Introduction aux manuscrits alchimiques d'Isaac Newton
revu le 12 février 2006
Plan : préambule - Clavis - I. Keynes Mss., King's College Library, Cambridge, UK - II. Yahuda Mss., Jewish National and University - III. Edwin Newton Ohl Collection, Francis A. - IV. The British Library, London, UK - V. Fitzwilliam Museum, Cambridge, UK - VI. Hampshire Record Office, Winchester - VII. Estates of Mind', Great Neck, New York, USA - VIII. St Andrews University Library, Fife, UK - IX. Massachusetts Institute of Technology - X. Dibner Library, Smithsonian Institution - XI. Bodleian Library, Oxford, UK - XII. Harry Ransom Humanities Research Center - XIII. Library of the University of Wisconsin-Madison - XIV. Babson Collection, Burndy Library, Dibner - XV. Stanford University Library, Stanford - XVI. Cushing/Whitney Medical Library, Yale - XVII. Add. Mss., Cambridge University Library - XVIII. Mellon Alchemical Mss., Beinecke Library - XIX. Joseph Halle Schaffner Collection, Chicago - XX. Rare Book and Manuscript Library, Columbia - XXI. Alchemical manuscripts whose location is unknown - XXII. Alchemical Newton's Printed Sources -
Préambule : Nous avons eu l'occasion à de multiples reprises de nous pencher sur les travaux alchimiques d'Isaac Newton qui ont égalé ses travaux dans le domaine des mathématiques, de la physique et de l'astronomie. A peu près tous les historiens des sciences sont aujourd'hui d'accord pour dire que Newton est le dernier grand alchimiste de la tradition hermétique ; dans le même temps, qu'il ait été l'un des plus grands génies qu'a compté l'humanité reste absolument extraordinaire. Plusieurs ouvrages ont été traduits de l'anglais sur les papiers alchimiques de Newton : il faut citer une biographie monumentale : Isaac Newton, par Richard Westfall, Flammarion (1994), Isaac Newton, un alchimiste pas comme les autres, Pierre Thuillier, in La Recherche, 876-887, 212, 1989 et Les Fondements de l’alchimie de Newton, Betty J. Teeter Dobbs, Guy Trédaniel (1981), ouvrage fondamental pour la compréhension historique et épistémologique qui a décidé Newton à entreprendre une étude « rationnelle » de l'alchimie, et en même temps, dans l'orthodoxie hermétique la plus accusée. En France, un ouvrage récent, Newton ou le triomphe de l'alchimie, dû à Jean-Paul Auffray, Editions Le Pommier (2000) fait aussi le point sur la question mais en éludant un peu, du moins à ce qu'il nous paraît, le degré de signifiance purement alchimique des travaux du grand physicien. On citera enfin un autre ouvrage, tout à fait remarquable, la Malle de Newton, de Loup Verlet, paru chez Gallimard, coll. Idées, NRF (1993) à orientation purement épistémologique. Nous ne souhaitons pas dans cette page faire une recension des travaux alchimiques de Newton - cf. l'une de nos pages sur les études de symbolisme alchimique où nous avons repris en les critiquant, plusieurs notes de B.J.T. Dobbs (elle confond par exemple Sendivogius et Alexandre Sethon !) - mais reprendre la liste des papiers alchimiques de Newton. Une liste de ces papiers - non exhaustive - peut être consultée sur le site http://www.newtonproject.ic.ac.uk/catalogue/newton.htm ; cette liste est répartie sur plusieurs pages et il nous a semblé faire oeuvre utile en les réunissant sur une seule page.
Si l'on reprend Les Fondements de l'alchimie de Newton, p. 281, on voit déjà dressée une liste de mss en Annexe A. Ces mss se trouvent réunis dans la Collection Keynes, à King's College, Cambridge. La description des mss que reprend B. Dobbs suit celle établie à l'époque de la vente des mss par Sotheby et Co, en 1936. La liste que nous donnons est en anglais ; on se reportera à l'ouvrage de B. Dobbs pour la traduction. Nous avons disposé les liens vers les ouvrages cités, lus par Newton, que nous avons commentés sur ce site.
Si l'on lit attentivement cette liste assez impressionante, on retiendra que Newton a dû avoir sur sa table de chevet des auteurs comme Artephius, Philalèthe, Nicolas Flamel, Monte Snyders, D'Espagnet ou Limojon de saint Didier. Voilà qui laisse réveur...Nous ne résistons pas au plaisir, pour finir, de donner à lire un mss singulier, que certains attribuent à Newton, et qui est connue sous le nom de « Clavis ». Toutefois, ainsi que le note B. Dobbs, il se pourrait qu'il s'agisse d'un passage de Philalèthe simplement retranscrit par Newton [cf. Fondements, p. 217, note 101].
Isaac Newton, gravure de J. Houbraken, d'après G. Kneller, 1702ClefPour des études plus générales sur Newton, on pourra lire utilement les Etudes Newtoniennes d'Alexandre Koyré (Gallimard, NRF, 1968), qui font malheureusement l'impasse sur la carrière alchimique du physicien. Mais Alexandre Koyré s'était intéressé à l'alchimie, puisqu'il nous a laissé un fragment intitulé : Mystiques, spirituels, alchimistes du XVIe siècle allemand (Gallimard, Idées, NRF, 1971). Afin de donner une idée de la manière dont Newton a abordé l'alchimie, on peut résumer à grands traits le chapitre qu'y consacre R. Westfall [in Newton, op. cit.]. Il s'agit du chapitre 8 : Rébellion. Pourquoi ce titre ? Parce que Newton, qui manifestait déjà sa nature animiste, ne pouvait se suffire d'une interprétation mécaniste de la philosophie naturelle telle que la concevait, par exemple, Descartes. Descartes qui ne pouvait supporter de relation à l'occulte et qui avait imaginé - à sa manière - des épicycles presque infinis [théorie des tourbillons] pour expliquer la cause de la gravitation universelle et du déplacement de grandes masses les unes par rapport aux autres. On peut estimer que c'est vers 1666 que Newton s'intéressa de très près à la chimie et que, probablement sous l'impulsion des écrits de Robert Boyle, il embraya presque immédiatement vers l'alchimie. On peut considérer qu'il lut d'abord les écrits de Philalèthe [Eirenaeus Philalethes], de Jean d'Espagnet, ainsi que les traités attribués à Alexandre Sethon [Nouvelle Lumière Chymique, qui est attribué à tort à Sendivogius], Nicolas Flamel et à Artephius. Il lut toute la collection du Theatrum Chemicum, et acheta du matériel pour construire ses fourneaux ainsi que des produits chimiques. C'est donc [cf. nos commentaires de ces traités] sur la base d'écrits à caractère très spéculatif en général, qu'il batît ses hypothèses et qu'il prit des milliers de note. Hélas, il s'engagea dans la voie chimérique de l'alchimie des transmutations métalliques - mais eut-il pu faire autrement à une époque où la notion de corps simple était encore dans les limbes ? Cf. Hist. Chim. Hoefer - et s'évertua à trouver le Mercure des métaux par l'opération dite du régule étoilé d'antimoine ; dans un autre groupe d'expériences, il s'intéressa au filet, préparé à partir de « mixtes » de fer et de cuivre en se basant sur la légende d'Héphaistos que nous avons rapportée ailleurs. Il passa peut-être à côté des processus d'oxydo-réduction puisqu'il cite les métaux, à peu près, dans l'ordre de leurs potentiels redox... Et cet intérêt pour l'alchimie dura trente ans. Pour finir, nous donnons la liste des travaux portant spécifiquement sur l'alchimie de Newton, citée dans Westfall [op. cit.] :
/f Ir/ Sachez tout d'abord que l'antimoine est un minerai cru et immature1, ayant en soi matériellement ce qui est propre au métallique, bien que par ailleurs il soit un minéral cru et non digéré. Néanmoins, il est véritablement digéré par le soufre qu'on trouve dans le fer, et jamais autre part2. Deux parties d'antimoine avec du fer donnent un régule qui dans sa quatrième fusion produit une étoile ; à ce signe vous reconnaîtrez que l'âme du fer a été rendue complètement volatile par la vertu de l'antimoine3. Si ce régule étoile est fondu avec † de l'or ou de l'argent4 dans un pot en terre cuite chauffé par des cendres, le régule entier va s'évaporer, ce qui est un mystère. Donc, si ce régule est amalgamé avec du mercure commun et qu'il est digéré dans un récipient fermé, à chaleur douce, pendant peu de temps — deux ou trois heures —, puis qu'il est broyé pendant 1/8 d'heure dans un mortier sans trace d'humidité moyennement chauffé, jusqu'à ce qu'il ait rejeté sa noirceur, ensuite il peut être lavé pour que se dépose la majeure partie de sa noirceur, jusqu'à ce que l'eau, qui au début devient presque noire, soit à peine teintée de noir. Ceci peut être fait par un afflux et reflux répétés d'eau5. Laissez sécher l'amalgame, placez-le de nouveau près du feu et maintenez-le à la chaleur susdite pendant trois heures. Par la suite, faites le de nouveau broyer comme avant dans un mortier sec et chaud. II rejette de nouveau de la noirceur, laquelle doit être de nouveau lavée, ceci doit être répété continuellement jusqu'à ce que l'amalgame entier devienne comme de l'argent brillant et coupellé, alors qu'au début il avait une couleur obscure de plomb6. Puis distillez ce mercure qui a été si bien lavé et * amalgamé a plusieurs reprises sept ou neuf fois de suite, et à chaque amalgamation, veillez à ce que le chauffage, le broyage et le lavage soient effectués autant de fois qu'a l'opération précédente et distillez le tout comme auparavant. A la septième fois, vous aurez un mercure dissolvant tous les métaux, en particulier l'or. Je sais ce sur quoi j'écris, car j'ai dans le feu un certain nombre de verres avec de l'or et ce mercure. Ils croissent dans ces verres sous la forme d'un arbre7, et à la faveur d'une circulation constante, les arbres se dissolvent de nouveau avec la fermentation pour donner un nouveau mercure. J'ai un récipient de ce type dans le feu avec de l'or ainsi dissout, ou l'or visiblement n'a pas été dissout par un agent corrosif en atomes, mais intrinsèquement et extrinsèquement en un mercure aussi vivant et mobile que n'importe quel mercure que l'on peut trouver dans le monde. Car il fait en sorte que l'or commence à gonfler, à être gonflé et à entrer en putréfaction et à pousser des bourgeons et des branches, en changeant de couleurs chaque jour, dont les manifestations me fascinent quotidiennement.
Je reconnais que c'est la un grand secret en Alchimie8, et / Je Juge / qu'il n'est pas bon que des artistes qui ont trop de sagesse aient décidé que le mercure commun devait être attaqué à la faveur d'une cohobation réitérée par le régule du lion (c'est-à-dire de fer ou d'antimoine). Ce corps unique, ce régule, toutefois, est apparenté au mercure puisqu'il est le plus proche de ce mercure que vous avez connu et identifié dans tout le règne minéral, et par conséquent en relation tout a fait intime avec /f Iv/ l'or. Et telle est la méthode philosophique pour améliorer la nature dans la nature, la consanguinité dans la consanguinité. Quant a cette opération, regardez la Lettre en réponse à Thomas de Bologne9, et vous aurez l'entière solution de cette question. Un autre secret est que vous avez besoin de la médiation de la vierge Diane10 (quintessence, argent le plus pur) , autrement le mercure et le régule ne sont pas unis.
Le régule est fait d'antimoine quatre onces \ neuf parties /, de fer deux onces / quatre parties / , c'est une bonne proportion. Ne négligez pas d'avoir une masse d'antimoine plus importante que celle de fer, car si une erreur est faite a ce moment, vous serez fort déçu. Faites le régule en ajoutant dedans du nitre petit à petit, ajoutez entre trois et quatre onces de nitre de façon à ce que la matière puisse s'écouler. Ce n'est pas une bonne idée de préparer dans un seul creuset une plus grande quantité que la mesure d'antimoine indiquée ci dessus. L'antimoine est broyé, puis coupellé avec le fer, quoi que puissent dire ou écrire d'autres auteurs. On peut se servir de petits clous, et en particulier des bouts de clous cassés récupérés sur les fers a cheval11. Faites un feu bien fort pour que la matière puisse couler (comme de l'eau), ce que l'on obtient facilement. Lorsqu'elle coule, jetez dedans une cuillerée de nitre, et lorsque ce nitre a été détruit par le feu, jetez-en une autre. Continuez ce processus jusqu'à ce que vous ayez jeté dedans trois ou quatre onces. Puis entassez les cendres autour du creuset, en prenant soin qu'elles ne tombent pas dedans. Activez le feu autant que l'exige la fusion de l'argent commun, et maintenez le dans cet état pendant 1/8 d'heure (La matière doit être comme une eau subtile si vous avez travaillé correctement ).
Puis versez la matière dans un cône. Le régule va tomber au fond. Séparez du régule les scories de cendres. Conservez le matériau refroidi dans un récipient sec. C'est un signe de bonne fusion si le fer est complètement fondu et si les scories se résolvent elles-mêmes en poudre. Battez-le régule et ajoutez-y deux, ou deux onces et demie au plus de nitre. Broyez le régule et le nitre ensemble complètement et fondez une nouvelle fois. Eliminez les scories arsenicales et sans utilité. Broyez le régule une troisième et une quatrième fois avec au plus une once de nitre et faites fondre dans un nouveau creuset, et à la quatrième fois vous allez avoir des scories teintes avec une couleur dorée et un régule étoilé.
NB Au cours des trois dernières fois les scories doivent être jetées car elles sont arsenicales, néanmoins elles sont utiles en chirurgie.
NB Au cours des trois dernières fusions le régule doit être battu et broyé et mélangé avec du nitre. Certains jettent le nitre dans le creuset, mais ce n'est pas conseillé, car, premièrement, il en resulte que la fusion est prolongée et que le régule perd une partie de lui-même par exhalaison. Deuxièmement le nitre ajouté de cette manière reste à la surface et parfois il refroidit le régule. Et puisque le nitre coule facilement /f 2r/ il peut couler en premier et se couvrir d'une croûte de sorte qu'il ne se fluidifie pas de nouveau si l'on n'a pas un feu important. Si cela se produit, la meilleure partie du régule disparaît dans la conflagration d'ou il se passe que parfois une étoile est perdue parce qu'elle est faussement attribuée a une constellation. Vous verrez que le régule mélangé avec le nitre de cette manière coule facilement avec lui, et vous ne le verrez devenir dur d'aucune façon, sauf en ce qui concerne la différence dans la dépuration laquelle est beaucoup plus grande si lenitre est mélangé que s'il est simplement jeté dedans. Prenez une partie de ce * régule, deux parties d'argent et fondez les ensemble jusqu'à ce qu'elles soient comme un métal fondu. Versez, et vous obtiendrez une masse friable de la couleur du plomb.
NB Si le régule est uni à l'argent, ils coulent plus facilement que l'un séparément de l'autre, et ils restent fondus aussi longtemps que le plomb, même s'il y a donc deux parties d'argent, lequel est alors changé en la nature de l'antimoine, friable et de la nature du plomb. Battez cette masse friable, ce plomb, et coulez-là avec le mercure commun dans un mortier en marbre. Le mercure doit être lavé (disons dix fois) avec du nitre et du vinaigre distillé et mêmement séché (deux fois), et le mortier doit être constamment chauffé juste assez pour que vous puissiez en supporter la chaleur avec le doigt. Broyez le mercure 1/4 d'heure avec un pilon de fer et ensuite ajoutez le mercure, les colombes de Diane12 assurant la médiation avec son frère, l'or philosophique, dont il va recevoir la semence spirituelle. La semence spirituelle est un feu qui va purger toutes les superfluités du mercure, la vertu de fermentation intervenant. Puis prenez du sel ammoniaque un peu battu et broyez-le avec le mercure. Lorsqu'il sera complètement amalgamé, ajoutez juste assez d'humidité pour humecter le tout, et ce seul signe philosophique va vous apparaître à savoir que dans cette très petite quantité réalisée de mercure il y a une grande puanteur. Finalement, lavez votre mercure en versant dessus de l'eau, en le broyant, décantant, et versant de nouveau de l'eau fraîche dessus, jusqu'à ce que n'apparaissent que quelques fèces.
