to the physics of Aristotle. It was followed by the Arcanum . . . opus in which is described the philosopher's stone, its preparation and properties. He also edited an old manuscript entitled Rozier des Guerres, which was printed in 1616 exactly as it stood without changing or modernizing the spelling or language, which be followed with the almost exactitude. He believed that his was the first edition, but it was subsequently found that there had been already an edition in 1525. He also wrote a tract on the education of a young prince. He is reputed editor of the work of Pierre de L'Ancre on Demons, but this I have not been able to confirm. Of the writings several editions are enumerated: in Latin, Paris, 1608, 8° (which is the first); 1633, 8°; 1647, 1650, 32°; in German: Leiprig, 1685, 8°. According to Gmelin the Arcanum . . . opus first appeared in the edition of 1638. If the dates now given be complete and correct, the above edition of 1638, called editio secunda, must be regarded merely as a reprint or reissue of that of 1623. ' - cf. également l'article que Chevreul consacre à Isidore Geoffroy Saint Hilaire et où il analyse des passages de l'Enchiridion de D'Espagnet. ]
120. Philaletha. Introitus apertus ad occlusum Regis Palatium, p. 661.
121. Philaletha. Tractatus de Metallorum Metamorphosi, p. 676.
122. Philaletha Brevis Manuductio ad Rubinum Celestem, p. 686.
123. Philaletha. Fons Chemice Philosophie, p. 693.
124. Joannes Ferdinandus Hertodt a Todtenfeldt. Epistola Contra Philaletham, 697.
125. Anonymi ad precendentenn Epistolam Responsio, p. 699.
126. Liber Praxeos Alchemicæ cum Additionibus Libavii, p. 700.
127. Nicolaus Barnaudus a Crista Arnaudi Delphinas. In Ænygmaticum quoddam Epitaphium Bononiæ ante multa sæcula marmoreo Lapidi insculptum, Commentariolus [Aelia Lelia Crispis], p. 713. [cf. Theatrum Chemicum, iii, p. 744 ]
128. Carolus Cæsar Malvasius. Extractum e Tractatu super eodem Epitaphio conscripto, p. 717.
129. Pantaleon. Bitolium Metallicum, seu Medicina duplex pro Metallis et Hominibus infirmis . . . in. venta . . ., p. 718.
130. Pantaleon. Tumulus Hermetis apertus p. 728.
131. Pantaleon. Examen Alchemisticum, p. 736.
132. Pantaleon. Disceptatio de Lapide Physico, in qua Tumbam Semiramidis ab Anonymo Phantastice non Hermetice sigillatam; jam vero reclusam, si sapiens inspexerit ipsam, promissis Regum Thesauris vacuam inveniet, p.744.
133. Tumba Semiramidis Hermetice sigillata quam si sapiens aperuerit, non Cyrus ambitiosus, avarus, Regum ille thesauros divitiarum inexhaustos, quod sufficiat inveniat, p. 759.
134. Ludovicus de Comitibus. Tractatus de Liquore Alchaest, & Lapide Philosophorum, . . . item de Sale volatili tartari &c., p. 764.
135. Ludovicus de Comitibus. Metallorum ac Metallicorum naturæ operum ex Orthophysicis fundamentis recens Elucidatio, p. 781.
136. Ludovicus de Comitibus. Appendix Symbole Crucis aliqualem explicationem exhibens, p. 840.
137. Claudius Germain Icon Philosophiæ occultæ, p. 845.
138. Christianus Adolphus Balduinus. Aurum superius & inferius Aure Superioris & Inferioris Hermeticum, p. 856.
139. Melchior Friben. Brevis enumeratio hactenus a se in Chemia actorum, p. 875.
140. I. B. De Spiritu Mundi Positiones aliquot, p. 876.
141. Andreas Cnöffelius. Responsum ad Positiones de Spiritu Mundi, quod in se continet Reserationem Tumbæ Semiramidis, p. 880.
142. Trames facilis & planus ad Auream Hermetis Arcem recta perducens, p. 887.
143. Daniel Stolcius de Stolcenberg. Hortulus Hermeticus e Flosculis Philosophorum cupro incisis conformatus, & brevissimis versiculis explicatus; quo Chemie studiosi pro Philotheca uti, fessique Laboratoriorum ministri, recreari possint, p. 895.
Ferguson : [à propos de l'édition originale, Francoforti, Impensis Lucae Jennisii. An. M.DC.XXVII] 8°. Pp. 165 [3 blank]. The first eight pages are printed as usual, then on page 9, and every fourth page thereafter, there is a steel engraving containing four small emblematic pictures with a motto and an alchemist's name. Below the engraving are printed the mottoes. Pp. 10-11,14-15,18-19, and so on to the end, are blank. Pp. 8, 12, and every fourth page thereafter, have two couplets on each of the symbols on the following page.Nothing seems to be known about this author except what the title-page tells us, that he was from Bohemia, a 'candidatus medicinae' and a laureated poet. If be were so, his poems must have bad some merit, but his existence nevertheless has been overlooked by such literary historians as Jördens, Grässe, and Goedeke. The present work in German was appended to the 'Dyas Chymica Tripartita,' printed by Lucas Jennis in 1625, 4°. It has a distinct title-page and pagination: Hermetico-Spagyrisches Lustgärtlein: Darinnen Hundert und Sechtzig unterschiedliche, schöne, Kunstreiche, Chymico-Sophische Emblemata, oder Geheymnufs-reiche Sprüche der wahren Hermetischen Philosophen. Sampt beygefügten, noch vier grossen, schönen vnnd tieffsinnigen Theosophischen Figuren. Nicht allein sehr dienstlich, Augen vnnd Gemüt dardurch zu erlüstigen, sondern zugleich ein scharffes nachdencken der Natur, bey allen Filijs Doctrinae, zuerwecken. Franckfurt am Mayn bey Luca Jennis zu finden. Anno M.DC.XXV, 4°, pp. 24 , 4 large folding plates. The ten plates, each containing sixteen emblems belonging to the most famous chemists from Hermes to Mylius, begin on p. 7 and fall on every odd page following. In his preface Jennis seems to claim the authorship of the collection, and says that it was previously used in the' Opus Medico-Chymicum' of Johannes Daniel Mylius (q.v.), but without mentioning in which of the three divisions of that work, published in 1618, it occurs. It is in the third: 'Tractatus III. seu Basilica Philosophica continens lib. III.' The emblems are printed in four rows of four each, and occupy ten leaves. In my copy they are inserted at the end of the Praefatio. In the British Museum copy they are placed at the end of the volume, after the third book. To Stolcius also is ascribed another work: Viridarium Chymicum figuris cupro Incisis adornatum & Poeticis Picturis illustratum authore Daniele Stolcio, Francofurti, Jennisius, 1624, oblong 8°. The difficulty connected with this ascription is that a similar book bears the name of Michael Maier (q.v.) : Viridarium Chymicum, Das ist: Chymisches Lust-Gärtlein . . ., MDCLXXXVIII. Oblong 8°, pp. 112. The illustrations begin on p. 9 and fall on the odd pages to the end; the accompanying verses are on the even pages opposite. They start with the Twelve Keys of Basilius Valentinus; then come the emblems from the Aurea Mensa, twenty-eight from the Atalanta fugiens, and eight modified from the Rosarium.
7)- Mylius, Johann Daniel. Anatomia Auri, Sive Tyrocinium medico-chymicum, Continens in se partes quinque: Quarum
frontispice de l'Anatomia Auri, Sumptibus Lvcae Iennisi (Frankfurt), 1628 - cliquez sur l'image pour visualiser l'Incipit
Mylius, from the Wetterau, calls himself Theol. et Med. Candidatus. He was a physician and chemist early In the seventeenth century, and wrote several other works on iatro-chemistry, which are enumerated by Mercklin.
- Opus Medico-Chymicum: Continens tres Tractatus siue Basilicas; Quorum prior inscribitur Basilica Medica, Secundus Basilica. Chymica. Tertius Basilica Philosophica. Francofurti, apud Lucam lennis, 1618. 4°. Pp.  including the engraved title and the authors portrait. Each tract has a separate title and pagination, viz.;
. . . Tractatus Primus. Seu Basilica Medica continens Tres Libros seu Partes de salutifera. Medicina Antiqua Hippocratica: i. Physiologiam. 2. Pathologiam. 3. Therapeuticam, succincte demonstrat. Francofurti apud Lucam lennis. M.DC.XVIII. Pp.  438. Vignette.
. . . Tractatus II. Seu Basilica Chymica continens Lib. VII. r. Anatomiam Auri. 2. Argenti & Mercurij. 3. lovis, Martis ac Veneris. 4. Tractat de gemmis. 5. Examinat mineralia. 6. Vegetabilia resoluit. 7. Animalia explicat. Francofurti apud Lucam lennis. M.DC.XVIII. Pp. [247, 1 blank] 184, 492, [Vignette of a Laboratory.] Three folding symbolical plates,
- [Basilica Philosophica continens Libros Tres. i, Philosophorum ac Sapientum antiquorum Consilia super Lapidem Philosophorum, seu Mediciam universalem. 2. Chymicorum Vasa et Fornaces. 3. Quaedarn Philosophorum obscura. Pp.  271  44.] This copy wants the Basilica Philosophica. An index to this work was published in 1630 at Frankfurt.
- Anatomia Auri, sive Tyrocinium Medico-Chymicum, Francof., 1628, 4°,
- Pharmacopaea Spagyrico-Medica, Francof., 1628, 8°.
- Philosophia Reformata, Francof., 1622, 4°; 1638, 4°.
illustrations tirées de l'ouvrage : 1 - 2 - 3 - 4 - 5 - 6 - 7 -
I. Tradit concordantiam et harmoniam Solis coelestis cum Auro terrestri: item Auri definitionem et confusam multorum Physicorum de Auro opinionem; p. 1
II. Agit de Medicinis aureis et Receptis antiquorum ac recentium Medicorum, Aurum ingredientibus, tam in simplici, quam præparata forma; p. 39
III. Tractat de Auri potabilis præparatione tam vulgari, quam Philosophica; p. 145
IV. Exhibet usum Medicinalem Auri potabilis tam communis, quam veri et Philosophici; p. 284
V. Demonstrat ideam Lapidis Philosophici in duodecim figuris. [cf. illustrations 4 à 6; elles reprennent les images du Pretiosissimum Donum Dei] p. 1 - 27
8)- Geberi, philosophi ac alchimistae maximi, de alchimia libri tres. Ejusdem liber investigationis perfecti magisterii artis alchimicae. Iis additus liber trium verborum. Epistola item Alexandri imperatoris, qui primus regnavit in Graecia, persarum quoque extitit imperator, super eadem re.
frontispice du Geberi Philosophie ac Alchimistae, impensa Iohannis Grieninger (Estrasburgo), 1531
illustrations tirées de cet ouvrage : 1 - 2 - 3 - 4 - 5 - 6 - 7 - 8 - 9 -
9)- Gratarolo, Guglielmo. Alchemiae, quam vocant, artisque metallicae doctrina certusque; modus, scriptis tùm novis, tùm veteribus, duobus his voluminibus comprehensus. Quorum elenchum à praefatione reperies. Cum gratia & privilegio Caesareae majestatis
frontispice de l'Alchemiae de Guillaume Gratarole, petrum Pernam (Basilea), 1572
In Primo Volumine continentur :
1. Chrysorrhoas, sive De arte Chimia dialogus. p. 1
2. Lignum vitae, dialogus Braceschi de materia lapidis. p. 26
3.Tauladani Animadversio in Braceschum. p. 153
4. Dialogus veram et genuinam Librorum Geberi sententiam explicans, Demogorgon Dialogus.
5. Speculum Alchimi Rogerij Bacchonis. p. 518
6. Correctorium Ricchardi Angli. p. 534
7. Rosarius minor. p. 577
8. De alchimia Albertus Magnus. p. 611
In Secundo Volumine continentur :
1. De Magni lapidis compositione incerto autore.
2. Aristoteles de Perfecto magisterio.
3. Liber perfectionis magisterii Arnaldi Villan.
4. Efferarius Monach. de Thesauro philosoph.
5. Practica Magisti Odomari.
[There are two accounts of this writer. One, the earliest authority for which, so far as I know, is Lenglet Dufresnoy, is that he was practising the Hermetic Art in 1330. Gmelin calls him a monk, which may be justified by the fact that he addresses his disciple as ' frater Ludovicus,' saying at the same time that he is violating all the rules of the sages in revealing the secret. Schmieder decorates these bare statements and depicts the monk in his cloister at Paris working hard at alchemy in spite of the pope's bull against the alchemists. He describes him as a true teacher who stated what he knew, but that be was more of a worker than an author, and be quotes his preparation of common salt. Hoefer following the same line calls him a monk who pursued alchemy in Paris about the middle of the 14th century, in the reign of Phillippe of Valois.
He quotes the advice which Odomarus gives, to guard against the fumes which are liable to be produced in alchemical operations by stopping the nostrils with cotton dipped in oil of violets - cf. Chevreul, critique de Cambriel -, and refers to his method of preparing aqua regia. The other account to given by Zedler. According to it Odomarus was a 'physicus' of the 17th century, and wrote not only the ' Practica,' but the six or seven tracts following it in the above collections. From the way in which these books are printed, there is some colour for this statement of Zedler's, but at the same time he seems to have credited him with too many. Judging from the arrangement of the tracts and the sub -divisions, the following seem to be the most that could be assigned to Odomarus: Practica ad discipulum, Theatrum Chemicum, 1659, iii. p. 166. - Arcanum philosophorum ut ex Saturno facias Aurum perfectum, p. 168. - Perfecta salis communis praeparatio ad lapidem philosophorum, p. 168. - Historiola antiqua de Argento in Aurum verso, p. 170, ending p. 172. The "Tractatus de Marchasita' and the others which are quoted by Zedler apparently belong lo other writers. Oddly enough Zedler refers not to the Theatrum Chemicum, but to the Thesaurus chymicus, Strassb., 1613, iii. I do not know a collection of that name and date, but there is the Theatrum Chemicum, Argent, 1613, add the above tracts are in vol. iii., pp. 154-161. They are also in the Theatrum Chemicum, Ursellis, 1602, iii. pp. 164-171;. The ' Practica,' as its name denotes, is a series of directions for certain preparations and experiments, with silver, lead, mercury, common salt, green vitriol, saltpetre. By heating Roman vitriol one part saltpetre one part, common salt two parts in an alembic the author got a corrosive liquid which attacked all metals,' even mercury,' and he calls it 'aqua calcinationis omnium metallorum.' [cf. là-dessus arcanum duplicatum et laboratoire 2.] But to the mixture be also added half a part of quick lime, possibly with the idea of increasing its corrosive effect. One writer at least has affirmed that the above tract was brought out in a new edition by Ortholanus in 1358, under the title ' Practica vera Alkimica.' Comparison of the two tracts, however, does not confirm this, and so far I have failed to see any connection between them. If Ortholanus edited Odomarus' tract he has edited it out of existence, or at least past recognition.]
6. Tractatus de Marchasita.
7. Epistola vetus de metallorum materia.
8. Io. de Rupescissa, de confectione veri lapidis.
9. Idem de Quinta essentia.
10. De viribus aquae ardentis.
11. Michael Savonarola de conficienda aqua vitae.
12. Aqua aurea, balsamum et oleum nigrum.
13. Ioan. augustini Augurelli Chrisopoeia, etc.
- Gratarolo, Guglielmo : Verae Alchemiae Artisque Metallicae, citra Aenigmata, Doctrina, certusque modus, scriptis turn novis tum veteribus nunc primum & fideliter maiori ex parte editis, comprehensus : quorum elenchum à Praefatione reperies. Habes, amice Lector, admiranda utilissimaq; multa, quae hactenus occultata, & veluti sepulta iacuerunt: quorum editionis rationem in Praefatione ad philosophos Chemistas paucis intelliges. Basileae M.D.LXI. Folio in sixes, pp. [15, 1 blank] 244, 299 [1 blank], Colophon: Basileae per Henricum Petri & Pettrum Pernam, Anno salutis humanae M.D.LXI.
frontispice du Verae Alchimiae de Guillaume Gratarole, 1611
1. Chrysorrhoas, sive De Arte Chymica Dialogus, i.
2. Dialogus loannis Braccschi, cui titulus est Lignum vitae, in quo etiam Gebri Pllilosophi expositio succincta continentur, i. p. 3.
3. In eundem Braceschuni Gebri interpretem, animadversio, authore loanne Tauladano, i, p. 47. (The author is called Robertus Tauladanus in the title of the tract)
4. Gebri Opera: Oc investigatione perfectionis, i. p. 112.
5. Gebri Opera: Summa perfectionis, i. p. 118. [Attributed to Paul of Taranto OFM (late 13th cent.) by W. R. Newman, The genesis of the Summa perfectionis, Archives internationales d'histoire des sciences 35 (1985) 240--302]
6. Gebri Opera: De inventione veritatis sive perfectionis, i. p. 184.
7. Gebri Opera: Liber Fornacum, i. p. 193.
8. Rogerii Bachonis De Alchemia libellus cui titulum fecit. Speculum Alchemiae, i. p. 201.
9. Richardi Anglici Libellus peri ChmeiaV, cui titulum fecit, Correctorium, i. p. 207.
10. Rosarius minor, i. p. 222.
11. Liber Secretorum Alchemiae compositus per Calid, filium lazichi, i. p. 233.
12. Loci aliquot practiciae ex Gebero declatali per . . . Joannen Braceschum Vraeanum, i. p. 242.
13. Liber de Magni lapidis Compositione et Operatione, Authore adhuc incerto (also called De Alchemia), ii. p. 1.
14. Sententia loannis Baptistae Montani, de sublimatione, ii. p. 35.
15. Rosarius philosophorum Arnaldi de Villanova, ii. p. 35 [il s'agit en fait du Sommaire du Rosaire de Villeneuve par Lacidius].
16. Novum lumen eiusdem vel alterius, ii. p. 60.
17. Epistola Magistri Arnaldi de Villa nova super Alchymiam ad regem Neapolitanum, ii. p. 65.
18. Liber perfecti Magisteni, qui Lumen Luminum nuncupatur . . . vocatur etiam Flos florum Arnaldi de Villanova, longe correctior & melior hactenus impressis, ii. p. 67,
19. Practica Magiistri Arnaldi de Villanova, ad quendam Papam, ex libro dicto, Breviarius librorum Alchymiae, ii. p. 73.
20. Alberti Magni Ratisponensis episcopi de Alchymia liber integerrimus, ii, p. 78.
21. Scriptum Alberti super Arborem Aristotelis, ii. p. 102.
22. Apertorium Raymundi Lullii De veri lapidis compositione, ii. p. 104.
23. Ars intellectiva ejusdem super Lapidem Philosophorum, ii. p. 112.
24. Practica ejusdem, ii. p. 127.
25. Idem de intentione Alchimistarum, ii. p. 139. (Doubtful tract?)
26. Ejusdem Summaria Lapidis Consideratio et eius abbreviationes, ii. p. 156.
27. Ejusdem Libellus utilissimus de Mercurio solo, ii. p. 163.
28. Liber experimentorum, ii. p. 174.
29. Pulcherrimum opus de transmutatione metallorum, ii. p. 175.
30. Capitulum valde magnum in albedine, & omnibus nobilius, ex libro qui dicitur Philosophus mirabilis, ii. p. 180.
31. Liber Mercuriorum Raymundi Lullii, ii. p. 183.
32. Intentio summaria, quae aliter dicitur Repertorium, valde utilis ad intelligentiam Testamenti, Codicilli & aliorum librorum Raymundi Lullii, ii. p. 185
33. Aristotelis de Perfecto Magisterio exquisitum & integerrimum opus, &c., ii. p. 188.
34. Libellus duodecim aquarum, ex libro Emanuelis, ii. p. 209.
35. Aquae rubeae Avicennas ad tingendum quatuor spiritus sublimatos albos, ii. p. 211.
36. Elixiriorum varia compositio & modus, ii. p. 220.
37. Joannis de Rupescissa liber de confectione ver Lapidis Philosophorum, ii. p. 226.
38. De lapide Philosophorum secundum verum modum formando Efferarii monachi, ii. p. 232.
39. Thesaurus Philosophiae, ii. p. 237.
40. Praxis universalis Magni operis, ex Raymundo, ii. p. 248.
41. De lapidis philosophorum formatione epilogus, ii. p. 248.
42. Practica Magistri Odomari ad discipulum, ii. p. 249
43. Arcanum Philosophorum, ut ex Saturno facias aurum perfectum, ii. p. 250.
44. Perfecta Salis communis praeparatio ad lapidem philosophorum, ii. p. 250,
45. Historiola Antiqua de Argento in aurum verso, ii. p. 252.
46. Tractatus de Marchasita, ex qua fit Elixir ad album verissimum, ii. p. 254.
47. Caput de sale alchali, ii. p. 258.
48. Quaestio an Lapis philosophicus valcat contra pestem, ii. p. 259. [un écrivain moderne a mis en scène dans le roman Imprimatur - Monaldi & Sorti, JC Lattès, 2002 - une recette qu'aurait élaborée le père Kircher contre la peste ; l'autre héros du roman qui apparaît en toile de fond est Fouquet. L'ambiance rappelle Umberto Eco dans ses meilleurs moments... ]
49. Velus Epistola doctiss. de Metallorum materia, & artis imititatione, ii. p. 263.
50. Practica Caravantis Hispani, ii. p. 264.
51. Lapidis Philosophici Nomenclaturae, & Gulielmo Gratarolo collectae. ii. p. 265.
52. loannis Aurelii Augurelli Chrysopoeiae libri iii., et Geronticon Liber i., ii. p. 269.
53. Regimina Artis, ii. p. 299.
Ferguson : The tract on nomenclature was translated into English and published in H. P.'s Five Treatises of the Philosopher's Stone, London, 1652, p. 65; but the author is misnamed ' Gratacolle.' Gratarolo was a native of Bergamo, where he was born in 1516. He went through the customary training, and then turned his attention to medicine. Having acquired a liking for Protestantism he settled in Basel in 1555, and remained there till 1562, when he was summoned to Marburg as professor of medicine. He, however, remained only a year there, and returned to Basel, where he practised medicine and wrote several works. The date of his death is given variously by the different authorities. Nigidius, Freher, Boissard, Jöcher, Bayle give the date as 6 May, 1562. As against that are theses published by him on 9 May, 1562, and the works of Pomponatius and of Wilhelmus neponymus' Dialogus de substantiis physicis, &c., Argent. 1567. So Niceron quoting from his epitaph gives the date 16 April, 1568, he being in his fifty-second year, and Strieder gives the same date. He points out, however, that in the Diarium eruditorum virorum, Frft. 1612, Gratarolo is said to have died on 16 April, 1564, in his seventy-fourth year, which would carry his birth back to 1490, for which there is no authority, as in the above inscription he is said to have died in his fifty-second year. The dates given by the different authorities do not at all agree. His works treat of medicine, on the strengthening of the memory, rural economy, wine, Marpurg University, the hot springs in Rhaetia, &c. He edited the works of Bernard of Trevisan, Pietro d'Abano, and a Praxis medica, which last however is doubtful.
10)- Elias Ashmole's Theatricum Chemicum Britannicum
Theatrum Chemicum Britannicum. Containing Severall Poetical Pieces of our Famous English Philosophers, who have written the Hermetique Mysteries in their owne Ancient Language. Faithfully Collected into one Volume, with Annotations thereon, by Elias Ashmole, Esq. Qui est Mercuriophilus Anglicus. The first part, London, printed by J. Grismond for Nath: Brooke, at the Angel in Cornhill. MDCLII. 1652. xvi + 486 + viii pages.
frontispice du Theatrum Chemicum Britannicum, Londres, Brooke, 1652
illustrations tirées de l'ouvrage : p. 13 - 44 - 51 - 91 - 102 - 116 - 117 - 213 - 348 - 350 - 379 -
Ferguson : Ashmole (1617-1602) is famous for his keen delight in the acquisition of knowledge and for his business capacity. He was an antiquary, herald, astrologer, alchemist, collector of all sorts of curiosities and rarities: a remakable mixture of shrewdness and what would now be termed superstition. Under the anagram James Hasolle, he also edited a small volume called Fasciculus Chemicus or Chymicall Collections, London, 1650, 12°, containing prolegomena, Arthur Dee's collections, and a translation of Espagnet's Arcanum, His chief alchemical work is the Theatrum Chemicum Britannicum, London, 1653,4° with several engravings. It contains a series of old English poems on Alchemy, with notes by Ashmole. It is called Part i.. and in the preface to the present work Ashmole regrets that he had been prevented carrying it any further. No more was published, and the first part is now very rare, and difficult to get complete. The contents are reprinted by Gmelin, Geschichte der Chemie (1797), i. p. 620.1. To All Ingeniously Elaborate Students, In the most Divine Mysteries of Hermetique Learning
2. The Ordinall of Alchimy. Thomas Norton p. 1 [cf. Musaeum Hermeticum, p. 433 et Bibliotheca Chemica Curiosa, vol. 2, p. 285 ]
3. Compound of Alchymie. George Ripley p. 107 [il s'agit des Douze Portes]
4. the Figure conteying all the secrets of the Treatise both great & small
5. Liber Patris Sapientiae. Anonymous p. 194
6. Hermes's Bird. Anonymous p. 211
7. The Tale of the Chanons Yeoman. Geoffry Chaucer p. 227
8. Dastin's Dreame. John Dastin p. 257
9. Upon the Elixir. Pearce (the Black Monke) p. 269
10. Richard Carpenter's Worke p. 275
11. The Hunting of the Greene Lyon. Abraham Andrewes. p. 278
12. The Breviary of Naturall Philosophy. Thomas Charnock p. 291
13. AEnigmaes. Thomas Charnock p. 303
14. Bloomefield's Bloffomes. William Bloomefield p. 305
15. Sir Edward Kelley's Worke. p. 324
16. Sir Edward Kelley to G.S. Gent. p. 332
17. Doctor John Dee'sTestament. p. 334
18. Of the Philosophers Stone. Thomas Robinson p. 335
19. Experience and Philosophy. Anonymous p. 336
20. The Magistery. W.B. p. 342
21. Anonymi, or Severall Workes of unknowne Authors. p. 334 & 404
22. Upon the Philosopher's Stone. John Gower p. 368
23. The Vision of Sir George Ripley. p. 374
24. Verses Belonging to an emblematic Scrowle. Ripley's Scrowle. p. 375
25. Mistery of Alchemists. p. 380
26. Preface to the Medulla, Geo. Ripley p. 389
27. A Short Worke. George Ripley p. 393
28. Secreta Secretorum. John Lydgate p. 397
29. The Hermit's Tale. Anonymous p. 415
30. Discription of the Stone. Anonymous p. 420
31. The Standing of the Glasse, etc. Anonymous p. 421
32. AEnigma Philosophicum. William Redman p. 423
33. Fragments. p. 424
34. Annotations and Discourses upon Some part of the preceding Worke.
35. A Table of The Severall Treatises, with their Authors Names, contained in this Worke p. 501
36. A Table explaining the Obscure, Obselete, and mis-spell'd words used throughout this Worke. p. 503
11. Bono da Ferrara, pietro et al. Pretiosa margarita novella de thesavro ac pretiosissimo philosophorvm lapide, artis huius diuin typus, & methodus: collectanea ex Arnaldo, Rhaymundo, Rhasi, Alberto, & Michaele Scoto, per Ianum Lacinium Calabrum nunc primum, cum lucupletissimo indice, in lucem aedita.
8°. Ff.  202. Tabula, Errata, Registrum, and Colophon, and Aldus' device . 22 woodcuts. The anchor is on the title-page, and on the verso of the last leaf. The colophon, on the verso of the last leaf but one, runs: Venetiis, Apud AIdi Filios, M.D.XXXXVI.
Ferguson : Toppi says that Lacinius was a Calabrian whose work was printed by Aldus in 1546 and again by Gabriel Hayn at Nuremberg, 1554. 4°. This last book has the following title: Praeciosa ac nobilissima artis Chymiae Collectanea de occultissimo ac praeciosissimo Philosophorum lapide. Per lanum Lacinium Calabrum Minoritam Theologorum minimum. Nunc primum in lucem aedita cum totius libeIli capitum indice [Vignette]. Norimbergae apud Gabrielem Hayn,Ioann. Petrei generum, M.D.LIIII. 4°, ff. [8, including a full-page woodcut] 124. It contains collections in five books, the last of which is a reproduction with modifications of ff. 160-194 in the Pretiosa Margarita Novella of 1546. The work by Petrus Bonus, so called, was afterwards issued under the following title: Introductio in divinaro Chemiae Artern Integra Magistri Boni Lombardi Ferrariensis Physici. Nunc primum integra in lucem edita. . . . Basileae, apud Petrum Pernam, M.D.LXXII. 4°, pp. (7, 1 blank) 278. [Index ?] It claims therefore to be more complete than the Aldine edition. The preface to Albertus, Duke of Bavaria, was written by Toxites. This book was reprinted: Montisbeligardi, apud lacobum Foillet, M.DC.II. 8°, pp.  398 [12, 2 blank]; and again: Argentorati, Impensis Lazari Zeteneri Bibliop. M.DC.VIII. 8°, pp.  398 [12, 2 blank]. See the notes to BONUS (PETRUS).
frontispice de la Margarita Preciosa Novella de Petrus Bonus, apud Aldi filis (Venecia), 1557
Colloquium nuncupatorium, interloquutores Bonus et Lacinius, iiij. verso.
illustrations tirées de l'ouvrage : 1 - 2 - 3 - 4 - 5 - 6 - 7 - 8 - || - 9 - 10 - 11 - 12 - 13 - 14 - 15 - 16 - 17 - [il existe des versions en couleurs mais elles ne semblent pas originales. On trouve encore d'autres versions de ces gravures de meilleure qualité mais de format beaucoup plus réduit et sans texte dans le site suivant : http://www005.upp.so-net.ne.jp/macrocosm/alchemy/alchemy.html]
1. Pretiosa Margarita Novella, ex concordantijs sapientum collecta, . . . Petro Bono Ferrariensi autore, f. 1.
2. Epistola Boni Ferrariensis, f. 132.
3. Collectanea Lacinii ex Arnaldo de Villa Noua quae practicae compositionem lapidis philosophorum
continent & exquisite decent, f. 136.
4. Epistola sive Epitome Raymundi Lulli, f. 160.
5. Collectanea Lacinii sive breuia excerpta ex libro luminis luminum Rhasis, f. 167.
6. Collectanea Lacinii ex Alberto Magno atque diuo Thoma alijsq; autoribus, f. 180.
7. Quaestio Curiosa de Natura Solis et Lunae ex Michaele Scoto, f. 195.
Ferguson : The work professes to have been written in 1330-39 at Pola in Istria. The author was a Master of Arts, was convinced of the truth of Alchemy which he defended from the attacks made in his time, and maintained that the real way had been shown by Geber. Gesner, followed by Morhof, makes him coaeval with Lully. Nasari calls him in one place Fertarien; (sic}, but in another Florensis, which presumably is a slip. Maszuchelli, however, drawing from apparently good sources, calls him Pietro Antonio Boni, says he lived in 1494, was a phystician who was skilled in philosophy and took delight in Alchemy and wrote Rationes pro Alchimia et contra, which was included in Lacinius collection of 1546, and has been criticised by Hoefer, because in the first chapter he proves that alchemy is not wise, and in the second that it is. He is identical with Pietro Boni Lombardo Ferrarese of the present work. These accounts, however, obviously do not tally. In the British Museum Catalogue this work is ascribed to Piotro Buono Avogario. See the note on LACINIUS. The first edition of the Margarita was edited by Lacinius, Venice, Aldus, 1546, 8°; thereafter, Nürnberg, 1554, 8°; Basel. 1572, 4°; Strasburg, 1608, 8°. The De Secreto omnium secretorum Dei domo is contained in Lacinius' collection, Basel, 1572, as well as his Epistola. An English translation from the edition of 1546, with a prefatory notice, was made by Arthur E. Waite: Tht New Pearl of Great Price, A treatise concerning the treasure and most precious Stone of the Philosophers, London, 1894. 8°, pp. xi.[1 blank] 441 .
12. Ferguson, John. Bibliotheca chemica : a catalogue of the alchemical, chemical and pharmaceutical books in the collection of the late James Young of Kelly and Durris,.... Volume II / by John Ferguson,..., Maclehose and sons (Glasgow), 1906
frontispice du volume 2
John Ferguson was born on 23 January 1837 in Alloa, Clackmannanshire, Scotland, son of William, a merchant. He was educated at the High School of Glasgow and at Glasgow University from 1855-1864 . His first studies at Glasgow University were in the Arts Faculty, receiving a BA in 1861 and an MA the following year. After this he continued his studies, finishing in the Medical Faculty, the only way he could then study Chemistry. He won a number of prizes at University including the Ewing Gold Medal for his essay "Historical Account of the Papacy as a temporal power in Europe", the Gartmore Gold Medal for "The Advantages & Disadvantages of Federal Government" and he twice won the Watt prize for essays entitled "On Cohesion" and "Electricity & Magnetism from the Middle of the Last Century".
John Ferguson studied Natural Philosophy under Professor William Thomson, Lord Kelvin, and Chemistry with Professor Thomas Anderson. From finishing his studies in 1864 until 1868 when he was appointed University Assistant with charge of tutorial classes and laboratory supervision, he worked as private assistant to Professor Anderson. In 1869 , Professor Anderson was taken seriously ill and John Ferguson undertook the general running of the department until November 1870 when the Professor returned. It was during this time that the University moved from the High Street to Gilmorehill and it was down to Ferguson to plan the new Chemistry Laboratories. Anderson never fully recovered from his illness and when he died in 1874 , John Ferguson became his successor.
He wrote widely on Chemistry and particularly on the history of the subject when the History of Science was not widely published in scientific journals. He was often published in the Proceedings of the Royal Philosophical Society of Glasgow, the Society for which he was president of the Chemical Section and then full President from 1892-1895 .
The major work for which he will be remembered is Bibliotheca chemica: a catalogue of the alchemical, chemical and pharmaceutical books in the collection of the late James Young (Glasgow, 1906). His interest in alchemy and the occult science lead him to collect a large number of books on the subject.
His nickname "Soda" is said to have derived from his personality -a little caustic. Besides holding the office of President of the Royal Philosophical Society of Glasgow, Professor Ferguson was a President of the Glasgow Archaeological Society 1892-1893, a Fellow of the Royal Society of Edinburgh 1888 and of the Society of Antiquaries 1890, the Chemical Society 1872 and the Institute of Chemistry in London 1878 . He was awarded an LLD by St Andrews University, Scotland, in 1887. He belonged to several learned societies in Europe and was an honorary member of the Imperial Military Academy of Petrograd. Throughout his life, John "Soda" Ferguson had been connected with Glasgow University, his last position being as Honorary Curator of the Hunterian Library. He died on 2 November 1916 .
Dr. James Young (1811-1883) - photogravure par Armand & sons
Introduction : DR. JAMES YOUNG, [Dr. Young was born on July 13, 1811, and died May 13, 1883. for details about his life and career there may be consulted the article by P. T. Hartog in the Dictionnary of National Biography, 1900, Ixiii, p. 376, with the references there given, the obituary notices of him in the Proceedings of the Societies with which he was connected, and a brief estimate of him by myself, with a portrait, in Memoirs and Portraits of One Hundred Glasgow Men, Glasgow, 1886, ii. p. 341, No. l00.] under whose directions the present collection of books was made, was a native of Glasgow. In his youth he was set to learn a trade, but having entered Anderson's College when Thomas Graham, afterwards Master of the Mint, was professor there, and was commencing those researches which have put him in the first rank of experimental chemists, he studied chemistry under Graham, and by a succession of events came to be the originator of the paraffin oil industry in Scotland. In after years, when he had retired from active participation in business, not unmindful of his own early drawbacks and difficulties, he established a Chair of technical chemistry in Anderson's College, which has been incorporated with the recently created institution called the Glasgow and West of Scotland Technical College. Furthermore, he erected a statue in Glasgow to the memory of his teacher, Graham, and he gathered the present library, which he bequeathed to the Chair which he had endowed. The collection was begun by himself about the middle of last century, and it is plain that he took much interest in the history of chemistry and must have discussed the study of it with his friend, the late Dr. Angus Smith of Manchester, who also was a collector and was desirous of seeing more attention devoted to it. Dr. Smith's idea of reprinting epoch-making books and papers was long after carried out in part by the Alembic Club in Edinburgh, and on a more general plan by Ostwald, in his series of chemical and physical classics. Of more living importance, however, is the recent movement, in Germany especially, which has led to the formation of the Society for the History of Medicine and the Natural Sciences, to the establishment of courses of lectures on that subject and to the recognition of it as an important branch of knowledge by both the International Historical and the Medical Congresses. As yet no action in this direction has been taken in Britain; the history and evolution of chemical, natural, and physical science are ignored by the British Association, of medicine by the Medical Association, and the Antiquarian Societies have their attention otherwise occupied. Still there is not wanting proof that even in this country there is interest in this section of history and that there are some who pursue it [In England the only original contribution which has been wade in recent years to the history of any part of physical science is the edition of Gilbert's book on the Magnet, with the accompanying: notes and various biographical papers and essays by Professor Sylvanus Thompson. This is as fine a piece of work as could be desired.] Perhaps if the few who do this could combine their efforts, a stimulus might be given to a systematic cultivation of the subject. Dr. Young's prescience was exhibited in various ways, but in none was his breadth of view and foresight more conspicuously displayed than when, long before this movement had begun, he was making provision for the study and teaching of the history of the science, which he had cultivated practically and technically with such success. The founder of a great industry, which has added so much to the comfort, .and even luxury of life, immersed as he was in the mechanical and chemical details of the process, engrossed in business transactions, distracted by the worries of competition, and by attempts to minimize the merit of his invention, was hardly the person whom one would have expected to undertake the formation of a library of old, neglected, and out of the way books on the practically extinct topic of alchemy; yet Dr. Young did this because he perceived that as alchemy happens to be one of the phases which chemistry formerly presented, a survey of it is indispensable for completing the history of the whole science. He did not collect for one of the bibliophile's reasons: because the books were rare and curious, but for the student's reason: because they were needed for research, and because no collection of them was accessible to the student here in connection with his Chair. The collection thus made by him consists of about 1300 pamphlets and volumes, but, as a good many volumes contain several tracts bound together, the actual number of separate items may reach 1350 or 1400. This number, however, includes only the works printed separately and does not represent the whole contents of the library. There are, besides, writings which do not seem ever to have been printed by themselves, but only in the collected editions which form a characteristic feature of alchemical literature. If these be included the number of distinct and independent articles will be increased by a considerable amount. One, indeed, could have wished that the lines upon which the library was begun, had not been departed from quite so much, and that the attention originally given to English works had been maintained. That desire is intensified by knowing that when the collection was making, these books could still be purchased, whereas now they have disappeared altogether; and it may be said, without much fear of contradiction, that they will hardly be seen again. An odd specimen may make its appearance from time to time, but the books as a class are no longer to be had. It is fortunate that some of these exceedingly rare treatises in English were secured before it was too late; they are so much gain to the library. Considering what influence the great idea of supplying material for the study of the history of chemistry exercised upon Dr. Young, one can imagine how much more he would have done for his library had he lived longer. Having made so full a gathering of the alchemical writings, he might have got together even more of the works by the chemists in the latter half of the eighteenth century than has been done. They would have been invaluable to those interested in the origins of modem chemistry. This period has not been forgotten by any means, but it has not been so elaborately worked out as some of those before it. It may afford a more exact view of the extent of the library, if the chief authors in the different periods, whose works have been here brought together, be enumerated. When one considers that speculations and operations relative to the chemical properties of matter have been in vogue certainly from the second or third century of our era, and that the alchemists and chemists were diligent composers of books, it will be easily understood that the literature is extensive, as well as rare, and much beyond the power of anyone, however eager and persistent, to amass in his life-time. In fact even the largest libraries exhibit deficiencies. Now Dr. Young's collection is noteworthy in being so comprehensive as it is, and containing so many of the writings especially of the German alchemists of the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries. The student will not find everything, and still less every edition—for that he will get nowhere—but he will have ample material for acquiring a knowledge of the earlier phases of the science. The history of chemistry presents various aspects for treatment, but, for our present purpose, it may be arranged broadly in three periods:
1. The period of belief in transmutation — the alchemical period — which begins at the earliest date of which there is a record and stretches down to the commencement of the nineteenth century, with sporadic survival to the present time. Along with the notion of transmutation there existed the preparation and employment of various kinds of bodies in pharmacy and medicine, and practical applications of substances in the technical arts. These were empirical, but from both a considerable body of experimental facts of important practical use was brought together, though still without anything of a guiding principle.
2. The iatro-chemical period, which began in the sixteenth century, and died out about the close of the seventeenth century.
3. The period of scientific chemistry, which began in the seventeenth century shortly before or about Boyle's time, and continues to the present moment
These aims of chemistry, therefore, for a time ran parallel with each other and materially influenced each other. The iatro-chemists transplanted alchemical ideas into medicine and pharmacy, and on the other hand one of the most important of Boyle's labours was his criticism of the then current doctrines of elements and theory of composition. It belongs to history to trace and explain the processes by which each period was modified, absorbed, and at last replaced by another, to allot to the various labourers their due praise for what they accomplished, and to record the acquisitions of fact which remain established to this day. As it is solely from the literature which has descended to us, that insight into the state of the science during these periods is obtained, an ideal historical library should represent all periods and all aspects, and should contain the works of all authors. I am not aware that such a library exists. It is only an approximation to this ideal that any collection can offer. We may now see what the present one embraces.