1. On croirait lire le début du Livre Secret d'Artephius, car il est écrit en substance que « l'antimoine est des parties de saturne ». Notez que Chevreul traduit par « Plumbum est, etc. » au lieu de « antimonium...».
2. L'attention est attirée vers un sulfure ou un sulfate. Les alchimistes modernes comme Fulcanelli et E. Canseliet en tiennent pour l'oxysulfure d'antimoine. A noter que la gangue sulfureuse contient souvent du bismuth, cf. Gardes du corps, notes.
3. Il s'agit du régule étoilé d'antimoine, préparé avec le fer. Cf. le Char Triomphal de l'Antimoine du pseudo Basile Valentin ; cf. aussi un traité de Philalèthe sur le sujet. On obtient que du régule, c'est-à-dire de l'antimoine plus ou moins dépuré, à l'état de métal, l'étoile radiante n'étant quu'ne simple « retassure ».
4. c'est-à-dire avec une chaux d'or ou d'argent.
5. Il s'agit des Aigles volantes de Philalèthe, parce que l'Aigle ressortit des crues du Nil, comme l'écrit Diodore de Sicile ; l'Aigle est donc équivalent à l'EAU, envisagée comme Elément de Platon.
6. Il s'agit là des trois réitérations ou imbibitions signalées par la plupart des textes. Fulcanelli dit - Mystère des Cathédrales - qu'il faut crucifier avec trois pointes de fer.
7. Sur ces concrétions mystérieuses, voyez les expériences de Kuhlmann, décrites dans la section voie humide et or potable.
8. Hélas, Newton s'est absolument fourvoyé dans cette voie de l'antimoine ; ce qui l'intéressait en fait, c'était la nature « d'attracteur » des petits éléments métalliques : il voulait étendre ainsi les lois qu'il avait découvertes sur la gravitation universelle. Que, dans le même temps, il ait versé dans les fabulations ésotériques n'est pas le moindre des paradoxes de ce génie universel...
9. Il s'agit d'une lettre de Bernard de Trèves [et non de Bernard Le Trévisan] à Thomas de Bologne, cf. mss alchimiques. On en trouvera une recension dans la Lumière sortant par soy-même des Ténèbres. Il s'agit du Mercure des Philosophes.
10. Diane aux cornes lunaires est l'hiéroglyphe du Mercure. Il faut la différencier du Suc de la Lunaire qui est le Soufre blanc ou Arsenic de Geber [ou Sel de Paracelse]. Cette expression se trouve dans l'Introïtus, V du Philalèthe. Voyez là-dessus aussi le commentaire de la note 15 de l'Introïtus, VI. On l'appelle encore Diane nue, Diane ou Lune.
11. C'est presque mentionner les battitures de fer, cf. au sujet des reliques d'Oreste, Atalanta XXVII.
12. On voit que Newton a une autre définition des colombes de Diane que celles que l'on a supposées en cojecture dans ces pages ; pour nous, il s'agit des Soufres sublimés, au lieu que Newton y voit comme des intermédiares entre le Mercure et l'Or alchimique. Toutefois, dans la section compendium, on a été amené à comparer l'une des colombes à l'antimoine...On a également fait remarquer que Philalèthe avait entièrement emprunté son allégorie des colombes à D'Espagnet, qui écrit dans son Oeuvre secret d'Hermès :
« Car le seuil [du Jardin des Hespérides] est gardé par des bêtes à cornes furieuses, qui écartent, non sans dommage, ceux qui s'approchent témérairement. Seuls les insignes de Diane, et les colombes de Vénus adouciront leur férocité, si les destins t'y appellent. » [cap. 42].
Ajoutons que le vautour paraît avoir quelque analogie avec la colombe, car lui aussi vole sans aile, cf. Atalanta, XLIII. On pourra compléter avec un passage tiré de l'Introïtus, VII où Philalèthe écrit :
« Quand la Lune brillera en son plein, donne des ailes à l'Aigle, qui s'envolera, laissant mortes derrière elle les colombes de Diane qui, si elles ne sont pas mortes à la première rencontre, ne peuvent servir à rien. »
La mort des colombes de Diane peut signifier l'ouverture des corps métalliques, signalant la « mort » des métaux. On a aussi vu dans ces colombes le vaisseau d'Hermès, c'est-à-dire la maison de verre, cf. Psautier d'Hermophile. On sait, enfin, que dans le voyage des Argonautes, Aristée parvient à faire franchir le seuil des roches cyanées en envoyant au devant du bâteau Argos, une colombe, dont seules les ailes de la queue seront arrachées au passage des symplegeades. Le lacher de colombe, quoi qu'il en soit, marque la fin de la phase de putréfaction, c'est-à-dire le début de la constituion de l'eau mercurielle permanente : le Mercure philosophique, par opposition au Mercure des Philosophes. Enfin, il y a un point important : c'est que ces colombes ou ce vautour volent sans aile, c'est-à-dire qu'elles sont suspendues dans un milieu à l'instar des poissons dans l'eau, argument supplémentaire pour en faire nos Soufres sublimés dans le nitre philosophique.On a beaucoup moins étudié la chimie et l'alchimie de Newton que les autres aspects de ses activités scientifiques. B.J.T. Dobbs, The Foundation, of Newton's Alchemy : The Hunting of the Green Lyon (Cambridge, 1975 (traduction française par Sylvie Girard, Paris, 1981), supplante tous les travaux antérieurs et, pour la première fois, propose un véritable guide de la compréhension des nombreux documents alchimiques laissés par Newton. Karin Figala a écrit une thèse sur l'alchimie de Newton, malheureusement non publiée. Elle a écrit une recension du livre de Dobbs, « Newton as Alchemist », History of Science, 15 (1977), 102-137. P.M. Rattansi est l'auteur de deux articles généraux qui soulignent l'importance des documents alchimiques : « Newton's Alchemical Studies », in Allen G. Debus. ed.. Science, Medecine and Society in the Renaissance (New York, 1972); pp. 167-182, et « Some Evaluations of Reason in Sixteenth- and Seventeenth-Century Natural Philosophy », in Mikulas Teich et Robert Young, ed., Changing Perspectives in the History of Science (Londres, 1973), pp. 148-166. Pour les ouvrages qui ne traitent pas uniquement d'alchimie, voir Hélène Metzger, Newton, Stahl, Booerhaave et la doctrine chimique (Paris, 1930) (second volume de son travail de pionnier dans le domaine de l'histoire de la chimie), A.R. et Marie Boas Hall, « Newton's Chemical Experiments », Archives internationales d'histoire des sciences, 11 (1958), 113-152, et les passages concernés dans Arnold Thackray, Atoms and Powers : An Essay on Newtonian Matter-Theory and the Development of Chemistry (Cambridge, Mass., 1970).
Liste établie selon Rob Iliffe, Peter Spargo and John T. Young, publiée par The Newton Project, November 2001. Modifiée et annotée. Compilation du 1/01/2003.
I. Keynes Mss., King's College Library, Cambridge, UK Alchemical Manuscripts
• Ms. 12 (SL1/R18) Two sets of notes, mainly in Latin, in all c. 2,400 words, 7 pp.
A 'Propositions': alchemical notes in Latin, c. 400 words, 3 pp. Apparently Newton's own formulations.
B Miscellaneous notes on multiplication by solution and coagulation, mostly in Latin with some English, c. 2,000 words, 4 pp. Drawn from various (acknowledged) sources including Aristotle, Nicholas Flamel and Michael Maier [Mayer].
Bought at the Sotheby sale by William H. Robinson for £5.10s.; on 13 August 1936 Robinson told Keynes it was available and he evidently bought it.
For highly divergent theories about the dating, see Figala, 'Exakte Alchemie', 177 and Dobbs, Foundations, 133.
• Ms. 13 (SL2/R18) Three lists of alchemical writers and works, partly on the reverse of Mint-related material (various dates between 1684 and late 1690s), 8 pp.
pp. 1-3 A list of writers and works on alchemy, variously classified according to antiquity, nationality and degree of usefulness.
p. 4 Draft of 'An account of Gold & Silver moneys coyned since Christmas'.
pp. 5-6 Another list of writers, with their dates, signed 'Ieova sanctvs vnvs' [an anagram of Isaacvs Nevvtonvs].
p. 7 'Authores optimi': another list.
p. 8 Extract from 'An Act for encouraging Coynage' (18 Charles II cap. 5).
Bought at the Sotheby sale for £9.10s. by Bernard Quaritch, who presumably sold it to Heffers. Keynes took it from them on approval on 17 August 1936 for £16 and must have bought it by 11 September, when Quaritch told Yahuda that the lot had already been sold.
The Mint material is obviously no earlier than 1696 (when Newton joined the Mint) and some of the rest of the manuscript is written in an identical hand; other sections appear to be earlier, and the last internal date in 1684.
See Figala et al., 'De Scriptoribus', passim, and Dobbs, Foundations, 174, n.100.
• Ms. 14 (SL7/R18) 'Artephius his secret Book', c. 9,000 words, 20 pp., followed by 'The Epistle of Iohn Pontanus, wherein he beareth witness of ye book of Artephius', c. 1,500 words, 2¼ pp., in English (c. 1670s).
Excerpts from Nicholas Flammel, His Exposition of the Hieroglyphicall Figures which he caused to be painted upon an Arch in St Innocents Church-yard in Paris. Together with The secret Booke of Artephius, And the Epistle of Iohn Pontanus: Containing both the Theoricke and the Practicke of the Philosophers Stone. This English translation was published in London, 1624 and seems to have been Newton's main source. However, in the Pontanus letter he departs from the text of this edition at some points, possibly through reference to the Latin version in vol. 6 of Lazarus Zetzner's Theatrum Chemicum (1659-61: H1608): see Dobbs, Foundations, 130-31. [le Theatrum Chemicum peut être consulté à cette adresse : http://www.wbc.poznan.pl/dlibra/publication?id=4878]
Bought at the Sotheby sale by the London bookdealer C.A. Stonehill for £13; offered to Keynes for £20 on 7 September 1936 (and presumably accepted).
Cf. H1309-10, Keynes Ms. 25, and Yahuda Ms. Var. 259.
• Ms. 15 (SL8/R18) Four alchemical verse allegories, in English, 8 pp. in total.
'Out of Bloomfield's Blossoms' (an excerpt, beginning 'Father Time set me at ye gate'), 212 lines; 'A short work that beareth the name of Sr George Ripley', 92 lines (almost complete); and two 'Fragments', one untitled (beginning 'Let ye old man drink wine till he piss'), 8 lines, and the other headed 'The whole science', 11 lines.
Bought at the Sotheby sale by Maggs Brothers for £7.10s. and sold to Keynes on 4 August 1936 for the sale price plus 20%.
These are all taken from Elias Ashmole's Theatrum Chemicum Britannicum (1652: H93), 305-23, 393-6, 436 and 434 respectively.
• Ms. 16 (SL9/R18) 'Causæ et initia naturalium' (notes on Jan Baptista van Helmont's Ortus medicinae (1667) ), in Latin, c. 2,000 words, 7 pp.
Bought at the Sotheby sale by C.A. Stonehill for £8.10s., and offered to Keynes for £12.10s. on 7 September 1936.
See H751 for Newton's copy of van Helmont's work.
• Ms. 17 (SL10/R18) Notes on and excerpts from George Ripley's 'Clavis Aureæ Portæ', 'Medulla Alchimiæ', and 'Pupilla Alchemiæ', in Latin, c. 4,000 words, 8 pp.
Bought at the Sotheby sale by C.A. Stonehill for £8.10s. and offered to Keynes for £12.10s. on 7 September 1936; Stonehill advised Yahuda on 18 September that it had already been sold.
Taken from George Ripley, Opera Omnia, Chemica, quotquot hactenus visa sunt (Kassel, 1649: H1405).
• Ms. 18 (SL11/R18) 'Clavis': detailed directions for a lengthy alchemical operation beginning with the digestion of antimony, iron and sulphur, in Latin, c. 1,200 words, 3 pp.
Bought at the Sotheby sale by Heffers for £6 and sold to Keynes on 5 September 1936 for £8.5s.
Printed with an English translation in Dobbs, Foundations, 251-5. This was long regarded by Dobbs and many others as probably Newton's own work, but was in fact copied from an unpublished manuscript of George Starkey: see Newman, 'Newton's "Clavis"' (and Dobbs's acknowledgment of the reattribution, Janus Faces, 15).
• Ms. 19 (SL12/R18) 'Collectiones ex Novo Lumine Chymico quæ ad Praxin spectant', 5½ pp., and 'Arcanum Hermeticæ Philosophiæ Opus', 2½ pp. (early 1669?), in Latin, c. 3,000 words in total.
Annotated extracts from Michael Sendivogius [l'ouvrage n'est pas de Sendivogius mais d'Alexandre Sethon] and Jean d'Espagnet respectively. The right-hand half of each page consists of exegetical notes, which in the first set are headed 'Collectionum Explicationes', and in both cases take up rather more space than the original citations. f. 3v has the column headings 'Arcanum Hermeticæ Philosophiæ Opus' and 'Explicationes'.
Bought at the Sotheby sale by Heffers for £9.10s. and sold to Keynes on 5 September for £12.10s. Heffers had originally asked £15.
Reproduced with German translation and commentary in Karin Figala's unpublished thesis 'Newton als Alchemist' (Munich, 1978). See Dobbs, Foundations, 152-5 and 160-62 for a fuller description and arguments for the dating; also Figala, 'Exakte Alchemie', 179. H1192 is the Sendivogius work in question: for the rest of Newton's Sendivogius collection see also H445, 1131 (the Musaeum Hermeticum reformatum, which includes tracts by Sendivogius) and 1485 (but H445, a French version, post-dates these notes if Dobbs's dating is correct). H1311 is his copy of d'Espagnet's La philosophie naturelle. Further notes on Sendivogius in Keynes Ms. 55, Yahuda Ms. Var. 259.4 and Babson Ms. 925, Dibner Institute.
• Ms. 20 (SL13/R18) Miscellaneous extracts from and notes on various alchemical authors, in English, 8 pp. in total.
'The standing of ye glass for ye time of Putrefaction & Congelation of ye medecine', in verse, 14 lines; 'The hunting of ye Green Lyon' (an extract), in verse, c. 180 lines; 'Notes upon ye hunting of ye green Lyon', c. 500 words.
Bought at the Sotheby sale by Francis Edwards for £12 and sold to Keynes on 18 August 1936 for £16.
Both verses are copied from Elias Ashmole's Theatrum Chemicum Britannicum (1652: H93), 421-2 and 278-9 respectively, though the notes on the 'Green Lyon', comprising elucidatory cross-references to other alchemical authors, would seem to be Newton's own. (Ashmole's edition does include notes on the work as an appendix, but they are completely different from those in this manuscript.)
• Ms. 21 (SL17/R18) 'The method of ye work': a commentary on [A.T. Limojon, Sieur de] Didier's 'Six Keys' (early 1690s?), in English with Latin citations, c. 8,500 words, 35 pp.
Bought at the Sotheby sale by Maggs Brothers for £15.10 and sold to Keynes on 13 August 1936 for the sale price plus 20%.
Keynes Ms. 23 is a Latin translation of the French original of Didier's work. See Dobbs, Janus Faces, 180-81, and Westfall, Never at Rest, 529. Westfall argues that this manuscript and Keynes Ms. 53 represent the first steps, taken in the early 1690s, that led ultimately to the major essay 'Praxis' (Babson Ms. 420).
• Ms. 22 (SL19/R18) 'The Epitome of the treasure of health written by Edwardus Generosus Anglicus innominatus who lived Anno Domini 1562', in English, c. 14,000 words, 28 pp.
Copy of an unpublished treatise on the Philosophers' Stone, the 'Animal or Angelicall Stone', the 'Prospective [not 'Perspective' as stated in the Sotheby catalogue] stone or ye magical stone of Moses' and 'ye vegetable or ye growing stone'; concludes with an alchemical poem.
Bought at the Sotheby sale by Heffers for £26 and sent on approval to Keynes on 17 August 1936 for £33.
• Ms. 23 (SL20/R18) 'Epistola ad veros Hermetis discipulos continens claves sex principales Philosophiæ secretæ' (early 1690s), in Latin, c. 4,750 words, 19 pp.