1. As the alchemical books in the library are much the most abundant, they may be taken first, and roughly in chronological order. The earliest portion is that of the Greeks, beginning with Democritus in the second or third century A.D. Apart from the Greek MSS. themselves, which are attainable only in certain European libraries, the first access to their contents was through the translation of a portion of them by Pizimenti. There is a copy of the rare reprint of 1717 in the library, so that the student can thus start from the very oldest records. Next comes the Arabic epoch represented by the works of Geber, Kalid, Rhazes, Avicenna. This is followed by the productions ascribed to Morienus, Hortulanus, Arisleus, Artephius, Ferrarius, petrus v. Zalento, Haimo and the pseudo. Merlin.
Most of these personages are more or less shadowy, but writings in their names are extant, and it rests with the historian to appraise their claims to acceptance as genuine. The authors of the thirteenth century are better known than the preceding, but there are doubts as to some of the alchemical writings which pass for their composition. Such as they are these are said to be by Albertus Magnus, Thomas Aquinas, Michael Scotus, Christophorus of Paris, Roger Bacon, Arnaldus de Villa Nova, Richardus Anglicus, Guido de Montanor. The next century furnishes a list of notable people: Pope John XXII., Jean de Meun, Raymond Lully, Cremer of Westminster, Pietro Bono, Antonio de Abbatia, Odomar, Rupescissa, Ortolanus, Flamel. As time goes on more writers on the subject appear. In the first half of the fifteenth century there are the reputed Basilius Valentinus, Joannes of Tetzen, Isaac Hollandus, Lasnioro, Lambspringk, and, in the second half, Bernard of Trevisan, Ficinus, Trithemius, Poyselius, Vincent Koffsky, George Ripley, Thomas Norton, Trissmosinus. In the early part of the sixteenth century one meets with Augurello, Picus de Mirandula, Pantheus, Lacinius, Bracesco, Grewer, Paracelsus, Agricola, Denis Zachaire, Petrus Arlensis, Robertus Vallensis, Alexander von Suchten, p. haedro, Wenceslaus Lavinius. In the latter part flourished Thurneysser, Nazari, Carerius, Quadrammii da Gubbio, Blaise de Vigenère, Penotus, Barnaud, Balbian, Edward Kelley, Dr. Dee, Francis Antony, Robert Fludd, Beuther, Sebald Schwertzer, Wittestein, and the two Khunraths.
The seventeenth century is perhaps the mast prolific of all in alchemical writers, and richest in narratives of transmutations accomplished, in books written in explanation and defence of the art, as well as in those by others who doubted it. It opens with the adventures of Alexander Seton the Cosmopolite, followed by the romantic episode of the Rosicrucian Society, and among the crowd of alchemists and chemists may be mentioned Libavius, Figulus, Crollius, Pontanus, Grasshof, Schaubert, Rhenanus, Gerhard, Michael Maier, Birelli, Billich, Johannes de Padua, Angelo Sala, Guibertus, d'Espagnet, Nuysement, Potier, Castaigne, L'Agneau, Palmarius, Drebbel, Hoghelande, Samuel Northon; though some of these are also to be found among the iatro-chemists. The second quarter of the century includes Sendivogius, Ambrosius Muller, Grosschedel ab Aicha, Batsdorf, Rist, Johannes Agricola, Kessler, Liberius Benedictus, Conringius, Peter Faber, Philaletha, Starkey, Zwelffer, Zwinger. Between 1650 and 1675 fall the names of Richthausen, Monte Snyder, Glauber, Harprecht, Kircher, Blauenstein, Clauder, Otto Tachenius, Becher, Löwenheim, Drechssler, Albineus, Morhof, Borrichius, Helvetius, Kerkring, Vreeswyk, Johnson, Borel, Germain, Atremont, Du Clos, de Comitibus, Ashmole, Borri. In the last quarter are W. v. Schröder, Seyler, Krohnemann, Cardilucius, Balduinus, Kunckel, Wedel, v. Helbig, Orschall, Weidenfeld, Grummet, Kirchmayer, Hannemann, Boyle, Dickinson, Mundanus, Colson, Headrich, Tollius, Salmon, Gualdo, Lancilotti. The eighteenth century also furnishes an abundance of names, but there is a marked change in the character of the writings. There may be enumerated the following: Bötticher, Caetano, Delisle, Paykul, Stahl, Dippel, Ettner von Eiteritz, Barchusen, Manget, Söldner, Kellner, Axtelmayer, Faustius, Müller, Horlacher, S. Richter, Klettenberg, Roth-Scholtz, Chymiphilus, Siebenstern, Hensing. There were also Plusius, Keil, Creiling, Fictuld, Richebourg, Lenglet Dufresnoy, Tharsander, Jugel, J. F. Meyer, Wenzel, Schröder; and from 1775 to 1800, Semler, Wiegleb, ab Indagine, Adamah Booz, Herverdi, Güldenfalk, Kortum, Henckel, von Murr. All these and many more less prominent are in the library, and it may be said with some confidence that little of importance relating to alchemy, in the seventeenth century especially, is wanting. Not only so, but certain books which are very scarce indeed, and are not alluded to in some of the fullest lists, are here present. The best running commentary on this division of the library is Kopp's last work, Die Alchemie, and one might almost imagine that in writing the bibliographical appendix he had had access, if not to this collection, to one similarly furnished. But here again there are items which have escaped Kopp's observation. The only other books to be considered are the collected editions of alchemical tracts, which, as I have already said, are characteristic of the literature, even from the earliest times. The Greek MSS. always contain treatises by different writers, ranging from four to as many as fifty-three ; and in Pizimenti's translation, the tracts of Democritus, Synesius, Pelagius, Stephanus and Psellus are printed together. Later MSS. in Latin, of which various specimens have passed through my hands, are similarly made up, and when they were printed, what they contained was simply reproduced. So it must have been in the Vatican MS. of Geber; for, not only his works, but tracts by Kalid, Avicenna, and others are included in Silber's edition, printed at Rome before 1520, and in several of those which followed. But from the sixteenth to the end of the eighteenth century the practice of printing collected editions became common, and quite a number appeared. The most comprehensive in the library may be mentioned: De Alchemia Volumen, Petreius, 1541 ;Lacinius' Pretiosa Margarita Novella, 1546; De Alchimia Opuscula, 1550; Gratarolo's Verae Alchemiae Doctrina, 1561; Eröffnete Geheimnisse des Steins der Weisen: Vellus Aureum; Ars Auriferae; Theatrum Chemicum; Manget's Bibliotheca; Museum Hermeticum; Ginaeceum Chemicum, 1673; Albineus' Bibliotheca Chemica Contracta, and a swarm of others under fanciful titles, which have been amusingly classified by Kopp. Some of the smaller ones may contain three or four tracts only, while the Theatrum Chemicum, and Manget's Bibliotheca, which are the largest, contain about two hundred and a hundred and forty respectively, some of considerable length. In French there is the Bibliotheque Chimique of 'le Sieur S.' [Guillaume Salmon] enlarged by Richebourg. In German there is the Vellus Aureum, Tancke's Promptuarium, the translation of the Pretiosa Margarita of Lacinius, Morgenstern's translation of the Ars Aurifera, Roth-Scholtz's Deutsches Theatrum Chemicum the body of extracts called Hermetisches A. B. C., and Schroder's Alchymistische Bibliothek. In English there are Salmon's translation of Hermes, Geber, Kalid, Bacon, and Flamel, appended to his Medicina Practica, the Collectanea Chymica, and the Aurifontina Chymica. These collected editions have impressed a distinctive feature on the catalogue, for, in drawing it up, the contents have been duly recorded under their respective titles, while each item has been entered under its author's name, or its own title, or, maybe, under both. This was a necessity, in order that no document bearing on the subject should be by any chance overlooked.
2. But besides these authors who were concerned solely or mainly with alchemy, there were others who, without questioning the reality of it, employed its principles merely as a guide, and instead of attempting to effect practically the change of metals into gold and silver, used, partly for medicine, partly for the practical arts, the knowledge of substances accumulated by the alchemists and others.
This epoch was inaugurated by Paracelsus in the sixteenth century by his asserting that alchemy was one of the pillars of medicine, and that alchemy was not confined to transmutation of metals, but was the art of preparing substances for medical use; that, in fact, it was the art of the transmutation of every kind of matter. Paracelsus started the iatro-chemical school, and he had many followers, as well as many opponents. His theories belong to the history of medicine rather than of chemistry; still, his adherents were chemists, and wrote books on chemistry for physicians, while his opponents, in order to controvert his doctrines, had themselves to acquire some familiarity with the new science. Of the iatro-chemical school, some supporting Paracelsus' views, others accepting them with reservation and criticism, and still others breaking away from them, may be mentioned Quercetanus, Thurneysser, Dorn, Rhenanus, Libavius, Beguinus, Crollius, Sala, Polemann, Potier, Joannes Agricola, Pierre Faber, v. Helmont, Glauber, Lefevre, Glaser, Lemery, Rolfinck, Tachenius, Barchusen, Guibertus, Ludolf, Morley, Sennertus, Rivinus, Bolnest, Brendelius, Charas, Elsholtz, Jungken, Poppius, Hoffmann, Wedel, Mynsicht.
[sur tous ces chimistes, consultez Chevreul critique de Hoefer, II et III. Le cas de Rhenanus est intéressant en ce qu'il permet de placer un point de jonction entre la collection Dyas Chymica Tripartita et l'Aurora Consurgens ; voici des notes de Ferguson :
Ferguson : Johannis Rhenani, Medici Celeberrimi, Opera Chymiatrica, quae hactenus in Lucem prodierunt onnnia, a plurimis, quae in prioribus editionibus irrepserant, mendis vindicata, & selectissimis medicamentis aucta, inque vnum fasciculum collecta, quorum catalogum versa indicabit pagina. Francofurti Sumptibus Conradi Eifridi. Anno M DC XXXV. 8°. Pp. [31, 1 blank] 367 [1 blank]. Folding table. 44 woodcuts of apparatus. Vignette. An edition of Frankfurt, 1641, is reported and there is one: Francofurti, apud Jacobum Gothofredum Seylerum. Anno MDCLXVllI. 8°, pp.  [15, 1 blank] 367 [1 blank]; folding table. This is a reissue of the remainder of the 1635 edition with a new and new-dated title-page wanting the symbolical vignette, and with the omission of the Epistola Dedicatoria to Bruno Carolus ab Uffeln, dated 1634, and the half-title to the 'Chymiotechnica.' It is not really a new edition. The writings contained in this collection are these:
- Solis e Puteo emergentlis, hoc est, Chymiotechnicorum Libri III., pp. 1-179. The first book contains a description, with illustrations, of chemical apparatus, of operations, and of the preparation of certain substances. Book second deals with the ' Lapis Philosophicus.' Book third is a ' Clavis & Manuductio in libros Theophrasti Paracelsi.'
frontispice du Solis e Puteo, etc.
[notez que l'image centrale, en bas, est remployée de l'emblème du Traité des Choses Naturelles et supernaturelles du pseudo Basile Valentin]
- Aureus Tractatus de Philosophorum Lapide. Ab adhuc vivente, sed anonymo Philosopho Germanice in lucem emissus, nunc autem in Latinum donatus, pp. 181-253. This tract, says Rhenanus in his prefatory note to the reader, appeared originally in the Dyas Tripartita of Heermann Condeesyanus, and was subsequently rendered into Latin in an inaccurate and misleading version by some one ignorant of chemistry, and published by Lucas Jennis at Frankfurt in the MUSEUM HERMETICUM (q.v.). He, therefore, thought it worth while to give a correct translation.
[ce traité est parfois attribué à Grasseus ou Grasshoff alias Condeesyanus et se ressent d'une influence R+C manifeste. Il forme la 1ère partie du Dyas Chymica Tripartita]
- Epistola de Solutione et Menstruo Philosophorum, T. G. Chymiatrophili ad Dn. Auctorem, pp. 254-257
- Responsio Auctoris. pp. 258-271
- Antidotarium Pestilentiale. Hoc est: Brevis quidem, sed ex rei medicae fontibus petitus, de borrenda illa lue pestifera, eiusque origine, operationibus, & curatione discursus . . . Lingua vernacula olim in lucem emissus a Johaone Rhenano. Nunc vero in Latinam linguam translatus per Fridericum Vogt, Medicum Hassum. pp. 273-326.
- Vrocriterium Chymiatricum, siue Ratio Chymiatrica exacte diiudicandi vrinas ex tribus principiis actiuis, & vno passiuo, hactenus neglectis; aphoristice ostensa: Auctore Johaone Rhenano, pp.327-367.
The author's name was property Rheinland, and he was the son of Dr. Martin Rhenanus, and grandson of Johannes Rhenanus, who was first preacher and afterwards superintendent of the salt works at Allendorf. Rhenanus was born at Cassel, but Strieder was unable to ascertain the date either of his birth or death. He studied at Marburg under Hartrmann, took the degree of M.D. in 1610, and became physician to Cassel of the Landgrave Moritz, who employed him actively in chemical experiments. His wife died in September, 1637, aged 57, and the marriage of a son, Jonannes, In 1632, is mentioned. Besides the present works them are the following:
- Dissertatio chymiotechnica, in qua totius operationis chymicae methodus practica clare ob oculos ponitur. . . sub praesidio . . . Johannis Hartmanni . . . Marpurgi Cattorun, 1610, 4°, with a folding table. The title 'Opera chymiatrica' to not that given originally to the above book. It is: Solis e puteo emergentis: sive Dissertationis chymiotechnicae Libri tres. In quibus totius Operationis chymicae methodus Practica: Materia lapidis Philosophici, & nodus (sic) soluendi eius, operandique, vt & Clavis operum Paracelsi, qua abstrusa explicantur deficientia supplentur. Cum praefatione Chymiae Veritatem asserente. Authore loanne Rhenano, Medico. Uber primus. Francofurti.M.DC.XIII, 4°. Engraved border round the title, folding table, woodcuts in the text. ln three parts, with separate title-pages and pagination. Numerous editions are recorded: Francof., 1623, 8°; 1625, 1635, 8° (as above), 1641, 8°; 1668, 8°; 1676, 8°
- Antidotarium Pestilentiale, Frankf., 1613-4 (in German),
- Syntagma harmoniae chymico-philosophicae sive philosophorum antiquorum conscientium hactenus quidem plurimum desideratorum sed nondum in lucem publicam editorum, collectum & distributum in certas decades, Francof., 1625. 8°. This work ' Syntagma harmoniae chymico-philosophicae' is presumably identical with one which bears a somewhat different title: Harmoniae imperscrutabilis chimico-philosophicae decades duae, quibus continentur auctores de Lapide, Francofurti, 1625. 8°. of the twenty tracts in which a list is given by Lenglet Dufresnoy. He also states that it is a continuation of a collection with the same title, but containing three decades of hitherto unpublished tracts, made by Hermann Condeesyanus, Francofurti, 1625, 8°.
[il s'agit à l'évidence du Dyas Chymica Tripartita ; on voit s'établir une relation entre Grasseus et Rhenanus ; il se trouve que le texte de l'Aurora Consurgens - je ne parle pas du commentaire à l'Aurora consurgens, cf. infra Artis auriferae - a été publié dans ce texte de Rhenanus]
I do not know whether this is a fact, or not, but I doubt it. In the British Museum Catalogue, under Condeesyanus, there is the following entry: Harmoniae inperscrutabilis Chymico-Philosophicae, give philosophorum antiquorum consentientium. . . nondum In lucem. . . missorum decas I. . . . Collectae ab H. C. D. (Decas II. Collecta studio et industria J. Rhenani.) a pt. Francofurti, 1625. 8° This contains the twenty tracts. (There is, by the way, no cross reference in the B. M. Catalogue from Rhenanus to Condeesyanus.)
Two works in manuscript by him remain:
- Secreta quaedam de praeparatione lapidis philosophici, and Speculum aestheticum, & comedy in which all the senses take part and the tongue has a contention with the others.
The grandfather, who seems to have been a person of great energy and spirit, passed an active and unsettled life and had disputes and quarrels with a number of people. Objection was taken to his being both a clergyman and a saltmaker; the saltmakers disliked his innovations, and his salary was occasionally withheld from him. He was, however, the ablest of his family, and his grandson speaks of him making a discovery of coal and using it for salt-boiling, which would be somewhere about the year 1580. His life was described by U. F. Kopp In his "Beytrag zur Geschichte des Salzwerks in den Soden bel Altendorf an der Werra,' Marburg, 1788, 8°, from which Strieder has taken his account, and more recently there is a biography by H. Cramer: Johannes Rhenanus der Pfarrherr und Salzgräfe zu Allendorf an der Werra, Halle, 1879, 8°, pp. 41. ]
3. The epoch of scientific chemistry began with two controversies. The first was that between Conring and Borrichius as to the antiquity of Hermes, the reality of the Hermetic medicine and the soundness of Paracelsus' innovations; the second was the discussion by Boyle of the elements or principles of the chemists and of the Aristotelians. This was the first systematic criticism of chemical theory from a purely scientific or philosophical standpoint, and it gradually led to an observation of phenomena apart from applications to medicine, or arts, or alchemy. Those who pursued this course and, so to speak inaugurated scientific chemistry, were Becher and Stahl, Lemery, Boerhaave, Weigel, Rothe, Marggraf, Priestley, Lavoisier, Scheele, Sage, Baumé, Bergman, Scopoli, Achard, Crell, Dandolo, d'Arcet, Demachy, Trommsdorff, Spielmann, Teichmayer, Wiegleb, Jacquin, Scherer, Fourcroy, Macquer, Claude de la Metherie, Morveau. Without belonging to any of these periods, as has been said above, there are works in the library which, while involving a certain amount of chemistry, are concerned not with transmutation, or medicine, or theories and speculations, but with the needs of ordinary life, or with the positive and technical side of the science. Among these are the miners and metallurgists; Ercker, Entzel or Encelius, George Agricola, Alonso Barba, Sir John Pettus, Webster, Gabriel Plattes, Löhnayss; assayers: as Schreitmann, Zimmermann, and the anonymous author of the Probier Büchlein; the mineralogists: Marbodaeus, Nicols, Henckel; technologists: as Neri, Merrett and Haudicquer de Blancourt, who all wrote about glass; Axt, who published a little treatise on the making of rosin, wood tar and charcoal; Caneparius, the author of the treatise de Atramentis ; the compilers of books of practical receipts and secrets, as they were called, such as the author of the Rechter Gebrauch d'Alckimei, Andriessen, Fioravanti, Alessio, Lemnius, Wecker, Hugh Plat, Kertzenmacher, Cortese, Schmuck. In some respects, as in giving insight into everyday practical working, these books are as interesting and important as any. The books on pharmacy also constitute a series by themselves, but as they are, — with one or two exceptions, such as the Dispensarium of Praepositus, Luminare Majus of Manlius de Boscho, Lumen Apothecariorum of Quiricus, Thesaurus of Gesner, — comparatively recent, they do not require special notice. It is an illustration of the persistence of an idea that all through the eighteenth century to its very close, when most important discoveries were making and entirely new theories were advanced, the controversy as to the reality of transmutation — as a fact and as a theory — was still sustained. At the opening of it, in 1702, came the attack by Söldner — as it is said — in the Teutsches Fegfeuer der Scheide-Kunst, replied to in the ErIösung der Philosophen aus dem Fegfeuer der Chymisten; Creiling's vindication of alchemy in Die Edelgeborne Jungfer Alchymia, 1730, Lenglet Dufresnoy's Histoire, 1742, which must be regarded as unfavourable; Fictuld's ProbierStein, 1753, a sort of biographical dictionary of genuine and false alchemists, more remarkable for the author's judgments than for the information supplied; the curious dictionary of Pernety, 1753, in which as in his other work he strives to interpret the myths of antiquity as Hermetic; [rappelons que nous partageons les doutes de Ferguson et de tant d'autres sur le degré de vraisemblance que l'on peut accorder à l'autorité intellectuelle de Pernety ; mais ses écrits sont sauvés - si l'on peut dire - par une érudition que l'on ne retrouve plus, ensuite, que chez Jung et Fulcanelli] Wiegleb's onslaught on the truth of alchemy, 1777, with Kortum's learned and rather dexterous reply, 1789, and the collection of narratives about transmutation by Güldenfalk, 1784. Then at the close of the century, 1797 to 1799, appeared Gmelin's Geschichte, in which for the first time the subject was treated as a whole, and as an independent branch of history, without bias, and apart from controversy as to the truth or reality of any section of it, but merely as a record of events, persons and books. All these, with others of less note, are in the library. In endeavouring to construct the catalogue of such a library as this, which labour I undertook at Dr. Young's request, I considered who were likely to consult it and how best it could be made serviceable for the study of the history of chemistry.
The persons who may possibly refer to it — besides those who actually use the library itself —- are, in the first place, librarians, bibliographers, booksellers, and collectors of this branch of literature, if there be any such, and, in the second, students. For the convenience of the first group, the catalogue has been constructed on a more liberal and elaborate scale than would have been necessary, had the object been merely to make a list of short titles sufficient to serve as a register for the library. Instead of that the titles are reproduced in full, the particular copy is described, and any peculiarities it may possess are noted, other editions are enumerated, and, when practicable, an account of them, too, is added, which in many cases has been possible-by inspection of the books themselves. To the different classes of bookmen these details may be convenient for reference, and for comparison with other copies. The literature is scarce, obscure and almost unknown, and, so far as my experience goes, while there are lists and enumerations of alchemical books, there is no bibliography of any part of it. More particularly intended for the student, who is concerned with the contents rather than with the externals of the books, are the notes which contain biographical and descriptive details and discuss doubtful or disputed points of chronology, authorship, and other matters. The authors of most of these books are strangers in this country and are but little remembered, or thought of, in their own. Some of them, however, were amongst the foremost men of their day, conspicuous by their lives, learning, discoveries and writings. It seemed desirable therefore, in carrying out the plan I had drawn up, to give the student some notion of the position and authority of the different writers so far as lay in my power, to refer to the questions which have arisen about them or their writings, and to the criticisms and judgments which have been passed upon them. As it was impossible to accomplish this in full within the limits of a catalogue, I have endeavoured by lists of authorities, whom I have been able to consult, to assist the student further in surveying the field for himself. In the authorities quoted others will be found, and in these again others, and so the student can continue his research till he has exhausted the literature, and possessed himself of all available information at first hand. The authorities are not all of equal value; for while some supply much sound information, others furnish an irreducible minimum. Nor do they always agree as to dates and other matters of fact, which is a defect, and their criticisms and decisions also are sometimes at variance, which is of very little importance; but this uncertainty adds to the liveliness and zest of the inquiry, and stimulates originality and independence of judgment on the student's part, for he must lay his account for long and sometimes baffling investigation if he want to arrive at the truth. I have also endeavoured to give him some hold upon the authorities by arranging them as far as may be chronologically. An advantage is that if they be examined in this sequence, the statements made, whether accurate or inaccurate, can be traced to their sources, and thus by careful examination and comparison it can be decided who are original authorities and who are compilers and copyists. Another advantage of the lists is that from their extent and the status of the persons composing them, an inference can be drawn as to the importance and interest surrounding any particular writer, from his own time to the present. All the rest is for the student of history himself to do; it is his affair to examine the facts, the doubts, the difficulties, the errors; to confirm what is correct, to correct what is faulty and wrong, to throw light if possible on confused and debateable problems, and to confess his inability to reconcile contradictory averments and opinions, when the means for doing so have failed him. In the present work he will find plenty of opportunities for expending labour and exercising his critical faculties. Nor do I presume to think that what I have said is in every case correct and final. There is too great a want of agreement amongst the authorities for any one, at this time of day, to do more than get as near the truth as possible through the mists of defective records and discordant results. The brief abstracts and "accounts which I have given are therefore liable to such modification, or correction, as further examination of the existing authorities, or new discoveries, may necessitate. There is no weed which spreads so quickly as error; I can only hope that I have introduced as little as may be in my statements. One, however, cannot escape the common lot, but one can perhaps plead, with Lactantius, the common imperfection: " est enim aliquid medium quod sit hominis, scilicet scientia cum ignorantia conjuncta et temperata." What success this work may achieve will depend on the proportion of those constituents, and how they are combined. The inducement which I have had to go into the matter in detail, is simply the want of a book of any kind whatever on the subject in English, while those which exist in other languages, in German for instance, do not cover this ground. With the exception of Ladrague, whose work, printed at Moscow in 75 copies, is about as rare as a manuscript, no one supplies even the pagination, and no one at all reproduces the titles in full. The compilation of the present work, therefore, afforded an opportunity, which it behoved me not to neglect, not merely of making a catalogue, but of attempting to begin a bibliography, at all events within the limits which the collection allowed, and of thus filling a gap in the literature of the history of chemistry, while the addition of the biographical notes and the references to the authorities constituted a guide to the relative literature. In no better way, it seemed to me, could the purpose of the founder be attained. If, -for such flaws in the plan and its execution'as use may reveal, an apology be necessary, I can use the words of Pliny, without, I hope, being charged with presumption : " nec dubitamus, multa esse, qua et nos praeterierint. Homines enim sumus, et occupati officiis: subcisivisque ternporibus ista curamus, id est, nocturnis, ne quis vestrum putet his cessatum horis."
At the conclusion of a work like the present, one can hardly refrain from contemplating the theme of it It deals with phases of a science which is of active interest and influence just now certainly, but is as different from its former condition as to views, aims, methods, and results, as if there never had been any connection between them. Yet the chemistry of the moment is also merely a phase, and by its more rapid development is so much less stable than that of three hundred years ago, when discovery made slower advance. Still the books enumerated here, unattractive as they are — even unintelligible, maybe — record the thought and experience of many men, some of them among the most skilful and far-seeing of their time. But their labours have disappeared as if they had never been, their controversies are forgotten, their discoveries have long ago been assimilated into common knowledge; what was right in their work has, as far as they are concerned, shared the fate of what was wrong: it is not even known that It was theirs.
" The chiefs of other tiroes are departed; they have gone without their fame. The sons of future years shall pass away; and another race arise."
Let not the modern student of science imagine that he and his work will escape the universal doom. His discoveries, his theories, the most recent, the most comprehensive and progressive, sooner or later will become mere archaeological data, to be included, or, just as likely, omitted, in a historical review of this time. Such, at least, has been the rule in chemistry for the last eighteen hundred years, and there is no sign of its being suspended in favour of any chemist of to-day.
" Thus times do shift; each thing his turne do's hold; New things succeed as former things grow old."
It is this phenomenon which stimulates to the writing of history and to the antiquarian research on which it rests, the passing, namely, of the generations with their ideas and pursuits. But change itself is inevitable, and as the past conditions cannot be recalled or reproduced, either in the individual or the race, the most that can be done is to record something of them. The history of chemistry, as indeed of all science, is but a succession of epitaphs upon forgotten men and forgotten discovery. What then do these men not owe to him who gathers up their works, and in so doing recalls their achievements, and thus labours to lift that icy pall of oblivion which descends on everything human, just because it is human, imperfect, temporary, and has to be forgotten to make way for something else? It was to mitigate that fate as far as human effort can, when it has to strive with the eternal law and necessity of change, that this gathering of the writings of bye-gone thinkers and workers was made. That they were struggling with error-obscured vision towards the light of reality should cause not neglect of them and contempt for their shortcomings and failures, but should arouse the fellow-feeling and interest of those who at the present moment are engaged in the same struggle, and whose turn for neglect and contempt is coming. Dr. Young realized this, and the library is his effort to awaken and foster such sympathy and remembrance. Whether or not I have succeeded by the present catalogue in carrying out his wish to make it as instructive for the purpose he contemplated as may be, It is impossible for me to say. The decision of Dr. Young himself is what I should have pre-eminently desired; and I should have prized the judgment of one other, whose interest in the catalogue was to me its inspiration, and whose verdict at its close would have been my reward. But these voices are now still. To friends who have assisted me in various ways, by loans of books, by references to authorities to which access for me was difficult, by revision with roe of certain portions of the work, I desire to tender my warmest thanks. First and last I have read the proofs, and am alone responsible for whatever errors and misprints exist. May I ask those who may have to consult this book not to overlook the additions and corrections at the end of the second volume? So, in the old-fashioned words of old Jean Rey: " Le trauail a este mien, le profit en soit au lecteur, et a Dieu seul la gloire."
GLASGOW, 13 NEWTON PLACE,
23rd January, 1906.
13. Robert Boyle's Sceptical chymist (1661, 1680)
frontispice du Sceptical Chymist, Oxford, Hall, 1680 - cliquez sur l'image pour la version : London, Cadwell & Crooke, 1661
The SCEPTICAL CHYMIST ; or Chymico-Phyfical Doubts and Paradoxes touching the Experiments, whereby Vulgar spagyrists are wont to endeavour to evince their Salt,Sulphur and Mercury to be the true Principles of Things, to which, in this Edition, are fubjoined divers Experiments and Notes about the Produciblenefs of Chemical Principles,
- Phyfiological Confiderations touching the Experiments wont to be employed to evince either the four Peripatetic Elements, or the three Chymical Principles of mixed Bodies. Part of the firft Dialogue.
1. The Sceptical Chymist Part I
2. Part II.
3. Part III.
4. Part IV.
5. Part V.
6. Part VI.
14. ARTIS AURIFERAE, quam chemiam vocant, volumina duo, quae continent Turbam Philosophorum, aliosque, antiquiss. auctores, quae versa pagina indicat. [...]
frontispice de l'Artis Auriferae, Basileae, 1572
Ferguson : Bibliotheca Chemica, pp. 51-52 : The contents of vol. iii. are given on the title-page. This is one of the chief collections of standard alchemical authors. A certain number of the tracts and the Rosarium had been already printed in the De Alchimia Opuscula, Francoforti, 1550 (q.v.) and others in Gratarolo's collection, Basel, Petrus Perna, 1561, in folio (q.v.). The hitter was again printed at Basel by Perna in 1572, in 8°, and immediatly thereafter Perna printed in 1573 Auriferae Artis quam Chemiam vocant, antiquissimi Authores, sine Turba Philosophorum, in two volumes, small 8°, with an address to the reader by himself. Of the tracts in the first volume he says that the first ten and the last were from manuscripts. In 1593, Conrad Waldkirch at Basel reprinted both volumes in a somewhat handsomer form
[ces volumes sont disponibles à la bibliothèque digitale de la Slub, Dresden. Dans les deux cas, il s'agit de l'édition Waldkirch].
Then came this reprint of 1610, to which was added the third volume. [notons que Jung, dans son Psychologie et Alchimie, donne l'Artis Auriferae en deux volumes et son édition date de 1593, publiée à Bâle] A German translation of the Turba and of a tract by Roger Bacon, edited by Paulus Hildenbrandt von Hildenbrandseck appeared at Franckfort am Mayn in 1597 and in 1608 (q.v.). The first two volumes were translated into German by Philip Morgenstern (q.v.), and published at Basel, 1613, reprinted 1750. In the Beytrag zur Geschichte der hühern Chemie, 1785, p. 578, it is called a "collection full of hid heavenly wisdom." This critic's sincerity maybe doubted.
Vol. i. pp. , 405; Index  [4 blank], one woodcut. Vol. ii. 346; Index  [2 blank]; 20 woodcuts. Vol. iii.  185; Index ; one woodcut. The following are the contents of this collection:
table des matières du vol. I de l'Artis auriferae
Vol. i. After the title comes the address by Peter Perna, the Basel printer, to the reader. Then
1. Propositiones, seu maximae artis Chymicae.
2. Turba Philosophorum, p. 1.
Turba philosophorum, frontispice
3. Turbae Pliilosophorum alterum Exemplar, p. 43
4. Allegoriae super librum Turbae, p. 89.
5. Aenigmata ex Visione Arislei, p. 94. & Exercitationes in Turbam, p. 99.
7. Aurora Consurgens, p. 110. [il s'agit en fait du commentaire au traité De Alchimia ou Liber Trinitatis, que l'on trouve dans Johannes Rhenanus, Harmoniae inperscrutabilis chymico-philosophicae sive Philosophorum antiquorum consentientium Decades duae, Francoforti, 1625 ; d'après M.-L. von Franz, l'Aurora consurgens est d'une autre main que ce texte, cf. Aurora consurgens, la Fontaine de pierre, p. 24, Paris, 1982 ; cf. supra sur Rhenanus et sur Aurora consurgens, notre essai]
8. Rosinus ad Euthiciam, p. 158.
9. Idem ad Saratantam Episcopum, p. 178.
10. Liber Definitionum eiusdem, p. 203.
11. Mariae Prophetissae Practica, p. 205.
12. Uber Secretorum Calidis filij Iazichi, p. 208.
13. Liber Trium Verborum Kallid, p. 226.
14. Aristoteles de lapide Philosophorum, p. 232.
15. Avicenna de Conglutinatione lapidis, p. 240.
16. Expositio Epistolae Alexandri Regis, p. 245.
17. Ignotus Autor de Secretis lapidis, p. 249.
18. Merlini allegoria de Arcano lapidis, p. 252.
19. Rachaidibi... de Materia lapidis, p. 255.
20. Avicennae Tractatulus de Alchimia, p. 260.
21. Semita Semitae, p. 280.
22. Clangor Buccinae p. 289.
23. Correctio fatuorum, p. 349.
24. Incertus Autor de Arte Chymica, p. 369.
frontispice du tome II de l'Artis Auriferae, 1610
1. Liber de compositione Alchemiae, quem edidit Morienus Romanus, Calid Regi Aegyptiorum: quem Robertus Castrensis de Arabico in Latinum transtulit, p. 3.
2. Bernardi Trevirensis responsio ad Thomam de Bononia de Mineralibus, & Elixiris compositione, Roberti - - - - Vallensis Tabulis illustrata, p. 38.
3. Liber de Arte Chimia incerti Authoris nunquam hactenus in Lucem editus. [Note. — A tract of similar name is in vol. i. There is no such tract in the present volume.]
4. Scala philosophorum, p. 71.
5. Ludus puerorum (et Opus mulierum), p. 111.
6. Rosarium philosophorum (cum figuris), p. 133.
Rosarium, fons mercurialis
7. Arnaldi Rosarium, p. 253.
Nouum lumen, p. 298.
Flos florum ad Regem Aragonum, p. 311.
Epistola super Alchimia ad Regem Neapolitanum, p. 323.
8. Rogerius Bacho Anglus de mirabili Potestate artis et naturae, p. 327.
frontispice du tome III de l'Artis Auriferae, 1610
1. Lullij ultimum Testamentum.
2. Elucidationem Testam. totius ad R. Odoardum.
3. Potestatem diuitiarurn, cum optima expositione Testamenti Hermetis.
4. Compendium Artis Magicae, quoad compositionem Lapidis,
5. De Lapide & oleo Philosophorum.
6. Modum accipiendi aurum potabile.
7. Compendia Alchimias & naturalis Philosophiae.
Item Alberti Magni secretorum Tractatus.
Abbreviationes quasdam de Secretis Secretorum loannis pauperum.
Arnaldi Quaest. de Arte Transmut. Metall. eiusque; Testamentum.
Omnia hactenus nunquam visa nec edita, Cum Indicibus rerum et verborum locupletiss.
Basileae, Typis Conradi Waldkirch. cIo Io.cx. 8°.
15. Hermetisches A.B.C. deren ächten Weisen alter und neuer Zeiten vom Stein der Weisen. Ausgegeben von einem wahren Gott und Menschenfreunde. bey Christian Ulrich Ringmacher, Berlin. 1778-9. 318 + 348 + 299 + 325 pages.
frontispice de l'Hermetisches A. B. C. -
Ferguson : Erster Theil 8°. Pp.   [1-6] 7.318. Zweiter Theil, Berlin, 1779. 8° Pp.  348. [2 blank]. Dritter Theil, Berlin, 1779. 8°. Pp.  299. [1. 2 blank]. Vierter und letzler Theil, Berlin, 1779. 8°. Pp. 325. . There was afterwards prefixed an extra title page: A. B. C. vorn Stein der Weisen. Erster [Zweiter, Dritter, Vierter und letzter] Theil. Mit Churfürstl. Sächsisch. gnädigster Freiheit. Berlin. 1778 , bey Christian Ulrich Ringmacher. The book consists of extracts from the current literature, which give an idea of what was considered of importance to be studied at the time. It if also of some use as it sometimes supplies the names of the authors of certain anonymous and doubtful tracts. Kopp, Die Alchemie, 1886, ii. p. 332. - Cette compilation vaut avant tout, à notre avis, pour les traités de Hermann Fictuld - encore introuvables sur internet - et dont on peut avoir une bonne idée de l'importance en lisant le chapitre consacré à Fictuld dans Antoine Faivre : Accès de l'Esotérisme occidental, Gallimard, 1986, t. I, chap. Miles Redivivus, Hermann Fictuld et l'Orde de la Toison d'Or, pp. 215-224. Fictuls est lié à Naxagoras, cf. Faivre : Toison d'or et Alchimie, Paris-Milan, Archè, 1990 ou : The Golden Fleece and Alchemy, New-York, State-University of New-York Press, 1993.
1. Hermes. Die Smaragdtafel. p. 57
2. Samuel Baruch. Die Gabe Gottes. p. 61
3. Rabbi Abraham Eleazar. Schrift. p. 71
frontispice de l'Uraltes Chymisches Werk
[on retient deux titre d'Abraham Eleazar :
- R. Abrahami Eleazaris Uraltes Chymisches Werk, welches ehedessen von dem Autore theils in Lateinischer und Arabischer, theils auch in Chaldäischer und Syrischer Sprache geschrieben, nachmals von einem Anonymo inunsere deutsche Mutterepiache übersetzet, nun aber nebst zugehörigen Kupfern, Figuren, Gefäfsen, Oefen, einer kurzen Vorrede, nöthigen Registern, wie auch beygefügtein Schlüssel derer in selbigem vorkommenden fremden Wörter, ingleichen einigen philosophischen Regeln von dem Steine der Weisen zu Nutz und Gebrauch aller Liebhaber der edlen Hermetischen Philosophie, in II. Theilen zum offentlichen Druck befördert worden durch lulium Gervsium Schwartzburgicum, P. M. & I. P. E. Zweyte Auflage. Leipzig, in Lankischens Buchhandlung, 1760. 8°. Title, Preface, Letter signed L. N. Dobelius, Jan. 18, 1735, Verses. Abraham's address to the Jews, quotation from Lib. iv. Esrae, in all pp. ; Text, pp. 122; Register, pp. . Frontispiece and 7 Engravings. Woodcuts in the text of apparatus and cabbalistic figures, expressing Hermetic secrets.
The second part has the following title-page :
- Donum Dei Samuelis Baruch, Des Juden Rabbi, Astrologi und Philosophi, gebohren aus dem Stamm Abrahams, Isaacs, Jacobs und Judä, welcher erlernet das grofse Geheimnifs des grofsen Meisters Tubalkains aus dessen Tabell, gefunden von Abrahamo Eleazare, dem Juden. I. N. U. CXI. 8°. Title, Short vocabulary of chemical words, with title and preface, pp. . Text, pp. 104. Regitter, pp. . 8 plates containing 15 symbolical designs; woodcuts of chemical apparatus in the text. This, though it has separate title, pagination and signatures, is printed uniformly with the preceding part, and is an integral portion of Abraham Eleazar's work, being referred to by Gervasrius in the preface to Part 1.]
Ferguson : An edition, most probably the first, was published by Augnstinus Crusius at Erfurt, In 1735. It contains in Part I.: pp. , dictionary , text, 122, index ; and in Part II.: title , text, 87; index, etc. . The title is printed in red and black, and the impressions of the plates engraved by J. C. Boeck of Weimar are better than those in the 1760 issue. In one copy which I have seen, the dictionary is put after the preliminary matter in Part I., but in another copy it is placed at the very end of Part II. Among the preliminary matter the first edition has one leaf containing a list of 11 MSS. which Crusius had it in his mind to publish. Of these No. 6 is the tract of a certain LUDOVICUS ORVIUS (q.v.), to which Gervasius refers in his preface as alluding to Abraham Eleazar. This leaf is omitted in the second edition. The second edition, however, contains at the end of the second part, pp. 87-104, a series of 156 philosophical rules or canons respecting the philosopher's stone. This series is not in the first edition. (See PHILOSOPHISCHE Regeln.) In the preface Gervasius gives an account of the book which be says existed in MSS, only, eagerly sought after, but difficult to see and costly to copy, and he therefore had it printed. It was from the book of Abraham the Jew that Flamel gained his skill, and the work was used also by Orvius, above mentioned, and by the author of the CURIEUSE UNTERSUCHUNG etlicher Mineralien (q.v.). He tries to ascertain the date at which Abraham Eleazar may have flourished, and the probable truth of the statement that he drew the 'principia' of the art from the copper tables of Tubal-Cain, who transmitted his secrets to posterity both by writing and by symbolic pictures as well. Gervasius, naturally, supports the truth of this statement, and proves, as he thinks, that Tubal - Cain was the first engraver, metallurgist, and chemist. In the second part there are several references to these copper tables. Of Abraham Eleazar, Samuel Baruch, and even Gervasius himself, nothing seems to be known. The main question is as to the authenticity of the book, and it has to be proved that it is identical with that described by Flamel, and not a later production written to suit Flamel's description. There is a certain similarity, especially in the symbolic pictures, which can be accounted for in either way, but when it is remembered how much doubt hangs round the whole Flamel legend, the second explanation is the more probable. Dr. Kopp (Die Alchemie, 1886, ii. pp. 314-317) has given the work careful consideration, and from internal evidence, has drawn the conclusion that the book is spurious, that Abraham Eleazar and Samuel Baruch are supposititious personages, that Gervasius is the pseudonym of the real author, and that the work is later than Flamel. and not earlier than the seventeenth century. While this is most likely the correct conclusion as to the book in its present form, Gervasius may, however, have based his adaptation on some old MSS., if he did not actually reprint one, as he professes to have done. There is a drawing of the massacre of the innocents, evidently symbolical, from the " book of Abraham the Jew" in the Library of the Arsenal, Paris, given by Lacroix in Le Moyen Age et la Renaissance, Paris, 1848, i. Art. vii., and again by Lacroix [il s'agit de Paul Lacroix (1806-1884) qui est l'auteur d'une Curiosité des Sciences Occultes où 100 pages sont consacrées à l'alchimie, Paris, A. Delahays, 1862] In Moeurs, Usages et Costumes au Moyen Age, Paris, 1871, p. 465. This drawing is a more elaborate version of the same scene which is given both in Abraham Eleazar's and in Flamel's works (q.v.). Without an examination, therefore, of such MSS. as may exist, I should not like to assert unhesitatingly that Gervasius was the author, and did not actually reprint a MS. in whole or in part. Such MSS. were known to Lenglet Dufresnoy (Hist. de la Philosophie Hermétique, 1742, iii. p. 79), and probably some are still to be found both in public and in private libraries.