A translation of the last section of Limojon de Didier's Triomphe Hermétique (1689), 'Lettre Aux vrays Disciples d'Hermes, Contenant six principales clefs de la Philosophie Secrete', then only extant (in published form, at least) in French (H1642).
Bought at the Sotheby sale by Maggs Brothers for £18.10s. and sold to Keynes on 19 August 1936 for the sale price plus 20%.
Contains a Strasbourg lily watermark, as does Keynes Ms. 53: see Shapiro, 'Dating Game', 197-8.
See Dobbs, Janus Faces, 180: she suggests this is probably Newton's own translation. Cf. Keynes Mss. 21 and 53, and Babson Ms. 420.
• Ms. 24 (SL21/R18) 'Anno 1656. Serenissimi Principis Frederici Ducis Holsatiæ et Sleswici &c. communicatione sequens epistola me sibi vendicat, inaudita memorans. Veni et vide', in Latin, c. 1,300 words, 7 pp.
Transcript of an anonymous alchemical manuscript, an English version of which appeared in Aurifontina chymica, published by William Cooper in 1680 (see Westfall, 'Newton's Index Chemicus', 176, n. 9).
Bought at the Sotheby sale by Maggs Brothers for £7 and sold to Keynes on 19 August 1936 for the sale price plus 20%.
• Ms. 25 (SL26/R18) Short extracts from an assortment of alchemical writers (early to mid-1670s), in English and Latin, 7 pp. on 4 ff., c. 3,000 words in all.
f. 1r 'Out of Flammel./ The ffirst agent [not 'Angel' as stated in the Sotheby catalogue] painted in Abraham ye Iews 4 Hieroglyphicks', in English. From the same source as Keynes Ms. 14.
f. 1v 'Out of ye Comment[ary] on Ripleys Epistle to K. Edward' [i.e. 'Sir George Ripley's Epistle to King Edward Unfolded' by 'Eirenæus Philalethes'], in English.
f. 2r 'Ex libro de Metallorum Metamorphosi', in Latin.
f. 2v 'Ex Brevi Manuductione ad Rubinum cælestem', in Latin.
'Ex Fonte Chemicæ Philosophiæ', in Latin.
f. 3v 'Iterum ex Comment[ario] in Ripl[æi] Epist[ola] ad Reg[em] Edw[ardum]', in English with one sentence of Latin.
'Ex Epistola Com[itis] Trevisani ad Thom[am] Bonon[iam]', in Latin.
f. 4r 'Ex Artephio', in Latin.
'Ex Turba [i.e. 'Turba Philosophorum']', in Latin.
Bought at the Sotheby sale by Maggs Brothers for £9 and sold to Keynes on 19 August 1636 for the sale price plus 20%.
Same watermark (with countermark AI) as Mellon Ms. 79 (probably mid-1670s), the essay 'De ære et æthere' (date uncertain but definitely not before 1673), part of the 'Hypothesis' sent to the Royal Society in December 1675, and a letter to Hooke of the same month: see Shapiro, 'Dating Game', 195-6.
See Dobbs, Foundations, 132 for discussion of the sources and dating of this manuscript. Apart from the first two items, Newton could have taken all this from Zetzner's Theatrum Chemicum. The first five are all based on works of 'Philalethes'. Cf. also Keynes Mss. 14, 29, 36 and Yahuda Ms. Var. 259.
• Ms. 26 (SL45/R19) Memorandum by Newton (1696), in English, c. 700 words, 3 pp.
Begins: 'On Munday March 2d or Tuesday March 3 1695/6, A Londoner acquainted wth Mr. Boyle & Dr. Dickinson making me a visit, affirmed that in the work of Iodochus a Rhe wth [vitriol] twas not necessary that the [vitriol] should be purified but the oyle or spirit might be taken as sold in shops', and goes on to record the mystery visitor's account of his method of 'subliming' vitriol to produce a 'menstruum' that dissolves all metals.
Bought at the Sotheby sale by Keynes for £13.
Printed with an introduction in D. Geoghegan, 'Some indications of Newton's attitude towards alchemy', Ambix 6 (1957), 102-6 (Newton's text on 105-6); text also in NC, 4: 196-9. Cf. the variant version in SL46 (Joseph Halle Schaffner Collection, Chicago), and excerpts from Edmund Dickinson in Harry Ransom Research Center, University of Texas. See also Keynes Ms. 50 and Yahuda Ms. Var.259.
• Ms. 27 (SL30/R19) 'The Seven Chapters' (late 1680s-1690s) plus notes and an unrelated draft letter, mainly in English, c. 4,750 words, 20 pp. on 12 ff. of which two blank.
Translation [by Newton?] of a treatise on transmutation by 'Hermes Trismegistus'.
f. 1r 'The contents of ye 7 Chapters'.
f. 1v Brief Latin notes from Zetzner's Theatrum Chemicum.
ff. 4r-12r The translated text.
f. 12v Partial draft letter, undated and with no indication of addressee, on mathematics.
Bought at the Sotheby sale by Keynes for £32.
Printed with an introduction in Churchill, 1967, q.v. for a discussion of sources and the suggestion that this is Newton's own translation. Dobbs (Janus Faces, 272) considers it to be a translation from the French Bibliothèque des philosophes (1672-8), and dates the translation late 1680s/early 1690s but considers the table of contents (f. 1r) to have been added in the late 1690s if not later. The main text (ff. 4r-12r) originally belonged after f. 2v of Keynes Ms. 28 (see Dobbs, Janus Faces, 272) but had been separated from it before the Sotheby sale, possibly by Newton himself. See H84 for Newton's copy of the Latin edition of the text, and H221 for his copy of the Bibliothèque des philosophes.
• Ms. 28 (SL31/R19) Translation and transcription of the Tabula Smaragdina of 'Hermes Trismegistus', with notes (early 1680s-1690s), in English and Latin, c. 1,000 words, 5 pp. on 10 ff.
f. 2r-v 'Tabula Smaragdina Hermetis Trismegistri [sic] Philosophorum patris': English translation of the Tabula Smaragdina followed by references to the 'ffrench Bibliotheque' [i.e. Bibliothèque des philosophes (1672-8): see notes to the previous entry] and Zetzner's Theatrum Chemicum.
f. 6r 'Hermes Trismegisti opera Chemica./ Tabula Smaragdina': the same passage in Latin.
ff. 6v-7r 'Commentarium': Latin notes on the above.
(ff. 1r and 5r both have the heading 'Hermes' but no text: according to Dobbs these were originally cover sheets for what are now the English sections of Keynes Mss. 27 and 28; the other leaves are blank.)
Bought at the Sotheby sale by Maggs Brothers for £10 and sold to Keynes on 19 August 1936 for the sale price plus 20%.
Described in the Sotheby catalogue as '3½ pp.', presumably meaning 3½ written leaves, since all three parts of the document are listed there.
Transcribed with notes in Dobbs, Janus Faces, 271-7. She argues, mainly on the basis of the handwriting, that the document was composed as follows: f. 6r copied from a Latin version in the early 1680s, followed immediately or not long afterwards by what she considers to be Newton's own 'Commentarium' (ff. 6r-7r); the English translation (f. 2r-v) in the late 1680s or early 1690s (from French: cf. notes to Keynes Ms. 27) and the following annotations (f. 2v) later still, possibly even post-1700. These suggestions are repeated, with some modification, from her earlier article 'Newton's Commentary on the Emerald Tablet', which also includes a transcript of the English translation (183-4). See also notes to Keynes Ms. 27.
Another copy of the Latin text in Keynes Ms. 60, f. 6r. See H84.
• Ms. 29 (SL32/R19) Alchemical notes (probably before 18 May 1669), in Latin and English, drawn largely if not entirely from Michael Maier's Symbola Aureæ Mensæ duodecim nationum (Frankfurt, 1617: H1048), c. 5,000 words, 9 pp. on 5 ff.
Begins with half a page in Latin on Hermes Trismegistus. Followed by English notes on the alchemical interpretation of ancient myths, then (ff. 1r-3r) Latin notes on a wide range of alchemical authors and myths, including references to Albertus Magnus, Flamel, the Rosicrucians, Lull and Geber. f. 2r has a diagram of a 'philosophical tree' taken from 'Anonymus Philosophicus Delphicus'. f. 3r has the subheading 'Aurum quot modis crescit & purgatur'. Concludes on f. 5r with 'Symbola 12 Sapientum': a list of the twelve sages who attend Maier's 'Banquet' together with their alchemical mottoes: they are Hermes [Trismegistus], Maria [the Jewess], Democritus, Morienus, Avicenna, Albertus Magnus, Arnoldus [de Villanova], Thomas Aquinas, Raim[undus] Lullius, 'Rocher [i.e. Roger] Bacon', Melchior [Cibinensis] and 'Anonymus Sarmata'.
Bought at the Sotheby sale by Heffers for £13.10s. and sold to Keynes on 5 September 1936 for £17.10s.
See Dobbs, Foundations, 131.
• Ms. 30 (SL33/R19) 'Index Chemicus' (1680s), in Latin, c. 20,000 words, 123 pp. on 94 ff., followed by related drafts and supplementary material, also in Latin, c. 5,000 words, 49 pp.
The main text of the 'Index' appears on the rectos, with supplementary notes on the facing versos.
An elaborate alphabetical subject-index to the literature of alchemy, giving page references to over 144 different works, with several earlier and less elaborate drafts. In the most finished (though evidently incomplete) version (Ms. 30 a), the references are frequently supplemented by definitions of terms and processes or even short essays on the topic in question.
Ms. 30 a)
f. 1 An unrelated title page and table of contents which appears to have come astray (before the Sotheby sale) from Keynes Ms. 35: many though not all of the headings listed occur also in that manuscript.
f. 2 Title: 'Index Chemicus'. On the following folios (3-94), most head-words are followed by a definition and references, others merely by references, and a few by gaps to be filled in at a later date.
Ms. 30 b)
f. 1r 'Index Chymicus': alphabetical draft list of subject headings for the index, followed (ff. 2-5) by another index, much less developed than that in a) above.
Ms. 30 c)
Another draft 'Index Chemicus' on 12 ff.
Ms. 30 d)
'Supplementum Indicis Chemici' on 8 ff.
Bought at the Sotheby sale by Gabriel Wells for £58. Yahuda attempted to buy it on 12 August 1636 and had done so by 25 August since Keynes asked to see it on that date but was advised by Wells on 4 September that the lot had gone. Yahuda subsequently exchanged it, together with SL72 (now Keynes Ms. 44) for lots 236 (now Yahuda Var. 1 Ms. 5), 258 (now Yahuda Var. 1 Ms. 23) and 263 (now Babson Ms. 434). See Spargo, '1936 sale', 130-1.
Erroneously described in the Sotheby catalogue as 113 pp. + 49 pp.
Detailed account in Westfall, 'Newton's Index Chemicus'; see also his Never at Rest, 358-9.
• Ms. 31 (SL37/R19) 'Liber Mercurioum [sic: leg. 'Mercuriorum'] Corporum' (1668-75), in English, c. 3,000 words, 8 pp. on 4 ff.
Seven pages of alchemical recipes followed by a table of (al)chemical symbols. Clearly not Newton's own composition though the source(s) has/have not been identified.
Bought at the Sotheby sale by Maggs Brothers for £14 and sold to Keynes on 13 August 1936 for the sale price plus 20%. See Spargo, '1936 sale', 127.
Discussed, with a transcript of two of the recipes and facsimile of the table of symbols, in Dobbs, Foundations, 137-8.
• Ms. 32 (SL43/R19) Abstracts of five works by Michael Maier (early 1690s), in Latin, c. 50,000 words in total, 88 pp.
On the cover in Thomas Pellet's hand: 'No 17'.
a) 'Symbola aureæ mensæ duodecim nationum, Authore Michaele Majero. Dat. Francofurti mense Decemb. 1616. Edit Francofurti 1617. Anno ætatis Majeri 49', including copies by Newton of two of Maier's alchemical emblems, 20 pp.
b) 'Lusus Serius. Authore Mich. Majero Com. Pal. Med. D. Dat. 1616 mense Septembri', 4 pp.
c) 'Atalanta fugiens, hoc est Emblemata nova &c. Dat Francofurti mens. Aug. 1617. Edit 1618', 24 pp.
d) 'Viatorium, hoc est De montibus Planetarum septem. Datum Francofurti ad Mœn. 1618. mense Septembri. Edit Rothomagi 1651', 16 pp.
e) 'Septimana Philosophica. Dat. Magdeburgi Anno 1620, Ian. 11 styl. vet.', 24 pp.
Bought at the Sotheby sale by Gabriel Wells for £34 and sold to Keynes on 8 September 1936 for the sale price plus 10%.
See Westfall, Never at Rest, 524, and H1044, 1046, 1048 and 1052.
• Ms. 33 (SL44/R19) 'Manna': transcript (1675?) of an anonymous alchemical treatise, in English, in another hand with additions and notes by Newton, c. 1,500 words, 11 pp. on 6 ff.
A disquisition on the nature of alchemy, stressing that making gold is the most trivial of its aims. Followed by recipes 'To make all pretious stones better then the Natural', 'To make a Diamant', etc. On f. 5r, in Newton's hand, two further recipes under the headings 'Praxis Lapidis' and 'Multiplication', and then a series of notes on the foregoing text headed 'Here follow several notes & different readings collected out of a M.S. communicated to Mr F. by W.S. in 1670, & by Mr F. to me 1675'. Finally (f. 6r), 'An epitome of the practise of the work', also in Newton's hand.
Bought by Maggs Brothers at the Sotheby sale for £6.10s. and sold to Keynes on 13 August 1936 for the sale price plus 20%: see Spargo, '1936 sale', 127.
'Mr F' may be Ezekiel Foxcroft, Fellow of King's College and translator of J.V. Andreæ's Chymische Hochzeit: see Dobbs, Foundations, 111-12 (though the suggestion is disputed by Figala, 'Newton as Alchemist', 103). There is another reference to 'Mr. F.', unequivocally meaning Foxcroft, in 'De Scriptoribus Chemicis', Stanford University Library Ms.: see Figala et al., 'De Scriptoribus', 146-7. Newton's notes clearly date from no earlier than 1675 (the year in which the manuscript was communicated to him), and the handwriting suggests not much later: the preceding text could of course be earlier.
See Figala, 'Exakte Alchemie', 161, including a partial transcript of Newton's comments. A similar version of the text, but without Newton's additions and commentaries, was published by William Cooper in the anthology Aurifontana Chymica (London, 1680: H103).
• Ms. 34 (SL48/R19) Notes on the preparation of 'philosophical mercury' by fermentation and 'ye mediation of Diana's Doves', on the preparation of 'menstrua', etc., in English, c. 2,500 words, 6 pp. on 3 ff.
Abstracted (with copious page references) from various works of 'Eirenæus Philalethes'.
Bought at the Sotheby sale by Maggs Brothers for £14 and sold to Keynes on 13 August 1936 for the sale price plus 20%: see Spargo, '1936 sale', 127.
• Ms. 35 (SL50/R19) Notes on various alchemical texts (early 1680s?), mainly in Latin but with several sections in English, c. 26,100 words, 45 pp. on 30 ff. of which 3 blank.
a) 'Cap 1.', text beginning 'Quomodo metalla generantur', in Latin, c. 1,200 words, 3 pp.
b) 'Cap 3 De radice semine spermate et corpore mineralium', in Latin, c. 1,200 words, 3 pp.
c) 'Cap 3 De Mineralibus ex quibus lapis desumitur', in Latin but including an English verse extract from Thomas Norton, c. 3,500 words, 11 pp.
d) Untitled notes on mercury, lead, tin, sulphur and iron, in Latin and English, citing a very wide range of authors, c. 4,500 words, 14 pp.
e) 'De Mercurio duplato', in Latin, 4 pp., with the sub-headings: 'Ex Turba', 'Ex Artephio', 'Ex Bernardo Trevisano', 'Ex Flamelli Annotationibus'; followed by an earlier draft also headed 'De [mercurio] duplato' (1 p.) and notes out of Dionysius Zacharias (1 p.); in all c. 1,600 words.
f) 'De conjunctione in hora nativitatis', in Latin and English, c. 2,500 words, 8 pp.
Originally enclosed in a wrapper bearing a list of contents, which has somehow found its way into Keynes Ms. 30 (f. 1).
Bought at the Sotheby sale by Gabriel Wells for £44. Yahuda told Keynes on 11 November 1936 that he had bought it and an exchange was agreed: see notes to Yahuda Var. 1 Ms. 24 and Spargo, '1936 sale', 130.
Sections (e) and (f) are wrongly described in the Sotheby catalogue as 5 and 4 pp. respectively.
• Ms. 36 (SL51/R19) Three alchemical excerpts (1668/9), in Latin, c. 4,000 words, 8 pp. on 4 ff.
'De Metallorum Metamorphosi' (f. 1r), divided into a preface and chapters; 'Brevis Manuductio ad rubinum cœlestem' (f. 3r); 'Fons Chemicæ Philosophiæ' (f. 3v).
Bought at the Sotheby sale by Keynes for £13.10s.
Taken from Martinus Birrius, Tres Tractatus De Metallorum Transmutatione [...] incognita auctore (Amsterdam 1668: H1641), containing these three compositions, which are in fact by 'Eirenæus Philalethes' (i.e. George Starkey). See Dobbs, Foundations, 131-2.
• Ms. 37 (SL55/R19) Three alchemical verse extracts, in English, 7 pp. on 4 ff.
'Out of Norton's Ordinal', 200 lines; 'Out of Chaucer's Tale of ye Chanon's Yeoman', 12 lines; 'Out of ye work of Richard Carpenter', 14 lines. Followed by the heading 'Out of Dastins Dream', but this entry breaks off after only one line.
Bought at the Sotheby sale by Keynes for £26.
These are all excerpted from Elias Ashmole's Theatrum Chemicum Britannicum (1652: H93), in which the works quoted from appear on pp. 1-106, 227-56, 275-7 and 257-68 respectively.
• Ms. 38 (SL58/R19) Notebook (early 1690s), containing alchemical notes from a wide range of sources, in English and Latin, c. 7,500 words in all.
Arranged under the headings 'Notanda Chemica' (in Latin, 3 pp.) and 'Sententiæ notabiles' (in Latin and English, 22 pp.). Preceded by the heading 'Index Chemicus', under which is a single entry ('Ablutio') in Latin, and followed by 76 blank leaves.
Bought at the Sotheby sale by Keynes for £40.
'Sententiæ notabiles' published with notes and a brief commentary in Sherwood Taylor, 'Alchemical work'.
• Ms. 39 (SL62/R19) 'Observations of ye matter in ye Glass. Authore Anonymo' (mid-1670s), in English, c. 2,500 words, 6 pp. on 3 ff.
An account of an alchemical experiment, and directions for undertaking another (the latter beginning f. 2r under the heading 'Emanuel'). Presumably transcribed or translated from an unpublished manuscript, and thoroughly non-'mystical' in tone except for the specification (f. 2r) of a prayer for success to be offered before undertaking the experiment and another of thanks to be offered on its successful completion.
Bought at the Sotheby sale by Maggs Brothers for £13.10s. and sold to Keynes on 13 August 1936 for the sale price plus 20%: see Spargo, '1936 sale', 127.
• Ms. 40 (SL64/R19) Incomplete draft treatise on the sequence of operations to be effected in transmutation, mainly in Latin with some English, c. 12,000 words, 42 pp. on 33 ff.
Drawn from the writings of a range of alchemical authorities.
f. 1r Title page reading only 'Opus primum'.
f. 3r 'Gradus primus/ Extractio et Rectificatio Spiritus'
f. 5r 'Extractio auri vivi, et conjunctio ejus'
f. 9r 'Opus Quintum/ Vivificatio et Putrefactio Terræ foliatæ.'
f. 15r 'Opus Quintum/ Vivificatio et Putrefactio Terræ foliatæ': though the title is identical to the foregoing, the text is quite different.
f. 19r 'Opus sextum./ ffixis in album et rubrum. Conjunctio viri rubri cum fœmina alba, & decoctio ad complementum' (partly in English).
f. 27r 'Opus sextum/ Præparatio Mercurij Vulgaris per Veneris Columbas.'
f. 29r 'Opus septimum/ Solutio Metallorum <primo> in Mercurium per Mercurium, deinde in aquam [mercur]ialem et compositio mercurij nostri duplati' (partly in English).
f. 31r 'Opus Octavum/ Conjunctio Putrefactio et Regimen Decoctionis'
f. 33r 'Opus Octavum/ Conjunctio Putrefactio et Regimen Decoctionis' (variant draft).
Bought at the Sotheby sale by William H. Robinson for £27. Keynes asked after it on 12 August 1936 and Robinson informed him the next day that it had been sold to Gabriel Wells. Keynes contacted Wells on 8 September and was offered the lot on 11 September for £34.
Cf. Keynes Ms. 41, Babson Ms. 417 and Dibner Institute NMAHRB Mss. 1070 A.
• Ms. 41 (SL65/R19) A similar composition to Keynes Ms. 40, covering the first six 'operations' (but the fourth is missing). In Latin apart from some citations from George Ripley in English verse in the last two sections, c. 12,000 words, 39 pp. on 20 ff.
Also features extensive interlinear notes and additions apparently inserted after the main text had been written.
f. 1r 'Opus primum. Extractio <& rectificatio> spiritus.'
f. 2r 'Opus secundum. Extractio animæ.'
f. 3r 'Opus tertium. Terræ calcinatio'
f. 5r 'Opus quintum./ Acuatio spiritus rectificanti cum rebus calidis sui generis per sublimationes, & conversio in mercurium vegetabilem ut et in Quintessentiam quæ cælum est Philosophorum, et Liquor Alkahest, quocum fit Aurum potabile.'
f. 11r 'Opus sextum. Solutio sicca et humida metallorum vulgi <eorumq[ue] purgatio &> multiplicatio infinita mercurij sophici et extractio auri vivi.'
Bought at the Sotheby sale by Francis Edwards for £15 and offered to Keynes on approval on 2 September 1936 for £24. Keynes had presumably accepted the deal by 16 September, when Edwards told Yahuda it had been sold.
• Ms. 42 (SL68/R19) 'Pearce the black Monck upon ye Elixir': an alchemical verse allegory, in English with the last four lines in Latin, 226 lines, 7 pp. on 4 ff.
Bought at the Sotheby sale by Keynes for £14.10s., though Lymington had left a bid 'on the house' under the pseudonym 'Ludford'.
Copied from Elias Ashmole's Theatrum Chemicum Britannicum (1652: H93), 269-74 and 427-30.
• Ms. 43 (SL71/R19) Transcripts from two published alchemical tracts, in Latin and English, in all c. 3,000 words, 8 pp. on 4 ff.
f. 1r 'Regulæ seu canones aliquot Philosophici de Lapie [sic: leg. 'Lapide'] Philosophico Authore docto quodam Anonymo. Impress in fine Curationum Paracelsi'. List of alchemical rules in Latin, c. 2,500 words.
f. 4r 'Mayer's ffigures præfixed to Basil Valentine's Keys'. Description of ten alchemical symbols, in English, c. 500 words.
Bought at the Sotheby sale by Maggs Brothers for £21 and sold to Keynes on 18 August 1936 for the sale price plus 20%.
See H1238-H1243 for Newton's Paracelsus collection, and H128 for references to Maier's emblems in Newton's annotations to his copy of Basil Valentine's Last Will and Testament.
• Ms. 44 (SL72/R19) 'Several Questions concerning the Ph[ilosoph]ers St[one]', in English, c. 2,000 words, 7 pp. on 4 ff.
A dialogue between a novice and an adept, each 'Question' being followed by an answer. Transcript or translation of an anonymous unpublished work.
f. 1r 'Quest. 1. Of what kind is the true & only one Philosophical matter'
f. 1v 'Quest. 2. But how ought ye reduction into the first matter to be done.'
f. 2r 'Quest. 3. What is the signe of a perfect fixation and where by can it be known.'
f. 2v 'Quest. 4. But if it should ascend in the said operation what must be done.'
'Quest. 5. What is to be done when the tincture has obteined its perfection.'
f. 3r 'Quest. 6. What ought to be done wth this golden powder'
'Quest. 7. What hereafter'
f. 3v 'Quest. 8. How must the silver be proceeded with'
'Quest. 9. What fire is used in this work'
f. 4r 'Quest. 10. What do you think of the colours of Bernardus.'
'Quest. 11. Is the labour of this work troublesome'
'Quest. 12. Are there no more lyes of the Sophisters.'
Bought at the Sotheby sale for £46 by Gabriel Wells and sold to Yahuda by 4 September 1936. Yahuda then exchanged it, together with SL33, for three lots bought by Keynes (SL236 (now Yahuda Var. 1 Ms. 5), SL258 (now Yahuda Var. 1 Ms. 23) and SL263 (now Babson Ms. 434)). See Spargo, '1936 sale', 130-31.
• Ms. 45 (SL73/R19) 'Practica Mariæ Prophetissæ in Artem Alchemicam' (early 1690s), in Latin, c. 1,500 words, 4 pp. on 3 ff. of which one blank.
A dialogue between 'Aros' and 'Maria', the sister of Moses, in which she replies to his queries about acquiring alchemical wisdom. Concludes with the note 'Extat hoc opus in Theat Chem Vol 5 & Vol 6 p 479 [i.e. Lazarus Zetzner's Theatrum Chemicum (1659-61): it is in fact only in vol. 6] & Arte Aurif. vol. 1 et in Bibliotheca Gallica' [i.e. Bibliothèque des philosophes (1672-8): it is in vol. 1].
Bought at the Sotheby sale by Heffers for £8. Sent to Keynes on approval for £10.10s. on 17 August 1936, and on 7 September following Heffers advised Yahuda that it had already been sold (presumably to Keynes).
See H1608, H90-H91, H221 for the works cited as Newton's sources.
• Ms. 46 (SL77/R19) 'The Three Fires', in English, c. 1,000 words, 3 pp. on 2 ff.
Notes interpreting various pieces of alchemical symbolism. This appears to be Newton's own work, though as usual in his alchemical writing he leans heavily on a range of authorities.
Bought at the Sotheby sale by Heffers for £10.10s., and sold to Keynes on 17 August 1936 for £13.10s. On 7 September Heffers told Yahuda it had gone.
See Dobbs, Janus Faces, 124, and cf. SL78 (whereabouts unknown).
• Ms. 47 (SL80/R19) 'Experimenta Raymundi', in Latin, c. 2,500 words, 5¼ pp.
Descriptions of and notes on 24 experiments, interspersed with alchemical recipes, drawn from the works of (or supposedly of) Ramón Lull [Raimundus Lullius].
Bought at the Sotheby sale by Maggs Brothers for £10.10s. and sold to Keynes on 19 August 1936 for the sale price plus 20%.
See H994-1001 for Newton's Lull collection.
• Ms. 48 (SL84/R19) Two alchemical treatises (one incomplete; after 1686) and a collection of short extracts from various alchemical sources, in Latin and English, in all c. 23,000 words, 76 pp. on 62 ff.
Foliation is continuous through the three sections.
a) Begins with two pages of rough notes in Latin and English. Then comes an incomplete tract in Latin, consisting largely of extracts from other writers but woven into a continuous text, with the following sub-headings:
f. 2r 'Lapidis Compositio'
f. 6r 'Elementorum Conversio Conjunctio et Decoctio in Opere secundo vel utroq[ue]'
f. 10r 'Regimen Ignis'
b) Excerpts, mostly in Latin but with some English:
f. 15v 'Ex Tractatus quinto Rosarij abbreviati'
f. 16r Main heading: 'Materia'. Followed by extracts on the subject 'Ex Philalethi' (f. 16r), 'Ex Trevisano' (f. 18r), 'Ex Grassæ' (f. 19r), 'Ex Epistolo Anonymi in Th. Ch. vol 6 p. 474' (f. 21v), 'Ex Maiero' (also f. 21v), 'Ex Basilio Valentino' (f. 22v), 'Ex Snydero' (f. 23v), 'Iterum ex Basilio Valentino' (f. 24r), 'Ex Rosario Magno' (f. 24v). [Grassae se rapporte vraisemblablement à Grasseus ou Crasseus, cf. Commentaire d'Hortulain à la Table d'Emeraude]
c) 'Decoctio': a self-contained treatise or chapter on the 'regimens', in English with some Latin, consisting like a) of interwoven extracts from a huge range of sources. The headings are drawn (in order) from chapters 24-30 of 'Philalethes'' Secrets Reveal'd, as follows:
f. 26r 'Regimen Mercurij'
f. 32r 'Regimen Saturni'
f. 37r 'Regimen Iovis'
f. 45r 'Regimen Lunæ'
f. 51r 'Regimen Veneris Martis et Solis'
Followed (f. 54r to the end) by an earlier partial draft also headed 'Decoctio'.
The whole is enclosed in a wrapper covered with notes and rough drawings of stills, retorts, etc., on which Thomas Pellet has written 'No 13'.
Bought at the Sotheby sale by Maggs Brothers for £62 and sold to Keynes on 19 August 1936 for the sale price plus 20%.
See H554, 838, 1034, 1296, 1407, 1478, 1553 and 1644 (Newton's 'Philalethes' collection), H168-9 (Trevisanus), H1044-1052 (Maier), H127-130 (Basil Valentine). See also Dobbs, 'Newton's Copy of "Secrets Reveal'd"', 158-9.
• Ms. 49 (SL86/R19) 'The Regimen' (early 1680s), in English and Latin, c. 3,000 words, 7 pp. on 4 ff.
A series of seven 'aphorisms', in English, relating to the stages of transmutation, followed by supporting 'Annotations upon ye foregoing Aphorisms', mostly in Latin but with some English and consisting mainly of notes from various authors. It seems likely that the 'aphorisms' are Newton's own summation of his alchemical reading: he notes, 'This Process I take to be ye work of the best Authors, Hermes, Turba, Morien, Artephius, Abraham ye Iew & Flammel, Scala, Ripley, Maier, the great Rosary, Charnock, Trevisan. Philaletha. Despagnet'.
Bought at the Sotheby sale by Maggs Brothers for £9.10s. and sold to Keynes on 4 August 1936 for the sale price plus 20%.
The seven 'aphorisms' are printed in Dobbs, 'Newton's Copy of "Secrets Reveal'd"', 158 and Westfall, Never at Rest, 357-8.
• Ms. 50 (SL89/R19) Excerpts from Jodocus a Rhe [Johannes Rhenanus], with transcripts of letters to Dr. John Twysden [Twisden] from 'A.C. [leg. A.O.?] Faber' and notes on a work by Faber. In Latin, c. 7,500 words in all, 22 pp. on 11 ff.
f. 1r 'Iodoci a Rhehe Opera Chymica [properly 'Chymiatrica': Frankfurt, 1668]. Descripsi hæc ex originali Msto Mri Iohannis quod penes me habeo. Io. Tw.'
f. 9v 'Epistolæ <quædam A.C.> Fabri, qui una cum consanguineo quodam Dris Io. Twysden opus hocce aggressus est et ad usq[ue] extractionem spiritus [mercur]ij Annis 1673 & 1674, fæliciter perduxit, et autographis descriptæ'. Notes on four letters, dated 3 June and 23 December 1673, 14 January and 24 June 1674.
f. 11r 'Notæ in opus Fabrianum'
Bought at the Sotheby sale by C.A. Stonehill for £13 and offered to Keynes on 7 September 1936 for £20; Stonehill informed Yahuda on 18 September that it had been sold.
Discussed in Westfall, Never at Rest, 288-9. Westfall rather confusingly suggests that 'A.C. Faber' is a mistake for 'A.D. Faber', personal physician to Charles II and author of a book on 'aurum potabile': this seems likely, except that the physician in question is neither A.C. nor A.D. but A[lbert] O[tto] Faber, originally of Lübeck, author of De Auro potabili medicinali (1677). John Twisden was another London physician. See H1397 for Newton's copy of Rhenanus's Opera Chymiatrica: also H740, the compilation by Rhenanus and J. Grasshoff: Harmoniæ inperscrutabilis chymico-philosophicæ, sive Philosophorum antiquorum consentientium [...] decas I(-II) (1625), extensively annotated by Newton. His interest in Rhenanus is also evident in Keynes Ms. 26 and Yahuda Ms. Var. 259.