4. Nodus sophicus enodatus. p. 73
5. Kinderbett des Steins der Weisen. p. 86
6. M. Barcius, Johann von Sternberg. Gloria Mundi, Kleine Paradeis-Tafel. p. 95
7. Johann Grashofer, Chortolasseus genannt, Schriften; Geheimnisse des grossen und kleinen Bauers; Cabala Chemica. p. 121
8. Johann Siebmacher aus Nürnberg. Güldenes Vlies. p. 145
9. Johann Siebmacher aus Nürnberg. Wasserstein der Weisen. p. 156
10. Johann Friedrich Hautnorthon. Tractat vom philosophischen Salze. p. 157
11. Leona Constantia (Johanna Leade). Sonnenblume der Weisen. p. 172
12. Radtichs Brotoffer. Elucidarius maior. p. 176
13. Alexander von Suchten. Explicatio Tincturae Physicorum Theophrasti Paracelsi. p. 195
14. Alexander von Suchten. De tribus Facultatibus. p. 214
15. De Nuysement. Vom wahren Salz der Weisen und dem Allgemeinen Geist der Welt. p. 230
16. Antonio de Abbatia. Bericht von Verwandlung der Metallen. p. 261
17. Aufrichtig deutscher Wegweiser zum Lichte der Natur. p. 263
18. Laurentius Ventura Venetus. De Lapide Philosophorum. p. 268
19. Johann von Padua. Vollendete Heilige Weisheit. p. 283
20. Marsilius Ficinus. Büchlein vom Stein der Weisen. p. 294
21. John Dausten. Rosarium vom Stein der Weisen. p. 300
22. Hermes. Güldener Tractat von Zusammensetzung des Steins der Weisen. p. 311
23. Raymundus Lullius. Apertorium de Compositione Lapidis Philosophorum. p. 312
24. Raymundus Lullius. Elucidarius über sein Testament und Codicill. p. 315
25. Aristoteles. Alchymische Schrift an Alexandrum Magnum, de Lapide Philosophorum. p. 316
1. P. Spiess. Concordanz über das Nuysement Sal coeleste. p. 15
2. Benedict Gutwasser. Aufrichtig Chemisches Glaubens-Bekenntniss. p. 41
3. Das philosophische Vaterherz. p. 56
4. Amor Proximi. p. 72
5. Das aus der Finsterniss von sich selbst hervor-brechende Licht. p. 106
6. Fama mystica hermetica. p. 163
7. Der rechte Weg zur hermetischen Kunst. p. 175
8. Sendivogius. Die geheime Naturlehre. p. 193
9. Georg von Welling. Opus mago-cabalisticum et theosophicum. p. 231
10. Franc. Sebast. Fulvus. Melvolodemet, of Pisa. Non plus ultra Veritatis, Untersuchung der hermetischen Wissenschaft. p. 269
11. D.M. -- 3 Tractätlein. p. 288
12. Ben Adam. Traum-Gesicht, zur Zeit der regierung Ruacharetz, Königs von Adama, von Floretus a Bethabor and den Tag gegeben. p. 296
13. Das hermaphroditische Sonn- und Monds-Kind. p. 301
1. Der uralte Ritterkrieg, und hermetische Triumph. p. 15
2. Henry Vanghan [Thomas Vaughan] gennant Eugenius Philaletha: Eröfneter Eingang zu des Königs verschlossnem Pallast. p. 73
3. [Thomas Vaughan] Von Verwandlung der Metallle. p. 78
4. [Thomas Vaughan] Kurze Anleitung zum himmlischen Rubin. p. 80
5. [Thomas Vaughan] Brunn der Chemischen Wissenschaft. p. 83
6. [Thomas Vaughan] Magia Adamica, Alterthumb der Weisheit oder Himmel der Erde. p. 86
7. [Thomas Vaughan] Antroposophia Magica. p. 115
8. [Thomas Vaughan] Anima magica abscondita. p. 122
9. [Thomas Vaughan] Euphrates, die Wasser von Aufgang. p. 134
10. [Thomas Vaughan] Lumen de Lumine, neues magisches Licht. p. 151
11. [Thomas Vaughan] Aula Lucis, Hauss des Lichts. p. 177
12. Aus Peter Steiners Handschrift von der Universal-Materie. p. 189
13. Aus Nedeganders kurzer Anleitung zum Naturgeheimniss. p. 203
14. Aus der güldenen Rose: durch I.R.V.M.D. p. 207
15. Aus dem Gespräch zwischen dem Saturn der Weisen, und einem Chemisten. p. 209
16. Aus Jamsthalers Gedicht vom Stein der Weisen. p. 213
17. Aus dem Gedicht der ächten Rosenkreuzer. p. 214
18. Aus dem Lehrsätzen von der Weisen Steine. p. 216
19. Aus dem Aria von der Weisen Stein. p. 217
20. Aus dem Brunn der Weisheit. p. 218
21. Aus dem Blut der Natur. p. 225
22. Aus Fictulds Azoth et Ignis. p. 252
frontispice de deux traités de Herman Fictuld : Azoth Et Ignis, Aureum Vellus, Blodsberger, 1749
Ferguson : Nothing is recorded about Fictuld's life, but his name and works are familiar to most writers on the subject, and the Probier-Stein is sometimes quoted and recommended as an authority, which it is not. Doubtless some of the information be gives in it is correct, but he has made such erroneous statemeats in matters which can be checked, that he is quite unreliable in those where no check can be applied. Besides the above works he himself enumerates: ' Gespräcb zwischen dem König Mascos und seiner Schwester Agos' appended to Das edle Perlein (q.v.); ' Hermetischer Triumph-Bogen &c. nemlich, Cabbala mystica naturae, und Occulta occultissime.' According to Kopp (Dis Alchemie, 1886. ii. p. 367) the person who printed under the pseudonym of Fictuld was really called Johann Heinrich Schmidt von Sonnenberg, who is not to be confused with Johann Georg Schmid (q.v.}. But in the HERMETISCHES A. B. C., 1779, ii. p. 72, the Probier-Stein is ascribed to a Baron Meinstoff; without taking any notice of Fictuld. Which of these is correct I am unable to say. See also HERMETISCHES A. B. C., 1770, iv. p. 39. There is still another version. It if said that he was a native of Langenthal, and that his real name was Mummenthaler, that he had travelled much and seen much, but that he was certainly not an adept Count Franciscus Onuphrio de Marsciano gave him a copy of bis book in 1764. Fictuld died in 1777, in the seventy-eighth year of his age. Semler was of opinion that he did not err on the side of modesty, and points out that his name HerMann FICtVLD is a chronogram for 1656, but he does not deduce anything from the fact, if It were intentional.
23. Aus Fictulds Aureum Vellus, goldenem Vliess. p. 263
24. Aus Fictulds Hermetica Victoria. p. 271
25. Aus Fictulds Abhandlung von der Gewissheit der Alchemie. p. 288
l. Aus Fictulds Turba Philosophorum. p. 15
2. Aus der fürstlichen Rose von Jericho, oder Moses Testament. p. 39
3. Aus Elias Artista Geheimnis vom Salze. p. 47
4. Einzehne Zeugnisse aus Fictulds Probiersteine. p. 71
5. Aus Johann Ferdinand von Freydau Sendschreiben. p. 75
6. Aus desselben Licht des Lichts. p. 95
7. Aus Leonhards delarvatione Tincturae Philosophorum. p. 122
8. Aus v. Loen Geheimniss der Verwesung und Verbrennung aller Dinge. p. 137
9. Aus dem mikrokosmischen Vorspiel eines neuen Himmels und der neuen Erde. p. 167
10. Aus des Grafen Marsciano Sendschreiben und hermetischen Untersuchung. p. 202
16. Vigilantus de MONTE CUBITI. Dreyfaches Hermetisches Kleeblat, in welchem begriffen dreyer vornehmen Philosophorum herrliche Tractätlein. Das erste von dem geheimen waaren Saltz der Philosophorum, und allgemeinen Geist der Welt, H. Nuysement aus Lothringen. Das andere Mercurius Redivivus Unterricht von dem Philosophischen Stein so wol den weisen als rohten aus dem Mercurio zu machen, Samuelis Nortoni sonsten Rinville. Und das dritte von den Stein der Weisen Marsilii Ficini Florentini, welche ehedessen von denen Authoribus in Frantzösischer und Lateinischer Sprach beschrieben, nunmehro aber allen Liebhabern, so der Lateinischen Sprach unkündig, zum besten, in unser Teutsche Muttersprach übersetzet, und mit einem zweyfachen Register zum Druck verfertiget. Durch Vigilantium de Monte Cubiti. Nürnberg, In Verlegung Michael und Johann Friderich Endtern, 1667.
l'une des gravures de Dreyfaches Hermetisches Kleeblat
8°. Pp. [24, engraved title containing emblematica sorrel included] 448. Index . 16 symbolic engravings. Nuysement, p. 1; Norton, p. 209; Ficinus, p. 373. Herrn de Nuysement Tractat von dem waaren geheimen Saltz der Philosophorum, und von dem allgemeinem (sic) Geist der Welt. Zu eigäntzung dei lang-begehrten dritten Principii, Michaëlis Sendivogii, welches er vom Saltze verbeissen hat.
Mercurius Redivivus oder Unterricht, wie man den Philosophischen Stein, sowol den weissen, als den rohten, aus dem Mercurio machen solle. Erstlich von weiland Samuele Nortono, sonsten Rinvillo Briszollensi angefangen. Nachmals mit Fleifs verbessert und vermehret, durch Edmundum Deanum von Oxonien, Doctorem der Artzney, zu Eborach in Engelland. Nunmehr aber wegen seiner grossen Nutzbarkeit dieser Kunst Liebhabern, die der Lateinischen Sprach unkündig sind, zum besten aufs fleissigste in die Teutsche Muttersprach versetzet worden. Bey welchem Ttractätlein (sic) zu finden, wie man beede Fermenta, so wol zum weisen, aus der Luna oder dem Silber, als zum robten aus Sole oder dem Golde machen solle.
This is in eight books, each of which has a short title in Latin and German [les n° se rapportent aux illustrations et une mention spéciale doit être apportée au n°3 d' l'Alchymiae dont nous développons le sens dans le commentaire de l'Aurora Consurgens, à propos des Essais sur la symbolique de l'Esprit de Jung. L'ensemble de ces écrits apparaît sous forme d'un volume de huit petits traités en latin, imprimés à Francfort en 1630 par William Fitzer sous le titre de Mercurius redivivus. Une version en allemand est incluse aussi dans la compilation Eines wahren Adepti besondere Geheimnisse von der Alchymie, 1757. On notera que le n°4 du Venus Vitriolata n'est autre que le n°1 du Mercurius Redivivus : ]:
1. Herrn de Nuysement Tractat von dem waaren geheimen Saltz der Philosophorum, und von dem allgemeinem Geist der Welt. Zu ergäntzung des lang-begehrten dritten Principii, Michaelis Sendivogii, welches er vom Saltze verheissen hat. p. 1
frontispice du Traité de l'Harmonie et du Sel de Nuisement
2. Mercurius Redivivus oder Unterricht, wie man den Philosophischen Stein, sowol den weissen, als den rohten, aus dem Mercurio machen solle. Erstlich von weiland Samuele Nortono, sonsten Rinvillo Briszollensi angefangen. p. 209
a. Mercurius redivivus, seu Modus conficiendi lapidem philosophicum tàm album quàm rubeum è mercurio : 1 - 2 - 3 - 4 - 5 - p. 211 ;
b. Catholicon physicorum, seu Modus conficiendi tincturam physicam & alchymicam : 1, 2, 3 - p. 231 ;
c. Venus vitriolata, in elixer conuersa, nec non Mars victoriosus, seu Elixerizatus, siuè Modus conficiendi lapidem philosophicum tàm è enere, siuè cupro, quàm à Marte, siuè Chalybe : 1, 2, 3, 4 - p. 247 ;
d. Elixer, seu medicina vitae, seu Modus conficiendi verum aurum, et argentum potabile : 1 , p. 263 ;
e. Saturnus saturatus dissolutus, et coelo restitutus, seu Modus componendi lapidem philosophicum tam album, quam rubeum à plumbo, ac etiam eadem / olim a Samuele Nortono ... inchoatus ; nunc vero edente Edmundi Deani ... auctus, illustratus & perfectus : 1, 2, 3 , p. 283 ;
f. Metamorphosis lapidum ignobilium in gemmas quasdam pretiosas, sev Modus transformandi perlas parvas, et minutulas, in magnas & nobiles, p. 313 ;
g. Alchymiae complementum et perfectio sev Modus et processus augumentandi, sive multiplicandi omnes lapides & elixera in virtute : 1, 2, 3 - p. 329 ;
h. Auslegung der duncklen Wörter, Namen and seltzamen Reden, so in dieser Kunst geführet werden, [Tractatulus de antiquorum scriptorum considerationibus in alchymia] p. 355 ;
3. Marsilii Ficini Büchlein vom Stein der Weisen, erstlich von dem Authore selbsten in Lateinischer Sprach beschrieben, anjetzo aber allen Leibhabern und des Lateins unkündigen zulieb in die Teutsche Muttersprach übersetzet. p. 373
Ferguson: The name of the present editor appears in Lenglet Dufresnoy's list, with an inaccurate and ignorant transcription of the title; it is given by Gmelin; by Ladrague, and by Kopp, but nothing to said as to the true name of the editor. Deane's or Norton's tracts were reprinted a Dresden, in 1757, under the title Eines wahren Adepti besondere Geheimnisse von der Alchymie. See under H. (C.G,).
Samuel Norton was the son of Sir George Norton and great-grandson of Thomas Norton (q.v.). He was born in 1548, studied at St. John's College, Cambridge, and in 1584 succeeded to bis father's estate of Abbots Leigh in Somerset. He occupied several public positions, and died about 1604. The notice given by Jöcher is erroneous. He has put Brüssel for Bristol ! His works were edited by Edmund Dean or Deane, who, as Wood informs us, was son of Gilbert Deane of Saltonstall in Yorkshire, and brother of Richard, Bishop of Ossory, and was born In Yorkshire. In 1591 he entered Merton College, Oxford, in his nineteenth year, took a degree in Arts, retired to St. Allan's Hall, studied medicine and graduated in it, returned to York, and practised there. He wrote: Spadacrene Anglica or the English Spaw, being a brief Treatise ot the acid or tart Fountain in the Forest of Knaresborough in Yorkshire, London, 1626. Some, who have referred to Norton, seem to think that only ' Mercurius redivivus,' and perhaps one or two others, were edited by Deane, but it is plain from the preceding that he had the whole set through his hands, and it even looks as if he not only edited Norton's tracts but had completed them, for what else can be understood, by the expression 'inchoatus' as applied to Norton's share in them? Some have gone the length of ascribing them to Deane entirely, while Schmieder, who is never at a loss for a bold, not to say a reckless, suggestion, calmly states that Deane was a name assumed by Norton ! Deane speaks in high terms of Norton, and compares him to Cabot, another Bristolian. [Samuel Norton ne doit pas être confondu avec Thomas Norton et Josaphat Friedreich Hautnorthon, cf. l'Enfant hermaphrodite du Soleil et de la Lune.]
[on compte de fait plusieurs ouvrages édités par Edmund Deane ; les n° se rapportent aux illustrations et une mention spéciale doit être apportée au n°3 d' l'Alchymiae dont nous développons le sens dans le commentaire de l'Aurora Consurgens, à propos des Essais sur la symbolique de l'Esprit de Jung. L'ensemble de ces écrits apparaît sous forme d'un volume de huit petits traités en latin, imprimés à Francfort en 1630 par William Fitzer sous le titre de Mercurius redivivus. Une version en allemand est incluse aussi dans la compilation Eines wahren Adepti besondere Geheimnisse von der Alchymie, 1757.. On notera que le n°4 du Venus Vitriolata n'est autre que le n°1 du Mercurius Redivivus :
17. Deutsches theatrum chemicum, auf welchem der berühmtesten Philosophen und Alchymisten Schrifften, die von dem Stein der Weisen, von Verwandlung der schlechten Metalle in bessere, von Kräutern, von Thieren, von Gesundund Sauer-Brunnen, von warmen Bädern, von herrlichen Artzneyen und von andern grossen Geheimnüssen der Natur handeln, welche bisshero entweder niemahls gedruckt, oder doch sonsten sehr rar worden sind, vorgestellet werden durch Friederich Roth-Scholtzen. Felsecker, Nürnberg. 1728-30.
frontispice du Deutsches Theatrum Chemicum de Friederich Roth-Scholz, 1728
1. Iohann. Franc. Buddei, Untersuchung von der Alchemie.
2. Georg Phillip Nenters, Bericht von der Alchemie.
3. Wilhelm, Freyherrn von Schröderns, Unterricht vom Goldmachen.
4. Treuhertzige Warnungs-Vermahnung an alle Liebhaber der wahren Natur gemesen Alchemiae Transmutatoriae von einem Liebhaber der Wahrheit aufgesetzt.
5. Leonhard Müllners, Grundlicher Bericht von der Generation und Geburt der Metallen.
6. Bericht von der Generation und Regeneration der Metallen.
7. Iosaphat Friedrich Hautnorthons, oder Johann Harprechts, dritter Anfang der Mineralischen Dinge, vom Philosophischen Saltz.
8. Chrysogoni de Puris, Pontische oder Mercurial-Wasser der Weisen.
9. Eugenii Philalethae, Euphrates oder die Wasser vom Aufgang.
10. Iohann. Friedrich Helvetii, guldenes Kalb. [Vitulus Aureus : cf. Musaeum Hermeticum, 20 et Bibliotheca Curiosa Chemica, vol. I, 9 ]
11. Iohann Pordaedsche, Philosophisches Send-Schreiben vom Stein der Weisheit.
12. Iohannis de Monte Raphaim Vorbothe der am Philosophischen Himmel hervor brechenden Morgenröthe.
13. Fr. Basilii Valentini, Triumph-Wagen des Antimonii, mit Theodori Kerckringii Anmerckungen. Deme noch vorgesetzet Hrn. D. Georg Wolffgang Wedels, berühmten Professoris zu Jena An. 1704. in einem Programmate vom Basilio Valentino ertheilte Nachricht und Recommendation.
14. Bened. Nicolai Petraei, Critique über die Alchymistischen Schrifften.
15. Bedencken über die Frage, ob die Transmutatio Metallorum möglich sey.
16. Responsum einer berühmten Juristen-Facultät: da sich ein Ehemann belehren lässet: Ob ihm das seiner Frauen in Gold transmutirte silberne Gefässe nicht zukomme? oder doch wenigstens der usus fructus davon?
17. Julii Sperberi, Isagoge, d.i. Einleitung zur wahren Erkänntnuss des Drey-einigen Gottes und der Natur. Worinnen auch viele vortreffliche Dinge von der Materia des Philosophischen Steins enthalten sind.
18. Pantaleonis, Tumulus Hermetis Apertus: oder: das eröffnete Hermetische Grab.
19. Pantaleonis Examen Alchymisticum, oder: Alchymistische Prüffung.
20. Pantaleonis Bifolium Metallicum, das ist: Metallisches Zweyblat.
21. Joel Langellotts, Send-Schreiben von der Chymie; samt der Philosophischen Mühle in Kupffer gestochen.
22. Johann Heinrich Rudolffs, Unterricht von der Amalgamation.
23. Johann Heinrich Rudolffs, Extra-Ordinair Bergwerck, durch die Amalgamation mit Quecksilber.
24. Johannis Garlandii, seu Hortulani, Compendium Alchimiae, oder Erklärung der Smaragdischen Tafel Hermetis Trismegisti.
25. Tabula Smaragdina Hermetis.
26. M. Arnoldi de Villanova Erklärung über den Commentarium Hortulani.
27. Send-Schreiben von der Vortrefflichkeit der Chymischen Schrifften Petri Joh. Fabri.
28. Bartholomaei Korndorffers Beschreibung der Edelgesteine.
29. D. Joh. Joachim Bechers Oedipus Chymicus, oder Chymischer Rätseldeuter.
30. Joannes d'Espagnets geheime Werck der Hermetischen Philosophie.
31. Rogerii Baconis, Chymisch- und Philosophische Schrifften... Nebst einer Vorrede, darinnen von dem Leben und Schrifften Rogerii Baconis Nachricht gegeben wird.