• Ms. 51 (SL91/R19) Notes on the works of George Ripley [from a manuscript version of 'Eirenæus Philalethes'' Ripley Reviv'd (1678)] (late 1660s/ early 1670s), in English, c. 8,000 words, 14 pp. on 8 ff.
Includes sections 'On Ripley's vision', 'On Ripleys preface to his Gates', and on each of the first six 'Gates' (calcination, solution, separation, conjunction, putrefaction and congelation).
Bought at the Sotheby sale by Maggs Brothers for £16 and sold to Keynes on 13 August 1936 for the sale price plus 20%: see Spargo, '1936 sale', 127.
Westfall (Never at Rest, 287-8 and 288, n. 21) points out that the notes clearly predate the publication of Ripley Reviv'd (1678). Newton cites page references which do not correspond to the printed version and presumably refer to a now lost or unidentified manuscript. Further examples of Newton's interest in Ripley and his expositors (especially 'Philalethes') in Keynes Mss. 17, 52, 53, 54; he subsequently acquired a copy of the published version of Ripley Reviv'd (H1407).
• Ms. 52 (SL92/R19) Complete transcript of 'Sr George Ripley His Epistle to K Edward unfolded' [by 'Eirenæus Philalethes'] plus excerpts from a variant version (late 1660s/ early 1670s), in English with some Latin, c. 10,000 words, 17 pp. on 9 ff.
Variant excerpts begin on f. 7v under the heading 'Ex chartis Mr Sloane'.
Bought at the Sotheby sale by Maggs Brothers for £11.10s. and sold to Keynes on 13 August 1936 for the sale price plus 20%: see Spargo, '1936 sale', 127.
This does not correspond to any of the three published versions of the work in question and predates two of them (it appeared in Chymical, Medicinal, and Chirurgical Addresses made to Mr Samuel Hartlib Esq. (1655: H378), on its own in 1677 and in Ripley Reviv'd (1678: H1407)). It can be collated with BL Sloane 633, while the variant excerpts correspond to BL Sloane 3633. See Dobbs, Foundations, 113 and Wilkinson, 'Bibliographical puzzles', 235-44. See also Keynes Mss. 17, 51, 53, 54.
• Ms. 53 (SL93/R19) 'Of ye first Gate' (mid-1690s), in English with some Latin, c. 4,000 words, 9 pp. on 5 ff.
A compilation, and in some cases an exposition, of other writers' comments on (or supposedly on) Ripley's 'First Gate' (in the 'Compound of Alchemie', Theatrum Chemicum Britannicum (1652), 107-93).
Bought at the Sotheby sale by Heffers for £12.10s.; Keynes expressed an interest on 12 August 1936 and presumably went on to buy it.
Contains a Strasbourg lily watermark, as does Keynes Ms. 23: see Shapiro, 'Dating Game', 197-8.
Probably composed together with Keynes Ms. 21: see notes there; see also Keynes Mss. 17, 23, 51, 52, 54 and Babson Ms. 420.
• Ms. 54 (SL94/R19) 'Ripley expounded', in English, c. 4,500 words, 12 pp.; and 'Notes upon Ripley,' in English, c. 1,500 words, 7 pp.
The first section is another commentary on Ripley's 'Gates', similar in construction to Keynes Mss. 51 and 53 but quite different in content, and this time covering all twelve 'gates': in addition to the six mentioned above under Keynes Ms. 51 there are cibation, sublimation, fermentation, exaltation, multiplication and projection.
Bought at the Sotheby sale by Maggs Brothers for £13 and sold to Keynes on 13 August 1936 for the sale price plus 20%: see Spargo, '1936 sale', 127.
The 'Notes upon Ripley' represent, in Dobbs's words, 'Newton's study of Philalethes' comments on Ripley' (Janus Faces, 122, n. 1). See also Keynes Mss. 17, 51, 52, 53.
• Ms. 55 (SL97/R19) Notes on Sendivogius (c. 1685-90), in English and Latin, c. 12,000 words, 37 pp. on 21 ff.
f. 1r 'Sendivogius Explained': notes on Treatises 1-7 and 9-12 [of Sendivogius's A New Light of Alchymie (English translation London, 1650)], with precise page and line numbers for each reference.
f. 13r 'The Preface to ye Philosophick Riddle'
'The Philosophick Riddle'
f. 15v Very brief notes on 'The Dialogue between Mercury the Alchymist & Nature'; 'The 3 principles of all things'; 'Of Sulphur' (ff. 15v-16r).
f. 17r-21r 'Sendivogius explained': another set of notes on Sendivogius, in Latin.
Bought at the Sotheby sale by Maggs Brothers for £17.10s. and sold to Keynes on 13 August for (mysteriously) exactly the same price: see Spargo, '1936 sale', 127.
Earlier copies (not in Newton's hand) of ff. 1-12 in BL Sloane Mss. 3630.6 (ff. 102-12) and 3778.1 (ff. 2-18). Sloane Ms. 3630 belonged to Richard Dee in 1648, so this section is undoubtedly not by Newton. Figala ('Exakte Alchemie, 183) identifies it as an extract from a lost work ascribed to 'Philalethes', though she doubts whether in this case this means George Starkey. See also Keynes Ms. 19, Yahuda Ms. Var. 259.4, Babson Ms. 925, Dibner Institute, and H1192 and 1485.
• Ms. 56 (SL98/R19) 'Sententiæ luciferæ et Conclusiones notabiles' (1696-8?), in Latin and English, c. 6,000 words, 18 pp.
Short extracts from a wide range of alchemical authors.
Bought at the Sotheby sale by Francis Edwards for £13 and sold to Keynes on 18 August 1936 for £18.
On the first page in identical handwriting is a note relating to the silver recoinage of 1696-8.
• Ms. 57 (SL99/R19) Notes on various (al)chemical processes (separations, processions, sublimations, distillations, etc.), mainly in Latin with some English, c. 9,000 words, 17 pp. on 10 ff.
Includes references to 'Raymundus' [Ramón Lull], Ferrar, Avicenna, Sendivogius, Flamel, Zetzner's Theatrum Chemicum, 'Philalethes' and others.
Bought at the Sotheby sale by Maggs Brothers for £13.10s. and sold to Keynes on 19 August 1936 for the sale price plus 20%.
• Ms. 58 (SL100/R19) Three apparently unrelated fragments (early-mid 1670s), in English and Latin, c. 3,000 words in all, 12 pp. on 8 ff.
a) f. 1r Copy of a recipe for multiplying silver (by adding silver, antimony and lead to cinnabar).
b) ff. 2r-5r Notes on 'Aqua Sicca', 'Aquila Iovis' and 'Sceptrum Iovis', with repeatedly reworked recipes for preparing these substances, accompanied by annotations either in parallel columns or at the foot of the page.
c) ff. 6r-8v Notes and recipes derived from an unidentified source, with rough sketches of furnaces and calculations.
Bought at the Sotheby sale by Heffers for £14.10s. and offered to Keynes on approval on 5 September 1936 for £19.10s. Heffers told Yahuda on 7 September that it was out on approval, and a week later that 'Our client is keeping this lot'.
Section b) is analysed in detail by Dobbs (Foundations, 167-75), who regards it as 'of extraordinary importance for a study of his [Newton's] alchemical methodology' (ibid., 168), being Newton's attempt to elucidate the symbolism of John de Monte Snyders' The Metamorphosis of the Planets (see Newton's transcript of this text, Cushing/Whitney Medical Library, Yale University). See also the notes on Snyders in the Rare Book and Manuscript Library, Columbia University.
• Ms. 59 (SL101/R19) 'De secreto solu[tionum? (MS torn)]', in English and Latin, c. 1,000 words, 3 pp. on 2 ff.
Mainly about strategies for identifying 'Diana's Doves', and drawn largely from various works of 'Eirenæus Philalethes'.
Bought at the Sotheby sale by Maggs Brothers for £7 and sold to Keynes on 19 August 1936 for the sale price plus 20%.
• Ms. 60 (SL105/R19) 'Tabula Smaragdina' and 'Hieroglyphica Planetarum', in Latin, c. 1,750 words in all, 4 pp. on 3 ff. of which one blank.
f. 1r 'Tabula Smaragdina': another copy of the Latin excerpt from 'Hermes Trismegistus' reproduced in Keynes Ms. 28, with the [correct] page reference 'Theatr. Chym. Vol. 1 pag 362', followed by other excerpts on transmutation from Zetzner's Theatrum Chemicum.
f. 2r 'Hieroglyphica Planetarum': notes, principally from Lull, Maier and Flammel, on astronomico-alchemical symbolism.
Bought at the Sotheby sale by Maggs Brothers for £4.10s. and sold to Keynes on 19 August 1936 for the sale price plus 20%.
See also Keynes Ms. 27.
• Ms. 61 (SL107/R19) 'Thesaurus Thesaurorum sive Medicina Aurea', in English (apart from the title and the concluding remark 'Laus Deo'), c. 1,200 words, 5 pp. on 3 ff.
Transcribed from an unpublished manuscript (see Dobbs, Janus Faces, 123). Begins with a defence of alchemical writings which, despite their apparent obscurity, do contain real truths, and proceeds to a detailed recipe for producing a red 'elixir' to transmute all metals into gold.
Bought at the Sotheby sale by Maggs Brothers for £9.10s. and sold to Keynes on 22 July 1936 for £12.10s.: see Spargo, '1936 sale', 126.
• Ms. 62 (SL108/R19) 'The Work of an old Priest, viz: B.' and other alchemical recipes (late 1660s), in English, c. 3,500 words, 8 pp. on 9 ff. of which one blank.
Includes directions 'To turne [silver] into [gold]' and for making '[silver] out of [mercury] and [iron]', a recipe for 'aurum potabile', etc., with drawings of retorts, receivers, and other chemical equipment.
Bought at the Sotheby sale by Maggs Brothers for £16 and sold to Keynes on 30 July 1936 for the sale price plus 20%.
Evidently abstracted from Keynes Ms. 67.
• Ms. 63 (SL111/R19) 'Verses at the end of B. Valentine's mystery of the Microcosm' (c. 1670?), in English, c. 580 lines, 20 pp. on 10 ff.
Several extracts from verses on various chemicals, on the 'planets' that symbolise the metals, and on 'the first Matter'. On f. 10r, a small pen-and-ink drawing of an alchemical emblem (dogs chasing hares in a circle) illustrating one of the verses.
Bought at the Sotheby sale by Heffers for £7.10s. Keynes asked to look at it on 12 August 1936, and when Yahuda later enquired he was told by Heffers on 7 September that it had been sold. It is marked '£10', presumably by Heffers, though whether this is the price Keynes actually paid is not clear.
• Ms. 64 (SL112/R19) 'Basil Valentine Currus Triumphalis Antimonij': notes and abstracts (c. 1667-8), in Latin, c. 4,500 words, 8 pp. on 4 ff.
Includes (in square brackets) a very few explicatory notes by Newton.
Bought at the Sotheby sale by Heffers for £8 and sold to Keynes, who had asked to inspect it on 12 August, on 5 September 1936 for £10.15s. It had appeared in Heffers' Catalogue 493 (1936) as Item 7, and rather bewilderingly appeared again, despite having been sold to Keynes, as Item 750 in their Catalogue 513 (1937), in both cases priced £12.10s.
See Dobbs (who suggests the date), Foundations, 191, and H129 (a heavily dog-eared English translation of the work, though these notes were obvious based on a Latin edition).
• Ms. 65 (SL118/R19) Incomplete copy of W[illiam] Yworth, 'Processus Mysterii Magni Philosophicus' (c. 1702), in English, in (probably) Yworth's hand, c. 22,000 words, 75 pp. on 38 ff.
Copy of a ten-chapter version of this unpublished treatise. The last chapter is incomplete. The author's name appears on ff. 1r and 2v. A dedicatory epistle (to Newton?) refers to a work (Mercury's caducean rod, by 'Cleidophorus Mystagogus', i.e. Yworth) published in 1702.
Bought at the Sotheby sale by Francis Edwards for £2.10s. and sold to Keynes on 18 August 1936 for £3.10s.
Cf. the abstract in Keynes Ms. 66, the further fragment in Keynes Ms. 91, and the variant copies in Hampshire Record Office, Ms. NC17, and Yale Mellon Ms. 80. See also Figala, 'Zwei Londoner Alchemisten', and Figala and Petzold, 'Alchemy in the Newtonian circle' (esp. 179-90). There is a letter in the same hand from Yworth to Newton, New College, Oxford Ms. 360(2), f. 78r-v, printed in NC, 7: 441 (and dated c. 1705 in NC but shown to be 1702 by Figala and Petzold, op. cit., 186). H1138, 1302-3 and 1760 are all printed Yworth works owned by Newton; H1138, 1302 and 1303 are works written under his pseudonym Cleidophorus Mystagogus.
• Ms. 66 (SL119/R19) Incomplete abstract of Yworth's 'Processus Mysterii Magni Philosophicus' condensed into five chapters (c. early 1690s), in English, c. 3,300 words, 12 pp. on 7 ff.
Bought at the Sotheby sale by Heffers for £10.10s. Keynes expressed an interest on 12 August 1936 and presumably went on to buy it.
The Sotheby catalogue describes this as an abstract of the first five chapters of the work, but it is a five-chapter abstract of the whole work, or at least of as much of it as is preserved in the ten chapters of Keynes Ms. 65.
See Keynes Mss. 65 and 91, Hampshire Record Office Ms. NC 17 and Yale Mellon Ms. 80.
• Ms. 67 (SL120/R19) Miscellaneous collection of mostly unpublished alchemical texts, recipes, reports of experiments, etc. (1660s). In English and Latin, in four different hands, none of them Newton's, though there are a few additions by him, 125 ff.
On the cover, in Thomas Pellet's hand: 'No 2 Miscellanea'.
f. 1r 'The Apocalyps or Revelacon [sic] of the Secret Spirit by an vnknowen Author', in English.
ff. 7r-10r Collection of short citations (all in English) from Hermes, Pythagoras, Rasis, Morienus, Arnoldus de Villanova, Ripley, Johannes Damascene, Lull, Agrippa, Aristotle, Geber, Vincentius, the Rosarium Philosophorum, Gratian and Avicenna.
f. 10v List of axioms, in English.
f. 11r 'of the Stone', in English and Latin.
f. 13r 'Hic sequitur questiones et soluciones inter magistrum & Disipulum [sic]', in English.
f. 19r 'The philosophers water of might', in English.
f. 20r 'The true order in ye worke of ye ph[ilosoph]ers stone fownde written, by an vnknowne aucthore', in English.
f. 23r 'An vnknowen author, vpon the philosophers stone', in English verse [from Elias Ashmole's Theatrum Chemicum Britannicum (1652: H93), 420].
f. 27r 'Sr Ed. Kelley Concerninge the philosophers stone written to his especiall friend G.S. Gent.', in English verse [Theatrum Chemicum Britannicum, 332-3].
f. 28r 'The vision of Sr George Ripley Chanon of Bridlingtone', in English verse [Theatrum Chemicum Britannicum, 374].
f. 29r 'Arnould de villa noua touching the philosophers stone', in English verse.
f. 34r 'A true Cittrination: de Sr Ino Bar:', in English.
ff. 34v-41r A great many largely technical instructions, eg. 'To seale upp any glass wth Hermes seale'.
f. 43r An untitled passage on transmutation, in English.
f. 46r 'The practize of ye stone <by a parable> written by Doctor Alemant, & Lorde Barnard Erle of Treuisone, of the Philosophers stone', in English.
f. 49r 'Ex epistole Ioh[ann]is paup[er]is', in Latin.
f. 50v 'Ex Breuiaru[m] Ioh[ann]is Paup[er]is', in Latin.
f. 51r 'Vsus eius ad morbos', in Latin.
ff. 52r-64r Latin extracts from a variety of alchemical authors.
f. 64v A list of the works of 'Iohn Dastian' [Dastin].
f. 65v Account of a medical preparation of juniper, in English.
f. 66r 'De Alkymiæ veritate. liber antiqu[us] in pergameno script[us] Mr Savils prœbet': Latin digest.
f. 68r A Latin prayer for God's blessing on alchemical labours, and English excerpts from 'Mr barkers notes' about his furnaces.
ff. 69v-101v Miscellaneous alchemical recipes in English and Latin, many with detailed source references.
f. 102r-104r Notes on alchemical terms, symbols and processes, in English.
f. 104v An elaborate recipe for 'Aqua p[er]manens p[er] Lapide Philosophico', in English.
f. 106v 'The breefe of Sr Edwards Veres booke. August. 18. 1610', in English.
f. 109r-112r Sketches of chemical vessels, then a resumption of the recipes at ff. 69v-101v.
ff. 114r-117v Alchemical recipes, in English but transliterated into the Greek alphabet.
ff. 122r-124r A series of Latin notes headed 'Cristallus'.
f. 125 is blank apart from the heading 'Contra [mercurium]'.