32. Rogerii Baconis, Radix Mundi, oder Wurtzel der Welt, verdeutscht nach dem Englischen von William Salmon.
33. Rogerii Baconis, Medulla Alchimiae, darinnen vom Stein der Weisen, und von der vornehmsten Tincturen des Goldes, Vitriols und Antimonii, gehandelt wird. Item eine Alchymische Epistel, so Alexandro zugeschrieben worden. Vormals durch Joachim Tanckium... Nun aber, durch Friederich Roth-Scholtzen... publiciret...
34. Rogerii Baconis, Spiegel der Alchemie.
35. Rogerii Baconis, Tractat vom Golde, oder gründlicher Bericht von der Bereitung des Philosophischen Steins, so aus dem Golde gemacht wird.
36. Rogerii Baconis, Tractat von der Tinctur und Oel des Vitriols.
37. Rogerii Baconis, Tractat von der Tinctur und Oel des Antimonii, von der wahren und rechten Bereitung des Spiessglases, menschliche Schwach-heiten und Kranckheiten dadurch zu heilen, und die imperfecten Metallen in Verbesseerung zu setzen.
38. Epistel oder Send-Brief des Kayser Alexandri, welcher zu erst in Griechenland und Macedonian regieret hat, auch ein Kayser der Persianer gewesen: Darinnen der Stein der Weisen durch ein Gleichnüss und Parabel sehr lustig und wohl beschrieben erkläret wird.
39. Rogerii Baconis, Angli, Send-Schreiben von geheimen Würckungen der Kunst und der Natur, und von der Nichtigkeit der falschen Magiae.
40. Rogerii Baconis, Epistola de secretis operibus Artis & Naturae, & de nullitate Magiae. Opera Johannis Dee... e pluribus exemplaribus castigata olim, & ad sensum integrum restituta (in Latin).
41. Responsum ad Fratres Rosaceae Crucis illustres (in Latin).
42. Gloria Mundi, sonsten Paradeiss-Tafel.
43. Ein ander Tractätlein gleiches Innhalts mit dem vorigen.
44. Alethophili Philosophische Betrachtung von Verwandelung der Metallen.
45. Warnungs-Vorrede wider die Betrüger, welche ein Anonymus A. 1670 und A. 1691 in Hamburg des Johannis Ticinensis, Anthonii de Abbatia und Eduardi Kellaei Chymischen Schrifften vorgesetzet hat.
46. Johannis Ticinensis, Chymische Schrifften; oder Process vom Stein der Weisen.
47. Anthonii de Abbatia, ausgefertigtes Send-Schreiben von dem Stein der Weisen, und von Verwandelung der Metallen.
48. Anthonii de Abbatia Epistolae duae, scrutatoribus artis Chymicae mandatae. Accessit Arcanum a quodam Philosopho Anonymo deductum (in Latin).
49. Eduardi Kellaei, Buch von dem Stein der Weisen... Nun aber nebst einer Vorrede von dem Leben und Schrifften Kelläi zum Druck befordert.
50. Fragmenta quaedam Edu. Kellaei ex ipsius Epistolis excerpta.
51. Eduardi Kellaei, Via Humida, sive Discursus de Menstruo Vegetabili Saturni (in Latin).
52. Aula Lucis, oder: das Hauss des Lichts durch S.
18. ARS CHEMICA, quod sit licita recte exercentibus, probationes doctissimorum lurisconsultorum. Septem Tractatus seu Capitula Hermetis Trismegisti, aurei. Eiusdem Tabula Smaragdina, in ipsius sepulchro inuenta, cum commento Hortulani Philosophi. Studium Consilii Coniugij de massa Solis & Lunae. Opvscula, studiosis arts secretissimae, ut sumrnè necessaria, ita lectu iucundissima. Antehac typis non excusa.
frontispice de l'Ars Chemica, Strasbourg, 1566
8°. Pp. 263. After the title comes a vindication of Alchemy, pp. 3-6 ; Hermes, pp. 7-31; Tabula Smaragdina, pp. 32-.3; Hortulanos, pp. 33-47; Studium Consilii Conjugii . . . pp. 48-263. Colophon: Argentorati excudebat Samuel Emmel. Anno M.D.CXVI.
19. Ginæceum chimicum; seu, congeries plurium anthorum qui in artem hermeticam de lapide philosophico scriptserunt, quorum tractatus nec in Theatro, aut alio volumine usque adhuc simul impressi fuerunt... Volumen primum. 8° Lugduni: Jean de Trevis 1679
pp.  727 [1 blank]
1. Geber, Summa perfectionis magisterii. p. 1
2. Geber, Liber investigationis. p. 164
3. Georgius Horn, Medulla Alchimiae in aphorismos contracta ex Gebro desumpta. p. 179
4. Joannes Braceschus, De alchemia dialogi duo: Prior Gebri sensum explicans. p. 212
5. Alter lignum vitae nominatus, Raimundi doctrinam, & misteria occulta artis pandens. p. 332
6. Brevis libellus minera philosophorum dictus. p. 349
7. Libellus alter, sive restrictus theoricus, Radius ab Umbra vocatus cum eiusdem authoris brevi dialogo. p. 368
8. Oliverius de Oliveriis, Tractatus duo, Unus de lapide philosophico conficiendo, Alter de auro potabili. p. 415
9. Panthaleon, Bifolium metallicum, sive medecina duplex pro metallis & hominibus. p. 453
10. Joannes Belye, Tractatus singularis chimicus. p. 495
11. Bernardus Trevirensis, Tractatus de lapide philosophorum. p. 503
12. Quibus appendicis loco accessit:
H. Aquilae Thuringi ex Manuscripto doctrina. p. 510
Ex Epistola Eduardi Kellaei. p. 512
Fragmentum ex Theoriis Joannis Isaaci Hollandi. p. 513
13. Liber de principiis naturalibus, & principiis artis. p. 517
[Cet ouvrage est contenu dans deux autres complilations sous le titre de : Aureus Liber de principiis Naturae et Artis, woraufs die Wissenschafft der Primae Materiae erkennet, und das Universale Generalissimum Philosophorum erlanget werden möge, cf. Der Hermetische Philosophus, 1709, p. 1 et Hermetisches Museum, 1785, iii, p. 151]
14. Joannes Dausten, Visio in Chimicam. p. 548
15. Avicenna, De mineralibus liber parvus. p. 554
16. Alexander Rex, Epistola abditam Philosophici lapidis compositionem declarans. p. 561
17. Opusculum philosophici lapidis secreta methaphorice describens. p. 566
18. Merlinus Allegoria profundissimum Lapidis arcanum perfecte continens. p. 569
19. Recaidib, Veradianus, Rhodianus, & Khalid Rex Persarum: Fragmentum de Materia Phisici Lapidis. p. 573
20. Lux obnubilata suapte natura refulgens: vera de lapide Philosophico Theorico, pars prima. p. 579
20. De Alchimia opuscula complura veterum philosophorum quorum catalogum sequens pagella indicabit ... 2 partes in 1... Rosarium philosophorum. Secunda pars alchimiæ de lapide philosophico vero modo præparando...Iacobus, Frankfurt. 1550. 168 + 96 folios.
frontispice du De Alchimia Opuscula Complura
[notez que l'image est remployée pour partie de la 11e figure et surtout de la 18e figure du Rosarium Philosophorium]
1. Correctio Fatuorum. f. 1
2. Clangor Buccinæ. f. 19
3. Semita Semitæ. f. 69
4. Avicenna : De tinctura metallorum. f. 75
5. Raimundus (Lullius) : Compendium animæ transmutationis. f. 92
6. Scala Philosophorum. f. 101
7. Opus mulierum, Tractatulus, sive ludus puerorum. f. 135
8. Raimundus Lullius : De Tincturis compendium, seu Vade Mecum. f. 153
9. Aristoteles : Tractatulus de Practica lapidis Philosophici. f. 162
[une main a ajouté : X. Rosarium Philosophorum cum figuris - XI. Alchymia Gebri cum figuris - XII. Rogerij Bachonis Speculum Alchimiae. Cf. 2 et 2 bis -]
frontispice du Rosarium Philosophorum, Francoforti, Cyriaci Iacobi, 1550
Ferguson : The 'Rosarium Philosophorum' describes the preparation of the 'stone ' in a series of chapters or sections, each having a symbolic picture, most of them accompanied by explanatory verses In German, and Illustrated by parallel passages from the leading authorities so that the whole forms a' Rosary of selected blossoms. It was a favourite work, and copies in manuscript are not uncommon, sometimes with the pictures coloured. Besides the German version of Morgenstem, there is a translation in French, which, so for as I know, was not printed, but of which I have seen a copy in manuscript with the pictures finely executed with pen and ink. Schmiederf (p. 236) refers to a 'Rosarius' in French, by George Aurach, which he seems to think is different from the above ' Rosarium,' but, from his description, it is apparently merely a French translation of it and not an original work, and is the same as that just mentioned, in which manuscript, however, Aurach's name does not occur. The 'Rosarium Philosophorum' is sometimes called 'magnum,' to distinguish it from the 'Rosarius' of Arnaldus, which is different and which contains no pictures [cf. Sommaire du Rosaire par Lacidius, in Verae Alchimiae de Gratarole]. From both of these again is to be distinguished the 'Rosarius Minor. [figure dans l'Alchemia de 1541, p. 309, dans le Theatrum Chemicum, 1659, ii, p. 466 et aussi dans le Verae Alchimiae de Gratarole, 1561, i, p. 222]' This tract, having been once ascribed to Richardus Anglicus by Borel, has continued to be called his by Gmelin, Schmieder, and Kopp. This, however, is inaccurate, for in the very first issue of the tract, that of 1541, and in the subsequent reprints, the author is said to be doubtful : Rosarius Minor . . . Incerti quidem, sed harum tamen rerum non imperiti authoris.' [inséré dans le De Alchimia] Naxari (Della Tramutatione Metallica Segni tre 1599, p. 143) quotes a 'Rosarius philos.' and a 'Rosarius maior,' but from such imperfect titles it is impossible to draw any conclusions as to the writings he intended.
illustrations tirées du Rosarium Philosophorum : 1 - 2 - 3 - 4 - 5 - 6 - 7 - 8 - 9 - 10 - 11 - 12 - 13 - 14 - 15 - 16 - 17 - 18 - 19 - 20 - 21 - [la version que possède l'UCM de Madrid est annotée d'une main française]
21. Medicina Practica: or, Practical Physick. Shewing The Method of Curing the most Usual Diseases happening to Human Bodies... To which is added, The philosophick Works of Hermes Trismegistus, Kalid Persicus, Geber Arabs, Artefius Longævus, Nicholas Flammel, Roger Bachon, and George Ripley. All Translated out of The best Latin Editions, into English; and Carefully Claused, or divided into Chapters, and Sections, for the Pleasant Reading, and easier Understanding of those Authors. Together with a singular comment upon the first book of Hermes, the most Ancient of Philosophers. The whole Compleated in Three Books. By William Salmon, Professor of Physick... 8° London: Printed by W. Bonny, for Tho. Howkins and John Harris 1692
portrait de William Salmon (1644-1713) par R. White
[à noter que sous le portrait figure le prénom Guglielmo - Guillaume - or, nulle part nous n'avons pu trouver d'indication faisant état que William Salmon portait comme second prénom Guglielmo ; il faut en conclure que le site scientific-identity s'est trompé en attribuant ce portrait à William alors qu'il s'agit de celui du compilateur de la première version de la Bibliothèque des Philosophes Chymiques]
Ferguson : William Salmon was born a June, 1644, according to the portrait in his ' Ars Anatomica,' but that prefixed to the fifth edition of the Polygraphice, 1685, states that he was in his 27th year in 1675, which would imply that be was born in 1648. There is no reliable information as to his early life and education, or as to bow be became a doctor, whether licensed or unlicensed. He travelled, and then settled in London, where be engaged In the form of medical practice common at the time, including astrology, preparation of secret remedies and alchemy. He wrote a great deal on medical topics, and compiled works on botany, the pharmacopoeia, and anatomy, medical and chirurgical observations, and the above collection of alchemists. He took part also in the controversy about the dispensaries and wrote a ' Rebuke to the authors of a Blew-Book; . . . written In Behalf of the Apothecaries and Chirurgians of the City of London.' London, 1698, 8°. pp. 32. He resided at various places in London, indications of which can be gathered from his books. Thus in 1671 be had his abode in Smithfield, near St. Bartholomew's Hospital, in 1681 his dwelling was at the Red Balls in Salisbury Court, off Fleet Street. In 1685 he was 'Professor of Physick, living at the Blew Balcony by FIeet-Ditch, near Holborn-Bridge,' or 'at the Blew Balcony by the Ditch-side near Holbourn-.bridge.' In 1692, the name of his house seems to have been changed, for be was then ' living at the Blue-Ball by the Ditch-side, near Holborn Bridge.' On 34 Oct., 1700, he dates the eighth edition of the Potygraphice from his house 'at Black-Fryers Stairs,' and in the Rebuke he is ' living near Black-Fryers Stairs. Some of his books went through a good number of editions notwithstanding the despite shown him by some of bis contemporaries, as by James Younge, and one of the most popular was his Polygraphice, a collection of receipts on the fine and practical arts, first published In 1672. Of this book there were numerous editions, of some of which I have given details elsewhere. The second edition in four books appeared in 1073. the fifth in seven books, in 1685, with a badly -executed portrait signed: W. Sherwin ad vitam sculpt.,' the eighth, much enlarged, in 1701, with a characteristic portrait signed: M. v. Gucht, Sculpt. Salmon died in 1713. If one may judge by bis library Salmon must have been a man of erudition, and of wide and liberal tastes; he must also have been a thorough-going bibliophile and possessed of means sufficient to gratify his acquisitiveness. Part of bis library was sold, and from the auction catalogue of it, one gathers a clear notion of its contents. It is arranged according to size, and broadly according to subject, and the catalogue was drawn up by Thomas Balland The tide-page gives the best idea of how the collection was regarded:
'Bibliotheca Salmoaeana, Pars Prima. Or, a Catalogue of Part of the Library of the Learned William Salmon, M.D. Deceas'd. Consisting of many very Valuable and Uncommon Books, in several Faculties and Languages. Chiefly, in Physitck. Chirurgery, Chyrmistry, Divinity, Philology, History, and other polite parts of Learning, most of the Classlcks, Notis variorum, and other choice editions, well Bound and very Fair, several being of the large Paper. Which will begin to be Sold by Auction at St. Paul's Coffee-House, next Door to Dean's Court the West End of St. Pauls, on Monday the Sixteenth Day of November, 1713: beginning every Evening at Five of the clock till the Sale is finished. By Thomas Ballard, Bookseller, at the Rising Sun in Little-Britain. Where Catalogues may be had; as also of Mr. King In Westminster-Hall..., Price One Shilling, 8°, pp.  119 [1 blank]. The preface throws some light on Salmon himself: 'The following Catalogue contains Part of the Library of the Famous Doctor William Salmon, deceas'd, whose Character and Abilities an sufficiently made known to the World by the great Number of Elaborate Works set forth by him; and Indeed our Proprietor's jilomaqeia. his Extraordinary Love of Books, and his Singular Judgment in the Choice of them, are transcendently remarkable, since he has been for many Years taken up in mailing so large a Collection, which apparently to as valuable, both for Quality, Condition, and Number of Volumes, especially in Folio, as any that ever was transported to an Auction-Box, or Sold sub ictu Mallei: for here the Ingenious will not only find a Rich Treasure of Books to several Languages relating to the Noble Art of Physick, but even a mighty Stock in all other Faculties, that constitute the respective Branches of Polite Literature, viz. Theology, Law, Philosophy, Philology, History, Mathematicks, Classicks. &c.. besides great Variety of curious add uncommon Tracts on Miscellaneous Subjects, and a very fine Collection of English Books In the same Faculties ; so that to say more of this incomparable Library would seem to derogate from the Value of it, and from the Merit of its late indefatigable Owner; we shall therefore leave the Whole to the View of such Gentlemen as are really jilobibloi, and disposed to purchase these valuable Pieces when the Sale comes on.'
The catalogue contains 919 lots in folio. 866 in quarto, and 1789 in 8° and 12°, or 3574 in all. I do not know if there was any subsequent sale. It has become the custom to call Salmon the compiler of the 'Bibliothèque des Philosophes Chimiques' which appeares at Paris in 1672-73. That work has the name 'le Sieur S.' on the title-page as the editor's, but I do not know what justification there is first, for interpretting the initial as meaning Salmon, as Kopp does : ' Der Pariser Arzt Salmon,' he calls him; and secondly, for identifying the author with William Salmon of the Blew Balcony. How did it come about that he first made this alchemical collection In French, and then twenty-years after brought out a much smaller collection appended to another and quite different work ? Still less reason there seems to me to be in connecting William Salmon with the ' Dictionnaire hermétique,' 1695.
frontispice du Medicina Practica, London, 1692
- figures contenues dans l'ouvrage : quatre se rapportent aux Figures Hiéroglyphiques du pseudo Flamel ; deux se rapportent au Liber Fornacum du pseudo Geber -
The contents are as follows:
The preface contains a short account of each of the alchemical authors contained in the book, and this is followed by a list of Salmon's own writings, published and unpublished.
- Practical Physick, pp. 176,
- The second book has a title, dated 1691, and another, dated, 1692, p. 177 contains:
1. Hermes Trismegistus: The Golden Work, pp. 179-283, including the 'Smaragdine Table,' p. 258.
2. Kalid, Secreta Alchymiae, pp. 284-334.
3. Geber, The Sum, pp. 335-472, with four plates of apparatus. 1 - 2 -
The third book has a title, dated 1692, p. 473. and contains:
4. Artefius Longaevus, Liber Secretus, pp. 433-520 (sic for 475, &c.), in Latin and English.
5. Nicholas Flammel, The Hieroglyphicks, pp. 531-584, with four plates. 1 - 2 - 3 - 4
6. Roger Bachon, Radix Mundi, pp. 585-620.
7. Roger Bachon, Speculum Alchimiae, pp. 621-642.
8. George Ripley, The Marrow of Alchymie, pp. 643-696.
The remainder copies were reissued with a new title-page:
Medicina Practica: or, the Practical Physician: Shewing the True Method of Curing the most Usual Diseases Incident to Humane Bodies, viz.: All Sorts of Aches and Pains, ... To which is added the Chymical Works of Hermes Trismegistus, . . . And an Account of their Lives. . . . By William Salmon, M.P. (sic) . . . London Printed and Sold by Edmund Curll at the Peacock without Temple-Bar, 1707. Price 5£. In this reissue the title-pages of Books II. and III. have been cancelled.
22. Thesaurinella Olympica Aurea Tripartita, Das ist: Ein himmlisch güldenes Schatzkämmerlein, von vielen aufserlesenen Kleinodien zugerüstet, darinn der uhralte grosse und hochgebenedeyte Charfunckel-stein und Tinctur-schatz verborgen. In drey unterschiedliche Cellulas aufsgetheilet. Allen Liebhabern der himmlischen Warheit, und Hermetischen Philosophey, so den Grund der Hochmagischen Tinctur suchen, zu gute: Wie auch zu Beförderung der edlen Alchimey anjetzo eröffnet und publicirt durch Benedictum Figulum Utenhoviatem Franc. Poëtam L. C. Theologum, Theosophum, Philosophum, Medicum, Eremitam.' D. T. P. D. G. N. M DCLXXXII. Franckfurt am Mayn, Jn Verlegung Georgii Wolffii Büchhändl. in Hamburg in S. Joh. Kirchen, Gedruckt durch Johann Görlin.
8°. Pp. [16. including frontispiece] 402 [should be 392, as pp. 225-234 are dropped] The vignette represents a rayed sun for gold, surrounded by the symbols for silver, iron, mercury, lead, tin and copper. The book contains the following tracts:
1. Secretum Magicum D. Philippi Theophrasti Paracelsi von dreyen gebenedeyeten Magischen Steinen, p. 1.
2. Bernhard, Graf von der Marck mid Ternis (sic) Symbolum Apostolicum Cabalistisch erkläret und mit dem grossen uhralten Stein der Weisen verglichen, p. 42.
3. Vincent Koffskhy: Tinctur-Wurtzel, und auch Materia Prima defs gebenedeyten uhralten Steins der Weisen, p. 52.
4. Alphidius: Kurtzer Bericht und Parabolisch Tractätlein, p. 66.
5. Corollaria quaedam in nostram Thesaurinellam.Processus Universalis Viae, Tincturae Rubedinis & Albedinis, Alchymicae artis: Mngistri Nicolai Melchioris, . . . sub Forma Missae, p. 69.
6. Carmina auf das Philosophische Werck, 74.
Thesaurinellae . . . Pars II. Genandt Schola Hermetica, darinnen zu studieren, wie der Königliche, Orientalische, Durchleuchtende Rubin defs gebenedeyten Astralischen Magneten, defs Magischen und ChaldäischenTinctur-Steins zu erlangensey. p. 77 Contains:
7. Raymundus Lullius: Tractat vom Philosophischen Stein, p. 79.
8. Xamolxides: Tractatus Aureus quem Dyrrachium Philosophicum vocavit, p. 91.
9. Colloquium, p. 94.
10. Colloquium spiritus Mercurii cum Fratre Alberto Bayrs. p. 110. [See also HAUTNORTHON (J. F.), Lucerna Salis Philosophorum, 1658, p. 159].