Bought at the Sotheby sale by Heffers for £6.10s. It appeared in Heffers' Catalogues 493 (1936) as Item 11 and 513 (1937) as Item 753, at £10.10s. in both cases, although Keynes had expressed an interest on 12 August 1936. Heffers also told Yahuda on 7 September 1936 that it was available for £10.10s. Quite when Keynes acquired it, or for how much, is not clear.
SL120 is described in the Sotheby catalogue as 112 leaves (presumably not including the blank ones).
Cf. Keynes Ms. 62, which was copied from various parts of this.
• Ms. 91 (Part of SL28/R19) Two unrelated tracts in the same hand (not Newton's), in English, c. 1,000 words in total, 1 p. + 8 pp.
The first tract, which has three lines added by Newton, begins 'The Pondus in Dissecting the Subject Matter'. The second and more substantial, entitled 'Experim[ent] the 4th. Being the Coralary of all ye former, Containing a true Process of the whole Worke', concerns how to 'Continue ye Hunting of ye Green Lyon'.
The remainder of SL28 is in Babson Mss. 433 and 725 and Francis A. Countway Library of Medicine, Boston Medical Library B MS c 41 c). The complete lot was bought at the Sotheby sale by Maggs Brothers for £17. Keynes must have taken it on approval but returned it on 19 August 1936. It was subsequently split into four (following a division suggested by Keynes in a note accompanying the returned manuscript). Parts 3 and 4 appeared as Items 161 and 162 in Catalogue 3 (1943) of the London bookseller E. Weil: this part (part 4) was bought by Keynes for £4 on 9 December 1943 (seemingly his last purchase of an alchemical manuscript).
The second tract is identified by Figala and Petzold ('Alchemy in the Newtonian circle', 180, 187-8) as a variant fragment of the 'Processus mysterii magni philosophicus' of William Yworth: cf. Keynes Mss. 65 and 66, Yale Mellon Ms. 80, and Hampshire Record Office Ms. NC17.
• Ms. 96 (SL134/R17) Five original letters from Fatio de Duillier to Newton, all in English; also letters from Fatio to John Conduitt and other Fatio-related material.
a) 17 September 1692, on Fatio's ill health and probably imminent death, c. 300 words, 1 p.
b) 22 September 1692, on improvements in his health, with a character of his elder brother, c. 600 words, 2 pp.
c) 4 May 1693, on medicines and a 'metallick putrefaction and fermentation' being conducted on mercury by an unnamed friend, c. 1,000 words, 2 pp.
d) 15 June 1717, on getting a watch made for Dr Bentley, with an attached note on astronomy for Halley, c. 100 words, 1 p.
e) 1 April 1724, covering note for a draft 'Advertisement' (not present) about a project relating to watch-making, c. 90 words, 1 p.
Followed by six letters from Fatio to Conduitt dated between 8 August 1730-12 April 1732, two copies of a petition for a reward for uncovering a plot against the king's life, one addressed to the king and one to the Commons, an abstract of his letter to Dr Worth concerning this plot (all in Fatio's hand) and a printed copy of Fatio's Latin verse eclogue 'Neutonus' (1728).
Bought at the Sotheby sale by Maggs Brothers for £12 and sold to Keynes on 30 July 1936 for the sale price plus 20%.
a) printed in NC, 3: 229-30; b) in NC, 3: 231-3; c) in NC, 3: 265-7; d) in NC, 6: 391-3, and e) in NC, 7: 270-71.
• Ms. 98 (SL143/R17) Original letter from Locke to Newton, dated London, 26 July 1692, in English, c. 400 words, 2 pp.
Includes a copy of two alchemical recipes (the first, headed 'First Period', being only part of a longer process with the rest of which Newton was apparently familiar), found among the papers of Boyle (d. 30 December 1691), which were being inspected by Locke, 'Dr Dickison' (i.e. Edmund Dickinson) and Dr [Daniel] Cox [or Coxe, another associate of Boyle].
Bought at the Sotheby sale by Maggs Brothers for £38 and sold to Keynes on 4 August 1936 for the sale price plus 20%.
Printed in Brewster (1855), 2: 461-2 and NC, 3: 216-17. Newton's reply (2 August 1692) is in the Bodleian and printed in NC, 3: 217-19.
• Ms. 99 (SL144/R17) Miscellaneous correspondence.
Original letter from 'Fran: Meheux' to Newton, 2 March 1683, in English, c. 200 words, 1 p. Reports the progress made by an unspecified chemist in extracting different coloured 'earths' from 'the first watter'. On reverse, in Newton's hand: a list of names of 21 people in the Stanford and Colsterworth district, four of whom are bracketed as 'Freeholders examined as witnesses'.
Original letter from John Drummond to Newton, in English, acknowledging a copy of the Opticks in Latin presented to the Royal College of Physicians, 20 July 1708, 1 p.
Original letter to Newton from John Chamberlayne, in English, regarding a Signior Bianchi, 21 Aug. 1710, 1 p., with theological notes on Plotinus and Marcellus on the reverse.
Copy of a letter from John Caswell to John Flamsteed concerning magnetism, not in Newton's hand, 14 October 1694, 5 pp.
Original letters from M. Pilkington to Mrs Savage, 20 February 1711, 2 pp., and from Henry Newton to Newton, December 1710, 4 pp., and a two-line note (not in Newton's hand and evidently written shortly after his death) on the dates of Newton's membership and presidency of the Royal Society.
Bought at the Sotheby sale by Maggs Brothers for £7 and sold to Keynes on 4 August 1936 for the sale price plus 20%.
Meheux's letter printed in NC, 2: 386-7 (with the list on reverse as a footnote), Drummond's in NC, 4: 528, and Chamberlayne's in NC, 5: 59-60, without the theological notes.
II. Yahuda Mss., Jewish National and University Library, Jerusalem, Israel Alchemical Manuscripts
• Var. 1 Ms. 30 (SL40/R41) 'Out of La Lumiere sortant des Tenebres' and 'Out of the Commentator on La Lumiere sortant de Tenebris [sic]' (c. 1687-92), in English, incomplete, c. 1,700 words, 4 pp.
Abstracts translated [by Newton?] from La lumière sortant par soy même des tenebres (1687), itself a translation of a Latin translation of and commentary on an original text in Italian verse possibly by Otto Tachenius. The commentary begins on f. 1v. On the 'grand mercury of Philosophers' and analogies between alchemical transmutations and the original Creation. Includes occasional elucidatory notes by Newton in square brackets.
Bought at the Sotheby sale by Keynes for £7.10s. On 3 and again on 25 April 1938 Keynes wrote to Yahuda reminding him about a Newton manuscript he (Keynes) had given him as part of a proposed swap but for which Keynes had received nothing in return. Yahuda, however, claimed that as far as he was aware the exchanges had all been fully settled. It seems likely this is the manuscript referred to by Keynes: see Spargo, '1936 sale', 132-3.
The remainder of these notes had become detached before the Sotheby sale and were sold, together with a separate set of notes on the same work, as SL41, which is now Babson Ms. 414 (q.v. for further details).
The complete text, i.e. Yahuda Var. 1 Ms. 30 and Babson Ms. 414B, is transcribed with very useful introductory notes in Dobbs, Janus Faces, 278-87. H1003 is Newton's copy of the French text.
• Var. 1 Ms. 38 (SL76/R41) 'De Igne sophorum et materia quam calefacit', in Latin and English, c. 2,500 words, 6 pp. on 4 ff. of which one blank.
A collection of alchemical extracts under the headings 'Moschus in Turb[a]', 'Philal[ethes] in Metal[lorum] Metamorph[osi]', 'Nov[um] Lum[en]' (f. 1r), 'Marrow of Alk' (f. 1v-2r), 'Philal. comment. on Ripl[ey]' (2r-3r), 'Brevis Manuductio [ad rubinum cœlestem]' (f. 3r-v).
Bought at the Sotheby sale by Maggs Brothers for £9 and sent to Yahuda on approval on 26 August 1936 for the sale price plus 20%; on 4 September Maggs thanked him for having decided to keep it.
The Sotheby catalogue misreads the title as 'De Igne sophorem et materia quam cale facit', an error replicated in Ch-H.
Cf. Keynes Ms. 36.
• Var. 259 (SL35/R41) Twelve small bundles of alchemical notes and extracts (c. early 1680s), in various languages and from a very wide range of sources, 100 pp. enclosed in a wrapper bearing a list of contents.
1 'Le Procede Vniverselle [sic pour faire la Pierre Philosophiale laquelle l'auteur dit davoir faict quatre fois' [by Johannes Rhenanus?], in French, incomplete, c. 1,500 words, 6 pp.
2 'Artephij antiquissimi Philosophi de arte occulta & lap. Philos. Liber secretus', in Latin, c. 3,500 words, 8 pp. See H1309-10.
3 'The Hyeroglyphicall figures of Nicholas Flammel explained, anno 1399', in English, with a pen-and-ink drawing of some of the hieroglyphs, c. 3,000 words, 7 pp.
4 'Novum Lumen Chymicum Sendivogij. Divi Leschi genus amo [anagram of 'Michael Sendivogius']', in Latin, c. 4,000 words, 8 pp. See H445 and 1485.
5 'Enchiridion Physicæ Ioh. Spagneti. Spes una est in Agno [anagram of 'Ioannes Spagnetus', i.e. Jean d'Espagnet]', in Latin, c. 3,500 words, 8 pp.
6 A bundle of English notes and extracts: 'Nortons Ordinall', 'Dastins dreame', 'The black monkes Earth of Earth', 'The hunting of ye Green Lyon', 'Riplys Epistle to K. Edward ye 4th', 'Riplys 12 Gates', c. 4,000 words in all, 8 pp. [These are all based on Elias Ashmole's Theatrum Chemicum Britannicum (1652: H93): the 'Epistle' and 'Twelve Gates' are sub-sections of Ripley's 'Compound of Alchemie' (107-93), and 'Pearce the Black Monke upon the Elixir' (269-74) begins 'Take Erth of Erth, Erth's Moder'.]
7 'Ex Augurelli Chrysopœia', in Latin, 2 pp., followed by 'The Marrow of Alchymy' [by 'Eirenæus Philalethes': see H1034], in English, 6 pp.; in all c. 3,000 words.
8 A bundle of Latin notes and extracts: 'Riplæi Tractatus tertius', notes on the Tabula Smaragdina, 'Ex Authore Anonymo De Tincturis', 'Praxis fæmina'; in all c. 1,800 words, 5 pp.
9 A bundle of Latin notes and extracts: 'Observanda', 'Instructio de Arbori solari', 'Lucerna Salis Philosophorum'; in all c. 1,500 words, 12 pp.
10 'Commentatio de Pharmaco Catholico per Iohn de Monte Snyder Latinitate donata per Authorem Chymicæ Vannus', in Latin, c. 5,000 words, 13 pp. See H1378.
11 'F[ather] B. Valentine's 12 Keys', 2 pp., followed by 'References to B Valentines works', 11 pp., in English; in all c. 5,000 words. See H127-130, esp. 128.
12 Miscellaneous notes in Latin, c. 4,000 words, 8 pp.
Bought at the Sotheby sale by Gabriel Wells for £70. Yahuda asked for it on 1 and 12 August 1936 but presumably unsuccessfully. What happened in the meantime is not clear, but it was presented to the Jewish National and University Library a little after December 1958 by Dr Sidney M. Edelstein (an American chemical manufacturer).
Bundle 1 is attributed to 'Jodocus a Rhe', i.e. Johannes Rhenanus, in the Sotheby catalogue, but the ascription is queried (though not categorically rejected) by Figala and Petzold, 'Alchemy in the Newtonian circle', 177, n. 1.
• Ms. Var. 260 (SL59/R41) Notebook containing little but headings ('De Sale'; 'Solutio'; 'Conjunctio et Liquefactio'; 'Imbibitio & Calcinatio', etc.), with gaps for entries left blank apart from a few perfunctory notes in Latin, 15 ff.
Bought at the Sotheby sale for £5 by William H. Robinson, who told Keynes on 13 August 1936 that it was still in stock. Presumably, however, Keynes did not buy it. Presented to the Jewish National and University Library a little after December 1958 by Dr S.M. Edelstein.
III. Edwin Newton Ohl Collection, Francis A. Countway Library of Medicine, Boston Medical Library, Massachusetts, USA Alchemical Manuscripts
• B MS c 41 (SL87/R42) Nine miscellaneous items relating to (al)chemical processes, in Latin and English, 48 pp. in a wrapper headed 'Alychimya' [sic] in another hand and bearing a list of contents in Newton's.
The headings in the text are as follows:
1 'The Regimens described, wth ye times & signes', mainly consisting of notes and abstracts from 'Philalethes'' works, especially Secrets Reveal'd, in English, c. 2,000 words, 6 pp.
2 'Of Proportions': Latin extracts from various sources, mainly the Turba Philosophorum and 'Philalethes'' Introitus Apertus [the Latin version of Secrets Reveal'd], c. 1,200 words, 4 pp.
3 'De Primis materialibus principijs', in Latin, c. 1,000 words, 8 pp. Unfinished lexicon, with entries beginning 'De Magnesia', 'De Saturno', 'De 4 Elementis' and the like, with gaps for more material to be added. Includes the sub-headings 'De Sale', 'De præparatione mercurij', 'De Extractione sulphuris', with several individual entries under each.
4 'Axioms', in English with Latin citations, c. 800 words, 4 pp. Forty-three numbered instructions for an alchemical operation, followed by four further unnumbered notes, citing a wide range of sources with blank spaces left for precise volume and page references to be filled in.
5 Draft headings for an alchemical index (from 'Aqua compos' to 'Venus'), 4 pp., described on the title page as 'An alphabeticall explanation of chemicall words': there are no entries except that most of the headings are followed by one or more [page?] numbers.
6 'Conclusione ex Riplei operibus deductæ', in Latin, c. 1,000 words, 3 pp. Twenty-six conclusions interpreting passages from Ripley, with page references.
7 'Præparatio Salis ex Riplæi operibus', Latin notes, c. 500 words, 2 pp.
'Salis virtutes', Latin notes, c. 500 words, 2 pp.
8 'Of the Alcahest', mainly in English with some Latin, c. 3,000 words, 8 pp. Notes drawn principally from [J.B. Van] Helmont and 'Philalethes'.
9 'De medendi Arte, & usu Lapidis', in English and Latin, c. 2,000 words, 6 pp. Notes from a wide range of sources including the Book of Maccabees. Followed by two brief notes in Latin headed 'De projectione' and 'De morbis sanandis', 1 p.
The Sotheby catalogue describes this lot as consisting of seven items, treating sections 5-7 as one item. The divisions used here are those stipulated by Newton himself on the title sheet. The title sheet also promises a tenth section, 'A Collection of ancient Hieroglyphicks', but if this was ever present it had vanished by the date of the Sotheby sale.
Bought at the Sotheby sale by Francis Edwards for £56 and sold to Yahuda, who promised to pass it on to Keynes as part of an exchange deal (see notes to Yahuda Var. 1 Ms. 24 and Spargo, '1936 sale', 130). How it was acquired by the Boston Medical Library is unknown.
Section 1 discussed and quoted at length in Dobbs, 'Newton's Copy of "Secrets Reveal'd"', 150-52.
• B MS c 41 b) (Unidentified in Sotheby/R42) Highly technical notes in Latin and English on the distillation of salt, c. 300 words, 2 pp.
• B MS c 41 c) (Part of SL28/R42) Miscellaneous alchemical recipes, including one to turn lead into mercury by mixing it with corn and olive oil over a moderate heat, in English, c. 200 words, 1 p.
The remainder of SL28 is now Babson Mss. 433 and 725 and Keynes Ms. 91 (q.v. for the sale history).
IV. The British Library, London, UK Alchemical Manuscripts
• Add. Mss 44888 (SL110/R31) 'Basilius Valentinus & Iodochus a Rhe': abstracts from these authors (the latter is more usually called Johannes Rhenanus) on minerals, transmutation of metals, vitriol, etc., in English, c. 6,000 words, 14 pp.
Bought at the Sotheby sale by Bernard Quaritch for £15 and offered as Item 60 in his Catalogue no. 253 (1936) for £24. On 11 September 1936 Quaritch offered it to Yahuda for that price, but it was purchased by Lord Wakefield and presented to the British Museum (now British Library) later the same year. See British Museum Quarterly 11 (1937), 66.
V. Fitzwilliam Museum, Cambridge, UK Alchemical Manuscripts
• (SL210/R32) Note-book (1662-69), 118 ff. with entries on 34 pp.
Flyleaf inscribed 'Isaac Newton/ pret. 8d'. This is followed by a sequence of letters (the key to a cipher?), reading:
The book proper begins with shorthand notes on 3 pp., dated 1662, and detailing Newton's sins before and after Whitsunday of that year. Then follows a list of expenses, 7 pp., dated from 23 May 1665 to April 1669 (about 140 entries), including assorted chemicals, two furnaces and a copy of the Theatrum Chemicum [ed. Lazarus Zetzner, 1659-61: H1608] bought in April 1669. On f. 10v another hand has listed the names of four German noblemen.
The other end of the book begins with 'Nova Cubi Hebræi Tabella' on 1 p., followed by various problems in geometry and the conic sections (ellipsis, parabola, hyperbole, etc.), with diagrams, 24 pp. On the back flyleaf in Thomas Pellet's hand: 'Sep 25 1727/ Not fit to be printed/ T Pellet'.
Described and partly published in Brewster (1855), 1: 31-3. The shorthand section deciphered and discussed in Westfall, 'Short-Writing and the State of Newton's Conscience, 1662'.
VI. Hampshire Record Office, Winchester, Hampshire, UK Alchemical Manuscripts
• NC3/1-6 (SL83/R32) Miscellaneous (al)chemical recipes, in four different hands, none of which is Newton's (or Humphrey Newton's). In English, c. 2,000 words, 10 pp. on 7 ff.
Includes 'A Medicine to transmute Copper'; 'To make artificiall pearle', and other untitled recipes and notes in similar vein.
Bought at the Sotheby sale by 'Maxwell' (i.e. Lymington) for £4.10s. and presumably presented by him to Hampshire Record Office either formally or on permanent loan.
• NC17 (SL116/R32) Incomplete variant copy of William Yworth, 'Processus Mysterij Magni Or An Open Entrance to the Great Mysteries of the Ancient Philosophers', in English, in a clerical hand, c. 10,000 words, 107 pp. plus two title pages.
Dated 'Anno Domini 1701' (this evidently refers to date of the original composition, which was never published, not of the transcription, and may mean early 1702 (before 25 March, the first day of the legal year 1702)). Breaks off after Experiment 9 in Chapter Four. On the flyleaf in Thomas Pellet's hand: 'Sep 25 1727/ Not fit to be printed/ T. Pellet'.
Bought at the Sotheby sale by 'Maxwell' (i.e. Lymington) for £3.10s. and presumably presented or permanently loaned by him to Hampshire Record Office.
Cf. Keynes Mss. 65, 66 and 91, Yale Mellon Ms. 80, and the literature cited in the notes to those entries.
VII. 'Estates of Mind', Great Neck, New York, USA Alchemical Manuscripts
• (SL52/R32) 'De Mineralibus': notes on Geber, Basil Valentine, Paracelsus and other alchemical writers, in Latin, c. 800 words, 3 pp. on 2 ff.
Bought at the Sotheby sale by Maggs Brothers for £6.10s. and presumably sold by them to Sir Robert Hadfield, who bequeathed it to the Iron and Steel Institute (later renamed the Institute of Metals). On 13 December 1994 it was sold at Sotheby's for £19,550 to 'Estates of Mind'.
VIII. St Andrews University Library, Fife, UK Alchemical Manuscripts
• Ms. 38195(b) (SL14/R32) 'The Hunting of ye Green Lyon & putrefaction of the body according to the number of the eagles', in English, c. 800 words, 2 pp., followed by miscellaneous notes in Latin, c. 400 words, 1 p.
Transcript from an unidentified work: this is not the 'Hunting of the Greene Lyon' of Ashmole's Theatrum Chemicum Britannicum and Keynes Ms. 20.
Bought at the Sotheby sale by John Read (chemistry professor at St Andrews and a writer on alchemy and early chemistry) with an 'on the house' bid of £12. Read had also expressed an interest in lots 27 (now in the Joseph Halle Schaffner Collection) and 55 (now Keynes Ms. 37).
Karin Figala, in a personal communication, has suggested that the title has a 'Philalethan' ring to it. The headings 'Green Lyon' and 'Eagles' are to be found in the 'Index chemicus' (Keynes Ms. 35).
• Ms. 38195(c) (Part of SL3/R32) A list of 113 alchemical authors, categorised by nationality, and eight anonymous works, 2 pp.
SL3 was bought at the Sotheby sale by 'Goldschmidt' (E.P. Goldschmidt & Co. Ltd., 45 Old Bond Street, London) for £7 and offered to Keynes on approval for £14.15s. but obviously returned. It appeared on p. 38 of a Goldschmidt catalogue of uncertain date divided into two items: 166 ('List of 119 Alchemical Books') at £42, which is now Babson Ms. 418, and 167 ('113 Writers on Alchemy') at £9.9s., which is this manuscript.
See Figala et al., 'De Scriptoribus', 142.
• Ms. 38196 (SL42/R32) Notes and abstracts from assorted alchemical works, in Latin, beginning missing, c. 5,000 words, 8 pp.
Includes the sub-headings 'Arnoldi Speculum Alchymiæ' (p. 3), 'Instructio Galli Anonymi ad filium de Arbore Solari' (also p. 3), 'Emblemata Michaelis Maieri Comitis Germani' (p. 8).
Bought at the Sotheby sale by Heffers for £9. Sent to Keynes on approval on 5 September 1936 but presumably returned. Appeared as item 4 in Heffers' Catalogue no. 493 (1936) at £15 and was presumably bought by John Read (see notes to Ms. 38195 (b) above).
IX. Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA Alchemical Manuscripts
• (SL25/R43) 'The Book of Nicholas Flamel conteining The explication of the Hieroglyphical Figures wch he caused to be put in the Church of the SS. Innocents at Paris', in English, c. 15,000 words, 61 pp.
On the cover, in Thomas Pellet's hand: 'Flamel. No. 54'.
Bought at the Sotheby sale by Gabriel Wells for £21. Yahuda tried for it unsuccessfully on 12 August 1936. Bought at some point by Sidney M. Edelstein and donated by him to the Massachusetts Institute of Technology in December 1958.
Cf. Keynes Ms. 14 and Yahuda Ms. Var. 259.3.
X. Dibner Library, Smithsonian Institution, Washington D.C., USA Alchemical Manuscripts
• NMAHRB Ms. 1007 B (Unidentified in Sotheby/R43) Chemical notes, partly in another hand, in English and Latin, c. 400 words, 2 pp. on 2 ff.
The first sheet contains a brief alchemical recipe in another hand, copied out again in Newton's. The second has a Latin extract from Basil Valentine on distillation, followed by a related recipe in English, all in Newton's hand.
Previously Burndy Ms. 12. Donated to the Smithsonian by Bern Dibner.
• NMAHRB Ms. 1023 B (SL114/R43) Notebook containing abstracts and notes drawn from various alchemical works, mainly in Latin with some English, c. 24,000 words in all, 61 pp. + 208 pp. blank.
On the flyleaf in Thomas Pellet's hand: 'Sep. 25 1727/ Not fit to be printed/ Tho. Pellet'. Main text preceded by 5 unnumbered pages prepared as an index but containing only columns of alphabetical headings (eg. 'Suo/ Suu/ Ta/ Taa/ Tae') and one blank page. The main text has the following sub-headings, though besides the sources given by these there are references on pp. 48-9 to 'Laurent. Ventura' and Ramón Lull's 'Theorica', and on pp. 50-51 to 'Anonym[us] de Arte Chim[ica] in Arte Aurif[era]'.
p. 1 'Ex Rosarij abbreviati tract. quinq[ue]' [This is not, as stated in the Sotheby catalogue, taken from the Rosarius Philosophorum of Arnoldus de Villanova, but from an anonymous tract entitled 'Rosarium Abbreviatum', which appeared in vol. 3 of Zetzner's Theatrum Chemicum as part of 'Justus a Balbian. Tractatus septem de Lapide Philosophico' (first pub.1599, though Newton is extremely unlikely to have seen that edition), Balbian being the editor rather than the author of the collection: see Ferguson, Bibliotheca Chemica, 2: 287 and 437.] [on signal un Rosaire des Philosophes, Lugduni, 1586, cf. Sommaire du Rosaire.]
p. 15 'Ex Petri Boni Lombardi Ferrariensis Margarita Pretiosa'
p. 24 'Ex Dionysij Zacharij Opusculo'
p. 31 'Out of Philaletha's works concerning the extraction of [sulphur] out of [mercury]', in Latin and English
p. 51 'Ex Clangore Buccinæ'
Bought at the Sotheby sale by Francis Edwards for £48. Offered to Keynes for £60 on 18 August 1936 but returned a week later. Presumably sold by Edwards to Bern Dibner, who donated it to the Smithsonian. Previously Burndy Ms. 9.
See Dobbs, 'Newton Manuscripts at the Smithsonian', 107. This manuscript (minus the putative index) is also reproduced on R19 of the Chadwyck-Healey microfilm, between Keynes Mss. 64 and 65 (this has perhaps come from a photostat of the notebook held at Keynes Ms. 221). This would appear to be a mistake, since there is no reference to its presence there in the Chadwyck-Healey catalogue.
• NMAHRB Ms. 1024 B (SL23/R43) Notes and abstracts 'Ex Fabri Hydrographo Spagyrico' (f. 1r) and 'Ex Palladio Spagyrico' (f. 2r), with page references (1690s?), in Latin, c. 1,500 words, 4 pp. on 2 ff.
Both works cited are by the French alchemist Pierre Jean Fabré.
Previously Burndy Ms. 13. Bought at the Sotheby sale by Pickering & Chatto for £7. Later offered for sale at $285 by the New York bookseller William Schab, and presumably purchased from him by Bern Dibner, who donated it to the Smithsonian.
See H598 for Newton's copy of Fabré's complete works, and Dobbs, 'Newton Manuscripts at the Smithsonian', 106.
• NMAHRB Ms. 1028 B (SL56/R43) 'Notanda Chymica' (late 1660s), in Latin, c. 1,500 words, 5 pp. (though there is only one word and a page reference on p. 5).
Notes and extracts, with page references, chiefly from Michael Maier's Arcana arcanissima, though there is also reference to the 'Rosarium Philosophorum' from Zetzner's Theatrum Chemicum.
Previously Burndy Ms. 14. Bought at the Sotheby sale by C.A. Stonehill for £7.10s Offered on 7 September for £12 to Keynes, who returned it. On 28 October following Stonehill told Yahuda he would accept his offer of £9.9s. but this seems to have fallen through. Acquired at some point by Bern Dibner, who donated it to the Smithsonian.
See Dobbs, 'Newton Manuscripts at the Smithsonian', 106.
• NMAHRB Ms. 1031 B (SL113/R43) Unfinished treatise on the vegetative growth of metals (mid-1670s), in English, with a short supplementary section in Latin at the end, c. 4,500 words, 12 pp.
Begins with a list of 12 numbered subjects for discussion, forming a putative draft outline of the treatise (though the text itself frequently departs from the sequence of subjects listed): e.g. '1 Of natures obvious laws & processes in vegetation', '2 That metalls vegetate after the same laws', etc. The very heavy reworking of the main text and absence of reference to other sources strongly suggest Newton's own composition, making this a centrally important document indicating the nature of his (al)chemical views in the mid-1670s. It is quite without accounts of specific laboratory processes and quite devoid of allegorical or symbolic terminology, and seems to represent the beginnings of an attempt to formulate a coherent theory of chemistry. It is probably related to the 'Hypothesis explaining the Properties of Light' sent to the Royal Society in December 1675.
Bought at the Sotheby sale by Pickering & Chatto for £12. They advised Keynes on 23 July 1936 that they had already sold it, but to whom is unclear. Bought by Bern Dibner in London at some point in the 1940s: B.J.T Dobbs noted that 'when I pressed him for details about that transaction, he assured me that it seemed more important at the time to save it from the blitz than to keep records of that sort of thing' (Janus Faces, 256, n. 1). Previously Burndy Ms. 16. Donated to the Smithsonian in 1976.
Reproduced in facsimile as an appendix to Dobbs, Alchemical Death, and described and transcribed (without the Latin supplement) in Dobbs, Janus Faces, 256-70 (Dobbs treats the first of the twelve subjects for enquiry as the title of the entire document). See also her 'Newton Manuscripts at the Smithsonian', 107, and Rattansi, 'Newton's Alchemical Studies'.
• NMAHRB Ms. 1032 B (SL85/R43) Three related sets of notes (late 1680s-90s), in English, 17 pp. plus 1 p. blank and a loose scrap, c. 5,300 words in total. 8 pp. badly discoloured and barely legible.
Entitled 'The Regimen' (7 pp.), 'The Regimen', (8 pp.) and 'Of ye Regimen' (2 pp., incomplete). Describe a sequence of (al)chemical operations largely drawn from the works of 'Philalethes', though other authors including Pontanus, Maier and Roger Bacon are cited, especially in the second set of notes. On the loose scrap (which is not mentioned in the Sotheby catalogue, though the manuscript is described as 18 pp. and the catalogue does not normally count blank pages), various alchemical references, with mention of John Day and of Roger Bacon's Elementorum and Michael Maier's Arcana arcanissima, written over and on the reverse of a receipt dated 11 September 1689.
Bought at the Sotheby sale by Maggs Brothers for £12.10s. Offered on approval first to Keynes, who returned it on 19 August 1936, then to Yahuda (for the sale price plus 20%), who returned it on 8 September 1936. At some point acquired by Bern Dibner, who donated it to the Smithsonian. Previously Burndy Ms. 15.
See Dobbs, 'Newton Manuscripts at the Smithsonian', 106-7 and 'Newton's Copy of "Secrets Reveal'd"', 159.
• NMAHRB Ms. 1041 B (Part of SL63/R43) Two accounts of alchemical operations (1690s?), in Latin, c. 2,500 words in all, 7 pp.
1) 'Separatio Elementorum' (2 pp.). On the distillation of elements in a 20 gallon vat, with references to 'Philalethes' and Albertus Magnus. The large number of corrections and relatively small number of references to other writers may indicate that this is at least partly Newton's own composition.
2) 'Reductio et Sublimatio' (5 pp.). Excerpts and abstracts, principally from Lull, on an imperfect transmutation of white sulphur into silver and red sulphur into gold.
Previously Burndy Ms. 10. Donated to the Smithsonian by Bern Dibner. The major part of SL63 is now Babson Ms. 417, q.v. for what is known of the sale history.
See Dobbs, 'Newton Manuscripts at the Smithsonian', 106.
• NMAHRB Ms. 1070 A (SL66 + ?/R43) Draft alchemical treatise or compilation, in Latin with odd passages in English, c. 14,000 words, 42 pp. + 4 pp. of unrelated material.
Largely drawn, with page references, from various other works, principally those of Lull and 'Philalethes' but also Ripley, Snyders, Flamel, Sendivogius, Fabré, Arnoldus de Villanova, Van Helmont and others. Clearly represents an attempt to establish a sequence of operations: 'Opus primum', 'Opus secundum', etc. (cf. Keynes Mss. 40, 41 and Babson Ms. 421); the operations covered here are numbered 1-2 and 6-9). Very rough, heavily reworked draft, several sections incomplete.