11. Divi Leschi Genus Amo (M. Sendivogius): Colloquium Hermetico-Spagyricum, das ist: Ein wunderhöfliches, wolgegründetes Chymiscbes Gesprach zwischen der Natur, dem Mercurio, undeinem Alchymisten, p. 121.
Thesaurinellae . . . Pars III. Genandt und intitulirt. Lux in Tenebris Lucens Raymundi Lullii darinnen Bericht gethan wird, wie die höchste Geheimnüfs der Natur zu erforschen, und aus dem verborgenen am Liecht zu bringen nach Philosophischen Brauch . . . p. 142. Contains:
12. Raymundus Lullius: Tractatus de preparatione Lapidis Philosophici, p. 146.
13. Arcanum de Multiplicatione Philosophica in qualitate, p. 193.
Hortulus Olympicus Aureolus, Das ist: Ein himmlisches, güldenes, Hermetisches Lust-Gartlein, von allen und neuen Philosophis gepflantzet und gezielet, darinn zu finden, wie die Coelestivische, Edle, Hochgebenedeyte Scbwebelrofs und Scharlachblum defs hochgläntzenden und Tingirenden Carfunckelsteins (dadurch Menschliche, Metallische, und Vegetabilische Cörper ihre Renovation und höchste Perfection, oder Vollkommenheit erlangen mögen) zu brechen sey. Anjetzo allen Filiis Doctrinae Magyco-Spagyricae zu gutem eröffnet, geschenckt und publicirt. Durch Benedictum Figulum Utenhoviat. Fr. Poëtam L. C. Theologum, Theosophum, Philosophum, Medicum, Eremitam. D.T.P.D.G.N.
Anno TrIsMegIstae gratia Del, In toto orbe Chrlstlano genitae. Zum andern mal 1682. In Verlegung Georg Wolff. [p. 197].
14. Das Büchlein Theophrasti mit der Himmlischen Sackpfeiffen, p. 202.
15. Theophrasti Tractatus de Lapide Philosophorum, p. 209.
16. Caspar Hartung vom Hof, Beschreibung von der Bereitung defs gebenedeyten Steins, p. 245.
17. Eine warhaffte und einfältige Aufslegung der Schriften aller Philosophen von dem . . . Stein der Weisen, p. 264.
18. Ulrich Poysel: Spiegel der Alchymey. p. 277.
19. Georg Fueger: De Lapide Philosophorum, Theoria brevis, p. 300.
20. Practica vom Universal oder gebenedeyten Tinctur Stein der Allen Weisen. Rythmice gestellet, p. 307.
Paradisus Aureolus Hermeticus Fluens Nectare & Ambrosia, in cujus perlustratione sedula fidelis & ocularis offertur instructio, quomodo Aureola Hesperidum Poma, ab Arbore Benedicta Philosophica sint decerpenda: a variis Philosophis, tum veteribus tum modernis plantatus in gratiam et emolumentum filiorum Doctrinae Chemico Spagyricae (huc usque praeclusus) nunc reseratus & publici Juris factus, per Benedictum Figulum Utenhoviat. . . .
Anno TrIsMegIstI SpagyrI ArChIatrI nobIs DonatI, &c. De novo Impensis Georgi Wolffii ; 1682. [p. 317.]
21. Alphonsus, Rex Castellae: Liber Philosophiae Occultioris (praecipue Metallorum) profundissimus: Cui titulum fecit, Clavis Sapientiae, p. 322.
22. Aristoteles Alchymistes, Tractatus ad Alexandrum Magnum de Lapide Philosophorum, p. 356.
23. Epistola ad Hermannum Arcbiepiscopum Coloniensem, De Lapide Philosophico, p. 374.
24. Divi Leschi Genus Amo (M. Sendivogius), Dialogus Naturae, Mercurii et Alchymistae, p. 384,
The three tracts in the present collection had been published previously: Thesaurinella, Frankfurt a. M., 1608, 4°: Hortulus, Frankfurt, 1608, 4°; Paradisus, Frankfurt, 1600, 1608, 4°, and there was another work besides, Auriga benedictus spagyricus, Norimberg. 1609, 12°. In addition to these Gmelin quotes an edition of the Pandora, Strassburg, 1600, 8°, but that may be a misprint for 1608.
Ferguson : The author's name is said to be Benedict Töpfer, and he belonged to Utenhoven in Franconia, as he tells us. Schmieder thinks that his books had some circulation because they were in German and were not without humour. No notice of his life has been forthcoming, but his books are known, and Semler has drawn attention to a passage in the preface to the Thesaurinella, in which are adumbrations of the Rosicrucian ideas some years before their manifesto had been published.
23. Rosarium Novum Olympicum et Benedictum. Das ist: Ein newer Gebenedeyter Philosophischer Rosengart, darinnen vom aller weisesten König Salomone, H. Salomone Trismosino, H. Trithemio, D. Theophrasto, &c.gewiesen wirdt, wie der Gebenedeyte Guldene Zweig, vnnd Tincturschatz, vom vnverwelcklichen Orientalischen Baum der Hesperidum, vormittels Göttlicher Gnaden, abzubrechen vnd zu erlangen sey: Allen vnd jeden Filiis doctrine Hermeticae, vnd D. Theophrasticae Liebhabern zu gutem trewlich eröffnet in zwen Theilen. Pars Prima.Per Benedictum Figulum; Vtenhoviatem, Francum; Poëtam L. C. Theologum; Theosophum; Philosophum; Medicum Eremitam. T. M. Getruckt zu Basel, in verlegung des Autoris, Anno 1608.
4°. Pp.  83 [1 blank]. Diagrams in the text. Title red and black. The vignette is a rose bush or tree with the metals as flowers, surmounted by the sun.
Rosarii Novi Olympici et Benedicti, Pars Altera: In sich haltent ein Buch mit 32. Capiteln, Laurentii Venturae Veneti, Medicinae Doctoris, &c. Aufs dem Latein vertiert vnud trewlich verdolmetschet, in vnsert Teutschen Sprach vor nie gesehen, De Lapide Benedicto Philosophorum, &c. Interprete Benedicto Figulo, Vtenhoviale, Franco, Poëta L. C. Theologo; Theosopho ; Philosopho, Medico, Eremita. D. T. P. D. G. N. Getruckt zu Basel, in verlegung des Autoris. Anno BeneDICtI Regis & MagIstrI GratIae & bonItatis, &c.
4°. Pp. [15, 1 blank] 117  [1 blank]. The vignette is a figure in Roman dress. The chronogram stands for 1608.
The first part of this book consists of :
1. extracts from Salomon Trismosinus, Trithemius, p. 16;
2. Paracelsus, p. 33;
3. von Suchten, p. 56;
4. Tractalulus Rythmicus Novus vom Stein der Weysen, p. 58;
5. Aenigmata, p. 71;
6. Processus ad Lapidem Philosophorum Monachi cuiusdam anonymi, p. 79.
The second part is a translation of Ventura's work, De Lapide Philosophorum.
24. Pandora Magnalium Naturalium Aurea et Benedicta, de Benedicto Lapidis Philosoph. Mysterio. Darinnen Apocalypsis des Hocherleuchten Aegyptischen Königs vnd Philosophi, Hermetis Trismegisti, von vnserm Teutschen Hermete, dem Edlen, Hochthewrem Monarchen vnd Philosopho Trismegisto, A. Ph. Theophrasto Paracelso &c. Verdolmetschet: wie anch Tinctura Physicorum Paracelsica, mit einer Schönen Erklerung des auch Edlen vnd Hocherfahrnen Philosophi, Alexandri von Süchten, Utrijusque Medicine D. Sampt Seiner AL. V. S. angehengten 3. Vnderschiedlichen Tractetlein, so vor nie gesehen worden, wie auch Anderen Ejusdem materige Corollariis, wie sie nach der Vorredt Specifiret (sic) werden: Allen Filiis Doctrinae Henneticae zu nutz vnd gutem jetzo publiciret. Durch Benedictum Figulum; Utenhoviateni, Fr: P. L. C. T. T. P. M. E. D. T. P. D. G. N. Getruckt zu Strafsburg, inn Verlegung Lazari Zetzeners. 1608.
frontispice d'uné édition moderne du Pandora, etc.
8° Pp.  393 [1. 1 blank]. 1 woodcut. The vignette is a six-rayed star. In the centre circle is the symbol for Mercury, in the rays are the astronomical symbols for gold, silver, copper, lend, tin and iron. The book contains the following tracts:
1. Liber Apocalypseos Hermetis, Theo. Paracelso, interprete, De supremo Mundi Secreto, p. 1.
2. De Vera Medicina Alexandri à Suchten Elegia, Dialogus, Alexandri à Suchten, p. 49.
3. Ex libro de tribus Facultatibus Alexandri à Suchten, p. 112.
4. Explicatio Tincturae Physicorum Theophrasti Paracelsi, ab Alexandro à Suchten, p. 143.
5. Regulae seu Canones aliquot Philosophici de Lapide Philosophico, p. 216.
6. Tractätlein von Lapide Philosophorum Anonymi, p. 234.
7. Rythmi Germanici von diesem hogen Tincturwerck Anonymi Authoris, p. 263.
8. De Auro Potabili Theophrasti Paracelsi, p. 275.
9. Von der Krafft vnnd Würckung auch rechtem nutzlichem Gebrauch des herrlichen Antidoti so man Aurum Potabile nennet, p. 279.
25. HERMETISCHES Museum. Erster Theil. Alten Liebhabern der wahren Weisheit gewidmet von dem Herausgeber. Reval und Leipzig bey Albrecht und Compagnie . . . 8°. Pp. 192. The date has been torn off.
- Zweyter Theil. .. (date torn off). 8°. Pp. 190.
- Dritter Theil, 1785. 8°. Pp. 179 [1 blank].
- Vierter Theil, Leipzig, 1790, in Geislers, des jüngern, Verlagshandlung. 8°. Pp. vi. 170.
The date of parts I. and II. is 5782, which of course stands for 1782.
1. Warum gelangen nur wenige Menschen zum Meisterstük der königlichen Kunst ? eine Frage, beantwortet von einem ächten Maurer, I., p. 13.
2. Johann de Monte Raphaim. Vorbothe der am philosophischen Himmel hervorbrechenden Morgenräthe, I., p. 65.
3. P. A. Theophrasti geheimes und vollständiges Wünschhütlein, . . . mit einer Nachricht von des Verfassers Leben vermehrt von Sincero Aletophilo. Nach der Erfurter Ausgabe von 1738 abgedrukt, l., p. 111.
1. Johannis Augurelli Güldenes Vliefs und Golderzielungskunst . . . übersezt von M. Valentin Weigel ... abgedrukt nach der Hamburger Ausgabe vom Jahre 1716, II, p. 3
2. Reine Hermetische Wahrheit von einem unbekannten Verfasser, II., p. 143.
1. Schlüssel zur wahren Weisheit. III., p. 3.
2. Philadelphia oder brüderliehe Liebe von Irenaeus Philoctetes, III., p. 37.
3. Sendschreiben eines Adeplen. über das Geheimnis der grossen Kunst, aus Gelegenheit derjenigen Lehren abgefafst, die Aristaeus seinem Sohne, das philosophische Meisterstük betreffend hinterlassen hat. Der Name des Verfassers ist in diesem lateinischen Annagramma (sic) enthalten. Dives sicut Ardens, s. Sanctus Desiderius. zu Paris bey Lorenz D'Houry, 1688, III., p. 95.
4. Liber de Principiis Naturalibus et de principiis artis Chemicae. Incerto Authore, III. p. 151.
Die wahrhafte und vollkommene Bereitung des Philosophischen Steins der Brüderschaft aus dem Orden des Gülden, und Rosen-Creutzes ... Dabey angehänget die Gesetze oder Regeln, welche die gedachte Brüderschaft unter sich hält, denen Filiis Doctrinae zum Beslen publiciret, von S. R., iv. p. 1.
The 'Gesetze, 'p. 143.
26. DIVERS Traitez de la Philosophie Naturelle. Sçavoir, la Turbe des Philosophes, ou le code de vérité en l'Art. La Parole Délaissée de Bernard Trevisan. Les deux traitez de Corneille Drebel Flaman. Avec le Très-Ancien Duel des Chevaliers. Nouvellement traduits en François, par un Docteur en Médecine. A Paris, chez Jean d'Houry à l'Image S. Jean, au bout du
Pont-neuf, sur le Quay des Augustins. M.DC.LXXII. 12°. Pp. 298. [5, 1 blank].
1. La Turbe des Philosophes, p. 1.
2. La Parole Délaissée, Traité de Bernard Comte de la Marche Trevisane, p. 97.
3. Deux traitez philosophiques de Corneille Drebel, p. 175 :
I. De la Nature des Elemens, p. 191.Ferguson : Drebbel was born at Alkmaar in Northern Holland in 1572. Though only a pensant he was wealthy, but in the wars he was taken prisoner and lost his property. On being set free he came to London, where he died in 1634. He constructed a submarine boat in which he failed from Westminster to Greenwich, and he seems to have been an ingenious mechanician and maker of apparatus, and a clever optician, and he has been even credited, though inaccurately, with the invention of the thermometer. He discovered, in part accidentally, the lake formed when a tin salt is added to cochineal, which was used for dyeing scarlet, and as an alchemist he was in communication with Rudolph II. In the present work on the elements he describes experiments to illustrate the formation of the wind. His tracts were written in Dutch, and printed at Rotterdam In 1702. They were translated into Latin by Joachim Morsius (Hamburg), 1621: Geneva, 1628. The French translation appeared at Paris, 1673, 12°. Hoefer mentions a German translation, Erfurt, 1634, and Schmieder says it was reprinted in Kleeblatt's Chymische Tractätlein, Frankf. u. Leipz., 1768, 8°
II. De la Quinte Essence, p. 245
4. Le Très-Ancien Duel des Chevaliers ou Dialogue Chymique de la pierre physique, p. 275.
An edition of this collection seems to have come out at Paris, in 1618. Compare Schmieder, Geschichte der Alchemie. 1832, p. 234, No. 4.
27. OCCULTA Philosophia von den verborgenen Philosophischen Geheimnussen der heimlichen Goldblumen, vnd Lapidis Philosophonun, was derselbige: vnd wie zu Erlangung dessen zu procediren, aufsführlicher Bericht in einem Philosophischen Gepräch verfässet, sampt Der Schmaragd-Taflfel, Paraboln, Symbolis, vnd 18. sonderbaren Figuren, der hochberühmten Philosophen Hermeris Trismegisti, vnd F. Basilii Valentini durch welche diese Kunst der Philosophischen Goldblumen vollkomlich erkläret an Tag gegeben. Gedruckt zu Franckfurt am Mayn durch Johann Bringem. Anno M.DC.XIII
vignette de l'Occulta Philosophia
4°. Pp. (8] 78. Title red and black. Vignette: Senior and Adolphus with the tree of the metals between. 14 symbolic woodcuts.
- Das ersteTheil : Ein Colloquium Oder Gesprech zwischen eiene alten [Senior] vnd jungen Studenten [Adolphus], p. 1
- Das ander Theil : Aureliae Occultae Philosophorum, p. 47.
- Verba Hermetis in Pimandro, p. 49,
- Schmaragt Tafel Hermetis, p. 50.
- Symbolum Fratris Basilii Valentini, p. 52.
illustrations de l'ouvrage : 1 - 2 - 3 - 4 - 5 - 6 - 7 - 8 - 9 - 10 - 11 - 12 - 13 - [tirées de l'Azoth ou le Moyen faire l'or caché des philosophes, Paris, Perier, 1624]
Ferguson : The dedication to Ludwig Georg, Count of Stolberg, Königstein, Rochefort. Wernigeroda and Hohensteio, dated 8 January, 1613, is signed by Bringer, the printer. He says the collection was made by a diligent lover of the subject, so that it might be acquired without special trouble. A former owner has written; Dieser Tractat ist Echt und Recht; Sehr Rahr zu haben.
28. COLLECTANEA Chymica: A Collection of Ten Several Treatises in Chymistry, concerning the Liquor Alkahest, the Mercury of Philosophers, and other Curiosities worthy the Perusal. Written by Eir. Philaletha, Anonymus, Joh. Bapt Van-Helmont, Dr. Fr. Antonie, Bernhard Earl of Trevisan, Sir Geo. Ripley, Rog. Bacon. Geo. Starkey, Sir Hugh Piatt, and the Tomb of Semiramis, see more in the Contents. London, Printed for William Cooper, at the Pelican in Little Britain, 1684.
8°. Pp.  193 [4, i blank]; 32.
The tracts in this collection are as follows:
1. Eireneus Philaletha, Arcanum, or secret of the immortall Liquor Alkaest, p. 5.
2. Anonymus. Practice of Lights, p. 27.
3. Joh. Bapt. Van Helmont, Praecipiatum, p. 47.
4. Fr. Antonie, Aurum Potabile, p. 73.
5. Bernhard of Trevisan, Treatise, p. 83.
6. George Ripley. Bosome-book, p. 101.
7. Roger Bacon, Speculum Alchymiae, p. 125.
8. George Starkey, Oil of Sulphur-vive, p. 137.
9. Hugh Platts, Remedies against Famine, p. 153.
10. H. V. D., Tumba Semiramidis,
Ferguson : Notwithstanding the Latin titles the tracts are all in English, except the first, which is in both languages. Each tract has a title-page. In 1893, at London, appeared a volume entitled Collectanea Chymica; being certain select Treatises on Alchemy and Hermetic Medicine. The prefatory note states that the tracts were printed from a MS. belonging to the late Frederick Hockley, itself a transcript from an older work. No date is given for the MS., so that it is not possible to say whether or not it was taken from the present work. The 1803 edition contains the tract on the 'Alka. hbest,' Antonie's 'Aurum Potabile,' Starkey's 'Oil of Sulphur-Vive,' Ripley's ' Bosom book,' all as in the above; the others are omitted, but it has a tract ' On the stone of the philosophers,' and one on the ' Preparation of the Sophick Mercury,' which are not in the older edition.
29. AURIFONTINA Chymica: or, a Collection of fourteen small Treatises concerning the First Matter of Philosophers, for the discovery of their (hitherto so much concealed) Mercury. Which many have studiously endeavoured to hide, but these to make manifest, for the benefit of Mankind in general. London, Printed for William Cooper, at the Pelican in Little-Britain. 1680.
frontispice de l'Aurifontina Chymica, London, 1680
Small narrow 24°. Pp.  containing title, John Frederick Houpreght's dedication of the Hydropyrographum to Charles II., Contents, To the Reader. Text, pp. 372. Advertisement of Chemical books .
This curious and very rare little volume was probably compiled and edited by William Cooper, a well-known vendor of Alchemical books, and the author of the first catalogue of such books in England. The treatises contained are the following:
1. Hydropyrographum Hermeticum, or the Metallicick Water-fire, translated by J. F. Houpreght, p. 1.
2. The Privy Seal of Secrets, plainly discovering the first Matter of the Philosophers, p. 41.
3. A strange letter concerning an Adept, his curious Learning and vaster Treasure, from Frederick, Duke of Holsatia and Sleswick, p. 53.
4. Sir George Ripley's Treatise of Mercury, and the Philosophers stone, p. 69.
5. Colours to be observed in the operation of the Great Work of Philosophers, p. 93.
6. A plain and true Description of the Treasure of Treasures, or the Golden Medicine, p. 97.
7. A Treatise of the Philosophers Stone, the Blessed Manna, &c., with its wondrous Virtues and Use, both for the curing the Body of Man, and the making of precious Stones, p. 107.
8. Nic. Flammell, his Summary of Philosophy, or Short Treatise of the Philosophers Stone, p. 145.
9. Rayrn. Lullie's Clavicula, Apertorium, or little Key explaining all the rest of his Works, p. 163.
10. Secrets disclos'd of the Philosophers Stone, p. 180.
11. A Philosophical Riddle of Gold, in Verse, p. 185.
12. Item. Trevisan's Epistle to Thomas of Bononia, concerning the secret workings of Nature in the product of thing; p. 187.
13. Bern. Trevisan, his short Epistle Dedicatory before his Works, to the same man, p. 269.
14. A brief Preparation of the Philosophers Stone, for the conclusion of this Book. p. 271.
30. ERÖFFNETE Geheimnisse des Steins der Weisen oder Schatz-Kammer der Alchymie, darinnen die vortrefflichsten Schrifften derer berühmtesten alten und neuern Scribenten denen Liebhabern der Kunst dargestellet werden. Nebst vielen Kupfferstichen und andern dazu dienlichen Figuren. [Hamburg, Bey Christian Liebezeit in der Joh. Kirch, 1708-18.]
This is the Hamburg reprint of Trismosin’s Aureus vellus, 1598 (q.v.). Though the special titles are dated Harnburg, 1708, the general title-page is that of 1718. The five ‘Tractatus contain the following :
I. Trissmosinische Schrifften, p. 1.
II. Paracelsische Schrifften, p. 91. Korndorfferische Schrlfften, p. 129
1. Splendor Solis mit schönen Figuren, p. 163.
2. Spiegel der Alchymey Ulrici Poyselii, p. 214.
3. Clavis sampt seiner Declaration der Chymischen Handgriffen, p. 229.
4. AIlerley Particularia die Handtgriff zuer. lehrnen, p. 237.
5. Ein Tincktur oder Elixier eines unbekandten philosophi, p. 250.
6. Processus pro Tinctura auff den Mercurium Solis und Lunae, p. 256,
7. Modus procedendl in praeparatione lapidis philosophici, p. 258.
8. Dialogus philosophiae, p. 272.
9. Exemplum artls Philosophiae. Ein Exemplum der philosophischen Kunst, p. 278.
10. De lapide Philosophorum 12 capita incerti authoris, p. 281.
11. Vom Stein der Weisen ein schöner Process Episcopi Melchioris Brixiensis Card. Romae, etc., und ein Philosophisches Werck und Gespräch von dem Gelben und Rotten Man, p. 296.
12. Von dem Rebis einem Stein, p. 305.
13. VarIa Philosophica, p. 307.
(a) Capitulum, darinnen das gantze Werck kürtslich begriffen, p. 307.14. Tractalus vom Saltz der Weisen, p. 315.
(b) Ein schönes Gedicht, p. 310.
(c) Ein Gespräch, p. 312.
(d) Ein Gedicht, p. 314.
(e) De Oleo Philosophorum, p, 314.
(f) Vera praeparatio Mercurii. p. 315.
15. Novum Testamentum, p. 318.
16. Von dem Philosophischen Bley. p. 319.
17. Avicenna Septem regulae ex quibus componiftur lapis Philosophorum, p. 320.
18. Tabula Scientiae maioris p. 321.
19. De quinta essentia vini pulcherrimus tractatus, p. 342.
20. Tabula schmaragdina Hermetis Hermetis Trismegisti patris Philosophorum, p. 335.
21. Aufslegung und erklärung des Gemelds oder Figur (in verse), p. 337.
1. Von der Bereitung des gebenedeyten Philosophischen Steins-Caspar Hartung von Holf, p. 349.
2. De Prima Materia Lapidis Philosophorum (In verse), p. 360.
3. Vollkommener Bericht und Handgriff in Zubereitung des Lapidis Philosophorum und Tincturae Physicae, p. 370.
4. Liber Secretorum Ionnis deo Padua de Lapide Philosophorum. Liber Primus, p. 376
5. Liber secundus, p. 393.
6. Liber tertius, p. 399
7. Clavis Philosophiae Chemicae, p. 447.
8. Grundtlicher Bericht was die warhafttige Kunst Alchemia innhalte und vermag in Via Universali & Particulari, aufs allen Philosophis zusammen gezogen, p. 479.
9. Hortus Divitiarum. Der Garten der Reichthumb aller Weifsheit Gottes, p. 500
10. Ein Werck der Alchimey, p. 519,
11. Zwo Tincturen auff Weifs und Roth, p. 533.
12. De Lapide in Aqua Mercurlali, p. 540.
13. Ein Mercurij Arbeit und Augment mit dem Mercurio Lunae, p. 545.
14. Ein schönes Tractätlein in welchem etliche schöne und lustige Particular Stücklein begriffen sind, p. 554.
15. Ein schön Stuck von Doctor Scheneken, p. 563.
16. Von dem Antimonio Philosophorum, non Vulgi, p. 570.
17. Oleum Antominii : Die Fixatio, sein Quinta Essen, Caspar Eberlein. p. 579
1. Von Offenbahrung der Philosophischen Materien und Dingen, aufs weichen vollbracht wirdt die Meisterechafft, in wirckung defs Edlen und gebenedeiten Steins der Philosophen, p. 593.
2. Thesaurus Philosophen Euferarij, p. 606.
3. Tractatus darinn das gantze Secret der Alchimey vom Stein der Weisen begriffen ist, p. 623.
4. Lux lucens in Tenebris, p. 636.
5. Tractatus deVitriolo Philosophorum, p. 642.
6. Oleum Vitrioli [by R. Bacon], p. 651.
7. Experinmenta ... durch ... Raimundum Lilium ... und von Raimundo in Iatein beschrieben. Jets aber durch Herrn Georgium Sanderreuter von Wasserburg verteutscht worden, p. 664.
8. Des Buchlein von der natürlichen Philosophey der Metallen des Edlen und Hochgelehrten Herren Dionisij Zacharij Galli, p. 727
9. Ein streit und Gespräch des Goldes und Mercurij wider des Stein der Weisen, p. 765
10. Etliche Korndorfferische Particularia, p. 773.
11. Spiegel der PhiIosophey, p. 787.
Introduction aux manuscrits alchimiques d'Isaac Newton
Collection d'ouvrages alchimiques
l'Institut de France et du Museum d'Histoire Naturelle
L'Académie des sciences et le Museum d'Histoire Naturelle possèdent un certain nombre d'ouvrages sur l'alchimie. Pour ce qui est du Museum, ils sont issus du fonds Chevreul, légué au musée par le chimiste Eugène Chevreul (1783-1886) à sa mort. On se reportera aux deux sections sur Artephius et Cambriel pour plus de renseignements sur l'oeuvre critique de Chevreul sur l'alchimie. Cf. aussi l'étude plus générale consacrée à Chevreul.
1. Paris, Bibliothèque de l'Institut de France MS. 795.
13 folios. papier. 190 x 125mm. XVIIIe
[Alchemical treatises by Isaac Holland.]2. Paris, Bibliothèque de l'Institut de France MS. 1772-1775.
f. 1 OEuvre philosophique.
f. 7 Pratique de grand oeuvre.
f. 10 Théorie de l'arcane. Du grande oeuvre cy devant ou pierre des philosophes.
4 volumes. 80, 99, 104 et 203 folios. papier. 199 x 145mm.
Recueil de chymie et d'alchymie, par Mr Dupont, médecin à Antibes, donné pour tel par Mr Arnauld, avec un table des matières.3. Paris, Bibliothèque de l'Institut de France MS. 2974.
164 folios. papier. 230 x 190mm. XIXe
[Copy of a Syrian alchemical treatise from a manuscript in the British Museum.]4. Paris, du Muséum d'Histoire Naturelle MS. 2021.
48 folios. Paper. 240 x 170mm. XVIIe
1. Le miroir d'alchimie d'Arnauld de Villeneuve.5. Paris, du Muséum d'Histoire Naturelle MS. 2022.
2. f. 37 Questions tant essentielles qu'accidentelles de Maistre Arnauld de Villeneuve à Boniface VIII...
[Copie manuscrite de Claude-Alexandre Séguier (1656-1725). Pour le MS. de Séguier, voir M.-E. Chevreul in Journal des Savants, 1851, p. 758-760. - repris in extenso dans Chevreul, critique d'Artephius]
148 + 41 pages. papier. 275 x 200mm. XVIIe
Testament of Raymond Lully. [Copie manuscrite de Claude-Alexandre Séguier.]6. Paris, du Muséum d'Histoire Naturelle MS. 2023.
98 + 20 pages. papier. 190 x 135mm. XVIIe
Testament de Raymond Lulle. [Copie manuscrite de Claude-Alexandre Séguier.] Le titre de la page est manquant et les deux parties de l'oeuvre « Théorie » et « Pratique » sont dans un format différent.7. Paris, du Muséum d'Histoire Naturelle MS. 2024.
79 folios. papier. 205 x 135mm. XVIIe.
1. De la transmutation métallique. Trois anciens traittés en rithmes françoises, à sçavoir:8. Paris, du Muséum d'Histoire Naturelle MS. 2025.
2. La fontaine des amoureux de science, autheur J[ean] de la Fontaine ;
3. Les remonstrances de nature à l'alchimiste errant, avec la réponse dudt. alchimiste, par J[ean] de Meung, ensemble un trait de son Roman de la rose concernant ledt. art ;
4. Le sommaire philosophique de Nicolas Flamel . A Paris, chez Guillaume Guillard et Amauri Warancore, rue Saint-Jacques, à l'enseigne Sainte-Barbe, 1561.
[Copie manuscrite de Claude-Alexandre Séguier.]
95 + 76 + 66 + 93 pages. papier. 235 x 185mm. XVIIe
1. [George Ripley] Les oeuvres de Georges Riplée, philosophe, chanoine de Bridli[n]gton. Traduit du latin par Raimond Bascon, sieur de Presles, médecin chimiste, l'an 1689.9. Paris, du Muséum d'Histoire Naturelle MS. 2026.
p. 5-75 Le livre des douze portes.
p. 76-81 La chanson de Georges Riplée.
p. 82-91 La lettre de Georges Riplée au roy Edouard IV...
p. 95 La vision du chevalier Georges Ripleys...
p. 93 [illustrations représentant le système chimique de Ripley.]
2. [trois textes de Pantaléon.]
p. 1-76 Le tombeaux d'Hermès ouvert... mis en lumière... par Anonime Pantaléon... et traduit du latin par Raimond Bascon... A Paris, l'an 1689. [Tumulus Hermetis apertus published at Nuremberg in 1676.]
p. 1-66 Examen alchimistique par lequel comme par le pierre de touche l'on discernera l'Adepte du sophiste et le philosophe de l'imposteur... autheur Pantaléon... traduit du latin par Raimond Bascon... A Paris, l'an 1689.
p. 1-93 La double feuille métallique ou La médecine double pour les métaux et pour les hommes infirmes... par Pantaléon... traduite du latin par Raimon Bascon... A Paris, l'an 1689.
3. Volatilisation du sel de tartre [d'après Van Helmont].
Régule de Mars comme l'a faict l sieur Prince [recette].
128 pages. papier. 220 x 165mm. XVIIe
La clef majeure de sagesse et science des secrets de nature d'Artephius. [traduction du Clavis majoris sapientiae, extrait du Theatrum Chemicum, vol IV, p. 198.]10. Paris, du Muséum d'Histoire Naturelle MS. 2027.
Ensuit la practique de la théorique cy dessus écritte par le méme auteur. [cf. traduction A dont parle Chevreul dans son examen de la Clavis Majoris Sapientiae -]
398 pages + 14 folios. 2 volumes. papier. 165 x 125mm. XVIIe
La clef du secret des secrets de phylosophie ou Premier livre de Pierre Vicot ou le serviteur prestre, serviteur de Nicolas de Grosparmy comte de Flers et de Noël Le Vallois gentilhomme compagnon de Grosparmy.11. Paris, du Muséum d'Histoire Naturelle MS. 2028.
[traduction et adaptation de la Clavis majoris sapientiae d'Artephius. Le manuscrit est enrichi de nombreuses notes de main différente. Les derniers folios sont illustrés avec des images peintes au crayon. - c'est ce que Chevreul nomme le traité de Vicot dans son étude sur Artephius. Il parle de ce MS. comme le Manuscrit A.]
344 pages. 2 volumes. papier. 165 x 125mm. XVIIe
1. La clef du secret des secrets de Nicolas Valois, compagnon du sieur de Grosparmy. [traduction et adaptation du Clavis majoris sapientiae. Ex-libris d'Etienne Clavier (1762-1817).12. Paris, du Muséum d'Histoire Naturelle MS. 2029.
2. p. 119 Oeuvre ou Traitté premier de Nicolas de Grosparmy de Normandie. [figure peinte à la p. 133.]
3. p. 187 Quelques usages de la pierre, tirés d'un manuscrit appelé Manne du ciel.
4. p. 208 La manné terrestre, venant du ciel, se répand sur les enfants des hommes sages. Poème en 732 vers par un phylosophe inconnu [Jean-Albert Belin?]
5. p. 255 Les 40 propositions suivantes ont été publiées par un seigneur allemand [Marcellus Palingenius] qui provoquoit par là tous les sçavants de l'Europe sur cette matière et s'engageoit à leur prouver ses raisons par l'expérience. L'ouvrage a paru en latin, et il est copié sur la traduction qui en a été donné par M. La Monerie dans celle du poème de Palyngene...
6. p. 283 Falx in bifolium processus contra examen alchimisticum tumulatio tumuli Pantaleonis ab anonymo authore edita in commodum filiorum artis ut caveant ad ejusdem jactabundi Pantaleonis interpellatis erroribus et imposturis. Amsterodami, praestant apud Johannem Janssonium, 1678. [Anonymous critique of Tumulus Hermetis apertus of Pantaléon.]
7. p. 330 Poème phylosophique sur le sujet des sages.
96 folios. papier. 230 x 130mm. XVIIe
[collection de divers écrits alchimiques, de la main de Claude-Alexandre Séguier. - il s'agit de ce que Chevreul nomme le manuscrit D dans son étude sur Artephius]13. Paris, du Muséum d'Histoire Naturelle MS. 2030.
1. Les particularités de Bernard de Badie.
2. f. 17 Ici sont les livres des trois Adeptes [Nicolas Vallois, Nicolas de Grosparmy and Pierre Vicot] qui firent à Rouen la pierre philosophale. [Adaptation of Clavis majoris sapientiae of Artephius.]
3. f. 48 ... Pratique de l'oeuvre minéralle par Nicolas de Grosparmy à son ami Nicolas de Valois.
4. f. 58 La clef de quelque secret de philosophie qui est le premier livre de Me Pierre Nicot [sic] preste serviteur de Nicolas de Grosparmy comte de Fles [sic] et de Nicolas de Vallois gentilhomme compagnon de Grosparmy, lesquels touts [sic] trois d'une même union, amitié, fidélité et concorde firent la pierre des philosophes et leurs livres pour leurs successeurs.
5. f. 63 v La clef de nature.
6. f. 69 La révélation de la parole cachée par la sagesse des anciens ou la généalogie du mercure des philosophes.
7. f. 77 Lettre qui sert d'introduction pour le traité cy-dessus.
8. f. 80 Extraction du dissolvant ou Le moien d'extraire le dissolvant universel de sa matrice originelle par Mr L.A.
9. f. 86 Extrait d'un livre intitulé Novum lumen medicum de mysteris sulphuris philosophorum Joachimi Polemanni.
2+212 folios. papier. 235 x 185mm. XVIIIe
[Collection de divers écrits alchimiques, qui commencent par une table à la fin de laquelle l'auteur se nomme...ce volume appartenant à moy Jean-Baptiste-Léonard Dion de Saint-Jory.]14. Paris, du Muséum d'Histoire Naturelle MS. 2031.
1. Le petit paysan ou Le Lys parmi les épines, traduit de l'allemand par [Jean] Valachie.
2. f. 55 L'arche de l'arcane ou Secret des souverains misteres de la nature, de Mre Jean Grassée... construi de son Grand et Petit paysan. [voir Theatrum Chemicum, VI, p. 294.]
3. f. 68 Le grand paysan. Discours particulier... Histoire de feux souterrains qui se voyent en Europe... dans l'Asie... en Affrique... l'Amérique...
4. f. 118 La clef du secret des secrets de Nicolas de Valois, compagnon de Mr de Grosparmy.
5. f. 173 La clef majeure de sapience et science des secrets de nature où il est simplement traité des qualités des métaux et de leur transmutation par Nicolas de Grosparmy et son amy Nicolas de Valois. [Adaptation of Artephius, Clavis majoris sapientiae. - cf. Traduction C dont parle Chevreul dans son examen de la Clavis majoris Sapientiae - Il le nomme manuscrit B -]
6. f. 208 Traité de phisique hermétique, d'astrologie, de cabale et de théologie en bref.
7. f. 211 Poème philosophique sur le sujet des sages. [la fin du poème est au ff. 115-117.]
12+110 folios (81-96 manquantes). papier. 235 x 135mm. XVIIIe
[deux textes sur l'antimoine, manuscrit de Claude Alexandre Séguier.]15. Paris, du Muséum d'Histoire Naturelle MS. 2032.
1. [table alphabétique des matières incluse dans le Char triomphal de l'antimoine attribué à Basile Valentin.]
2. Journal d'une série de travaux alchimiques dont l'exécution dura plus de trois ans. [à la fin, on trouve cinq folios de recettes médicales et alchimiques.]
79 folios (34 blank). papier. 220 x 170mm. XVIIe
[collection de textes alchimiques en français et en latin, manuscrits deClaude Alexandre Séguier.]16. Paris, du Muséum d'Histoire Naturelle MS. 2033.
1. [50 recettes.] (31ff.)
2. Index aphabeticus rerum quae continentur in libro Caneparii. [index des matières de Pietro Maria Canepari, De atramentis cujuscumque generis... London, 1660.] (14 ff.)
55 folios. papier. 235 x 170mm. XVIIe
Cosmopolite, ou Nouvelle lumière physique. [copie manuscrite de Claude Alexandre Séguier.]17. Paris, du Muséum d'Histoire Naturelle MS. 2034.
47 folios. papier. 245 x 175mm. XVIIe
Traitté chimique contenant le secret surnaturel de la pierre des sages. [texte manuscrit de Claude Alexandre Séguier peut-être inspiré du traité d'Edward Kelley sur la pierre philosophale in Theatrum Chemicum Britannicum - Ashmole.]18. Paris, du Muséum d'Histoire Naturelle MS. 2035.
[avec une peinture traversant un fourneau alchimique]
136 pages. papier. 230 x 175mm. XVIIe
Traduction de la langue latine en françois de l'Amphithéâtre de la sapience composé par Henry Khunrath de Leypsic, amateur de théosophie. Imprime en 1602.19. Paris, du Muséum d'Histoire Naturelle MS. 2036.
[suivi de] Symbole phisico-chimique du docteur Khunrath.
2 vols. 2 folios + 536 pages, and 5 folios + 690 pages. papier. 235 x 185mm. XVIIIe
Pharmacopée chymique et alchymique divisée en deaux volumes dont le premier contient les opérations du Char triomphal de l'antimoine du frère Basile Valentine commentées par Kerkringius, philosophe allemand, & celles de divers autres fameux médicines et philosophes qui ont travaillé sur l'antimoine, avec des remarques judicieuses contre les antagonistes de l'antimoine de Charles Lancillotti, médecin spagirique de S.A.S. le duc de Modène. Le second volume contient la Coupelle des souffleurs, ou les secrets des adeptes en cent cinquante disolvans universels divisés en vingt-quatre classes ou genres, par moyen desquels l'on peut tirer de l'antimoine des végétaux, des animaux & des minéraux, la véritable médicine des hommes et des metaux. Oeuvrage qui peut servir pour examiner les souffleurs et faiseurs d'or et découvrir leurs fraudes & impostures, compilés, commentés et enrichis de remarques par Jean Seger Weidenfeld philosophe allemand. Traduit de l'italien et du latin à faveur des curieux amateurs de leur santé et de la philosophique hermétique, par G.G. interprête du roi à Marseille, en 1715.20. Paris, du Muséum d'Histoire Naturelle MS. 2037.
[le premier volume contient deux dessins- 'Figure du fourneau et vaisseaux, p. 48 de l'original de Kerkringius' (p90), et 'Vaisseaux pour tirer le vinaigre philosophique' (p139).]
14+229 pages. papier. 240 x 180mm. XVIIIe
Les trois cents expériences, observations et remarques phisico-chimiques de George Ernée Staahl, telles que personne jusqu'ici n'en a fait mention... [traduction de Georg-Ernst Stahl, Experimenta, observationes, animadversiones, CCC numero, chymicae et physicae,... Berolini, A, Haude, 1731.]21. Paris, du Muséum d'Histoire Naturelle MS. 2038.
101 folios. papier. 230 x 180mm. XVIIIe
Théorie chimique du feu, ou Les 300 expériences, observations et remarques de Staahl [traduction incomplète de l'oeuvre en latin comme mentionné ci-dessus in MS. Du Muséum d'Histoire Naturelle 2037. Texte de la main de Pierre-Jean-George Cabanis.]22. Paris, du Muséum d'Histoire Naturelle MS. 2039.
88 folios. papier. 200 x 160mm. XVIIIe
Leçons de chymie.23. Paris, du Muséum d'Histoire Naturelle MS. 2040.
[ MS. autographe de Pierre-Jean-Georges Cabanis, qui fut publié à Paris en 1823-25.]
103 folios. papier. 175 x 110mm. XIXe
Le banquet des sages, ou Instruction de Mercure à un de ses disciples.24. Paris, du Muséum d'Histoire Naturelle MS. 2041.
[Interleaved with notes in a different hand from that of the text.]
160 folios. papier. 180 x 110mm. XIXe
La gymnosophie alchimique par Telputh gymnosophiste chinois. 1re ouverture par Onomin philosophe arabe...25. Paris, du Muséum d'Histoire Naturelle MS. 2042.
113 folios. papier. 200 x 140mm. XVIIe
1. Extrait de la révélation et déclaration de F. Bazile Valentin contenant les plus curieux mistères des teintures essentielles des sept métaux avec leur vertu médicinale divisé en sept chapitres. [Sommaire de Basile Valentin, Révélation des mystères des teintures essentielles des sept métaux... Paris, 1645.]
2. [Formules variées et recettes alchimiques et culinaires, avec une table des caractères alchimiques (p. 94), et 8 dessins au crayon représentant la chute de la manne céleste, tandis que d'autres montrent un alchimiste occupé à divers travaux.]