Also includes three scraps of unrelated correspondence (1700, 1718, n.d.) and a transcript (in another hand, annotated by Newton) of Bernoulli's letter of 8 April 1717 to Montmort, in French, concerning Newton and Leibniz. These are unmentioned in the rather cursory Sotheby catalogue description of SL66, which gives the total page count as 43 pp.; some or all of the letters are presumably a later addition, though why they have been catalogued together with the foregoing treatise is a mystery.
Bought at the Sotheby sale by William H. Robinson for £19 and at some point acquired by Bern Dibner, who donated it to the Smithsonian.
See Dobbs, 'Newton Manuscripts at the Smithsonian', 107; also H994-1001 for Newton's Lull collection. Bernoulli's letter printed in Brewster (1855), 2: 437-8.
XI. Bodleian Library, Oxford, UK Alchemical Manuscripts
• Ms. Don b.15 (SL16/R32) Dictionary of (al)chemical terms, materials and apparatus (late 1660s-early 1670s), with directions for performing various operations, in English, c. 7,000 words, 16 pp.
Entries run alphabetically from 'Abstraction' to 'Vrinous Salt'. In some cases the headword is followed only by a gap in which to insert the definition. Refers to Boyle's Of Formes and Qualities (1666), but much appears to be Newton's own work.
Bought at the Sotheby sale by R.V. Sowers for £19.10s. Bought, according to the Bodleian Catalogue of Manuscripts, 'with a contribution from Roy V. Sowers' in 1967, the 'contribution' presumably consisting of a discount.
XII. Harry Ransom Humanities Research Center, Texas University, Austin, Texas, USA Alchemical Manuscripts
• HRC129 (SL15/R43) Excerpts (probably made in the 1690s) from the correspondence between Edmund Dickinson and Theodorus Mundanus published by the former. In Latin, c. 3,500 words, 16 pp. on 8 ff.
f. 1r 'Ex Epist. Edmundi Dickenson ad Theodorum Mundanum. Dat Londini prid. Cal. Aug. [i.e. 31 July] 1683 edit 1686': this includes a list of eleven questions about alchemical terminology which are answered by Mundanus in the rest of the document, as follows:
f. 1v 'Ex Theodori Mundani Responso Dat. Parisijs 10 Cal. Octob. [i.e. 20 September] 1684'
f. 2v 'De materia lapidis'
f. 3r 'De Mercurio Philosophorum'
f. 4v 'De Philosophorum auro'
f. 5r 'De Monte Philosophorum'
'De Philosophorum Mari'
f. 5v 'De Philosophorum aqua vitæ'
'De Philosophorum Diana'
f. 7v 'De secreto Philosophorum igne'
f. 8v 'De medicamento Vniversali'
'De Patriarcharum longævitate'
Described as c. 2,500 words in both the Sotheby and Hary Ransom catalogues, but this seems a very conservative estimate.
Bought at the Sotheby sale by 'Ulysses' (Jacob Schwartz?) for £6.10s. Appeared as lot 717 in the Sotheby sale of 1 August 1939 but what happened to it after that and how it reached Texas is unclear.
H513 is Newton's copy of Dickinson's Epistola Edmundi Dickinson M.D. & Medica Regii ad Theodorum Mundanum Philosophum Adeptum. De Quintessentia Philosophorum et De Vera Physiologia. [...] His Accedunt Mundani responsa (1686). Newton seems to have thought highly of this work and cited or referred to it frequently in his alchemical compilations of the 1690s (see Westfall, Never at Rest, 290-91, n. 32, and Dobbs, 'Newton's Copy of "Secrets Reveal'd"', 157 and n. 64). See also Keynes Ms. 26 for Newton's later alchemical discussions with a friend of Dickinson and Boyle.
XIII. Library of the University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, Wisconsin, USA Alchemical Manuscripts
• (SL121/R43) Newton's copy of 'Philalethes'' [i.e. George Starkey's] Secrets Reveal'd, with corrections and additions in Newton's hand on almost every page.
Secrets Reveal'd: or, An Open Entrance to the Shut-Palace of the King: Containing, the greatest Treasure in Chymistry [...] Composed By a most famous English-man Styling himself Anonymus, or Eyræneus Philaletha Cosmopolita [...] Published for the Benefit of all English-men, by W.C. Esq. [i.e. William Cooper]' (1669)
Bought at the Sotheby sale by Francis Edwards for £88. Appeared as Item 152 in his Catalogue no. 605 (1936) at £200 and as Item 237 in his Catalogue no. 627 (1938) at £150. It was bought by Denis I. Duveen and passed from him to the University of Wisconsin in 1955.
See Dobbs, 'Newton's Copy of "Secrets Reveal'd"', and H1478.
XIV. Babson Collection, Burndy Library, Dibner Institute, Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA Alchemical Manuscripts
• Ms. 414 (SL41/R42) Two sets of notes on La lumière sortant par soy même des tenebres, in English, c. 2,500 words, 5 pp. on 3 ff.
Ms. 414A (late 1690s or later): 'Ex Lumine de tenebris': 2 pp. of notes constituting Newton's abstracts of his own earlier abstracts (Yahuda Var. 1 Ms. 30 and Babson Ms. 414B).
Ms. 414B (c. 1687-92): the end of the series of abstracts from this work of which the beginning is now Yahuda Var. 1 Ms. 30, 3 pp.
Bought at the Sotheby sale by C.A. Stonehill for £5. Stonehill offered it to Keynes for £10 on 7 September 1936, but Keynes obviously refused this 100% mark-up, and on 18 September Stonehill told Yahuda it was still available. On 15 December 1936 Stonehill reminded Yahuda that he had taken it on approval ten days ago for £7.10s. and asked if he wanted to keep it. A receipt among the Yahuda papers dated 31 December 1936 for £7.10s., in settlement of an account dated 4 December 1936, surely refers to this lot. How it came to the Babson is unclear. See Spargo, '1936 sale', 128.
See H1003. Ms. 414B is transcribed together with Yahuda Var. 1 Ms. 30 as a single reunited text, with notes, in Dobbs, Janus Faces, 278-87.
• Ms. 415 (SL95/R42) Notes 'Ex Rosario Magno', in Latin with some English, 1½ pp. on 4 ff., c. 750 words.
Elucidations of alchemical symbolism with page references to the 'Rosarium Philosophorum' in Zetzner's Theatrum Chemicum (H1608) [this was commonly referred to as 'Rosarium Magnum' to distinguish it from various other 'philosophical rosaries': see Ferguson, Bibliotheca Chemica, 2: 287].
Bought at the Sotheby sale by Maggs Brothers for £5 and offered to Keynes, but he returned it on 19 August 1936.
• Ms. 416 (SL70 [+ ??]/R42) Miscellaneous alchemical notes and emblems, in Latin and English with some French, 28 pp. plus one page blacked out.
1. 'Lapis Philosophicus cum suis rotis elementaribus', 1 p.: an elaborate alchemico-astrological diagram carefully copied in Newton's hand. In the centre is a seven pointed star labelled 'Prima Materia', surrounded by seven more seven-pointed stars each labelled with a gender and humour ('e.g. 'Femina phlegmatica', 'Masculina cholerica'). Each of these in turn is surrounded by the symbols for the seven 'planets'/metals in different configurations. To the right of the diagram, English notes explaining how it should be coloured.
2. Rougher copy of another alchemico-astrological emblem consisting of eight squares containing symbolic names in French (e.g. 'Souphure de terre', 'Loyseau dans son nid', 'La fille du grand Segret' ['Sulphur of earth'; 'the bird in its nest'; 'the great Segret's daughter']), arranged in a geometric grid decked out with a riot of symbols for signs of the zodiac and 'planets'/metals. Beneath this are the letter B surrounded by eight crosses, two allegorical figures labelled 'Simplicita' and 'Prudence', what appears to be a rough sketch of an alchemical operation, and a number of exceptionally cryptic remarks in French such as 'huict Estoilles Cest mon nom' ['eight stars that is my name'] and 'flamel dict Cest son fourneau' ['Flamel says it is his furnace']. 1 p. The reverse had been written on but has been completely blacked out with ink. This sheet is not mentioned in the Sotheby catalogue description.
1. 'References': 9 pp. of alchemical subject headings (about five or six on each page) followed in some cases by page references to various alchemical works, the vast majority of them by 'Philalethes' though Ripley and Jan Baptista van Helmont are also mentioned.
2. Notes and abstracts from various authors, in Latin and English, written around some notes about the size and design of a building. 10 pp.
3. 'Testamentum antiquius Clavicula': a list of various (al)chemical terms and sources; also two apparently unrelated geometrical diagrams. 2 pp.
1. A further list of alchemical headwords followed by notes and page references to various works: 1 p., on the reverse of a fragmentary draft letter to John Aubrey reading in its entirety: 'Mr Aubrey/ I understand by Mr you have a letter from Mr Lucas for me. Pray forbear to send me any thing more of that nature.'
2. Alchemical jottings in Latin and English on 3 pp.
Bought at the Sotheby sale by Maggs Brothers for £30 and offered to Keynes on approval on 13 August 1936 for the sale price plus 20% but returned. Invoiced by Maggs to Yahuda for the same price on 23 December following. Acquired at some point by William Schab and sold to the Babson for $800 in February 1948.
Described in the Sotheby catalogue as 1 p. + 25 pp.: it is not clear whether this is an error or whether something has been added. Described still more perplexingly in the Babson catalogue as '19 pages of manuscript on 20 leaves', though the following description proceeds to cover all 28 pages.
• Ms. 417 (Part of SL63/R42) A large compilation of alchemical citations woven into a continuous text (1690s), in Latin, 56 pp. of which 8 blank, c. 17,500 words.
1. Citations from a wide range of sources, including Lull, Aristotle, Faber, Maier and Basil Valentine. Under the headings: 'Operationum Ordo' (this heading occurs twice in succession but followed by different texts); 'Materiæ Mineralis præparatio prima et conversio in aquam'; 'Extractio et Rectificatio Spiritus'; 'Extractio et Rectificatio Animæ et calcinatio Corporis'; 'Reductio'; 38 pp. of which 6 blank.
2. Earlier drafts of various sections of the above, with the additional headings 'Elementorum Qualitates' and 'Præparatio Corporis'; 18 pp. of which 2 blank.
The complete lot was bought at the Sotheby sale by Maggs Brothers for £58 and offered to Keynes on 13 August 1936 for the sale price plus 20%. Keynes returned it and it was invoiced to Yahuda for the same price on 23 December 1936. Its subsequent fate is unclear: at some point it was split up and the smaller part acquired by Bern Dibner (now in the Dibner Institute, NMAHRB Mss. 1041B).
Cf. Keynes Mss. 40 and 41 and Dibner Institute NMAHRB Mss. 1070 A. See also Dobbs (who suggests the date), 'Newton Manuscripts at the Smithsonian', 106.
• Ms. 418 (Part of SL3/R42) 'Lib. chem.' and 'Manuscriptu[m] meum' (c. 1696-7), 2 pp. on 4 ff. of which 3 blank.
An inventory of Newton's (al)chemical books, printed or in manuscript copies, with shelf marks.
This represents part 2 of SL3: the first part is now in St. Andrews University Library, Ms. 38195(c), q.v. for the sale history.
See Figala et al., 'De Scriptoribus', 140-41.
• Ms. 419 (SL4/R42) 'Of Chemicall Authors & their writings' (c. 1670-75), mainly in Latin with a little English, 7 pp. plus 5 pp. blank.
An alphabetical list of about 120 writers on alchemy, with comments on the works of the more important and gaps left for more to be added.
Bought at the Sotheby sale by 'Pickering' (i.e. Pickering & Chatto of 26b King St., St. James's, London SW1) for £11; subsequent history unclear.
Cf. Figala et al., 'De Scriptoribus', esp. 142-3.
• Ms. 420 (SL74/R42) 'Praxis' (certainly after 1689, probably c. 1696): an alchemical treatise, with notes and an earlier draft, mainly in English with some Latin, c. 5,500 words in all, 26 pp. of which two blank.
pp. 1-2 Latin notes on the derivation of the names of and symbols for the metals from Egyptian gods, planets, etc., apparently unrelated to the rest of the document.
p. 3 Main heading: 'Praxis'.
'Cap. 1. De Materijs Spermaticis.'
'Chap. 2/ De materia prima'
p. 8 'Cap. 3/ De Sulphure Ph[ilosoph]orum.'
p. 10 'Cap. 4/ De agente primo.'
pp. 12-20 'Chap. 5. Praxis'
pp. 11a-18a: Earlier partial drafts of chapters 4 and 5, in a separate booklet. The page numbers (introduced by the Babson College Archives) indicate the section of the main treatise to which they correspond.
An elaborate discussion of both the theoretical and practical aspects of alchemy. Though the text is densely packed with precise references to the whole range of Newton's vast reading on the subject, 'the conceptualization and organization of the work are certainly Newton's own', as Dobbs puts it (Janus Faces, 293), and she considers it 'Newton's climactic composition in alchemy' (ibid., 295).
Bought at the Sotheby sale by Maggs Brothers for £34. Maggs informed Keynes on 30 July 1936 that it had been sold (but not to whom); subsequent history unclear.
pp. 1-2 discussed, with a facsimile of p. 2, in Dobbs, Janus Faces, 161-3. The main treatise (pp. 3-20) printed with notes in ibid., 293-305. See also Keynes Mss. 21, 23 and 53, and Westfall, Never at Rest, 529 on the genesis of the work.
SL420 is described in the Sotheby catalogue as only 26 pp. plus a cover, but the cover has since been designated pp. 1-2, and the other page numbers added, by the Babson College Archives. Dobbs's notes include a detailed account of the rather complex physical make-up of the document.
• Ms. 421 (SL24/R42) Three sets of chemical notes, in Latin, c. 3,200 words, 18 pp. of which 4 blank.
a) Notes on fermentation and the 'elements', with page references to a wide range of literature, 3 pp. On p. 3: fragment of a draft letter in English, without date or addressee.
b) Miscellaneous notes largely concerning the definition of alchemical terms and the uses to be made of various substances, 7 pp.
c) Notes on the sequence of operations in transmutation, including the headings 'Opus primum'; 'Opus tertium', 'Opus quartum' and 'Opus quintum' (cf. Keynes Mss. 40 and 41 and Dibner Institute Ms. NMAHRB 107A). Also features the beginning of a draft letter, in English, 'For Mr Proctor an Attorney' about succeeding his father in the management of Newton's affairs.
Bought at the Sotheby sale by 'Robinson' (William H. Robinson Ltd., 16-17 Pall Mall, London SW1) for £13.10s. Robinson advised Keynes on 13 August 1936 that it was still in stock, but presumably he did not buy it.
• Ms. 433 (Part of SL28/R42) Draft letter or memo (1669?), in English, c. 200 words, 1 p.
Requests 'of Antimony about sixty pounds of Copper oare 12 or 16 pounds' and other metallic ores 'from [...] Bohemia or more especially from Hungary'. On reverse: a fragmentary medical recipe and some musings on the distinction between knowledge and wisdom, c. 100 words.
Possibly related to Newton's letter to Francis Aston, 18 May 1669 (Brewster (1855), 1: 387-9; NC, 1: 9-13), in which he advises him to make a number of chemical and metallurgical enquiries during his forthcoming European tour, Bohemia and Hungary (among other places) being specified.
The rest of SL28 is now divided between Babson Ms. 725, Keynes Ms. 91 (q.v. for the sale history) and Boston Medical Library B MS c 41 c.
• Ms. 725 (Part of SL28/R42) 'Experimts of refining Gold wth Antimony made by Dr. Ionathan Goddard', in English, c. 1,500 words, 4 pp. on 2 ff.
The rest of SL28 is now divided between Babson Ms. 433, Keynes Ms. 91 (q.v. for the sale history) and Boston Medical Library B MS c 41 c.
• Ms. 747 (Part of SL81/R42) 'Miscellanea': Latin notes on experiments, chiefly from Ramón Lull's 'Codicillus' and 'Testamentum' and Zetzner's Theatrum Chemicum, c. 1,200 words, 4 pp. on 2 ff.
SL81 was bought at the Sotheby sale by Francis Edwards for £9.10s. and originally included a further 6 pp. of miscellaneous notes, the location of which is now unknown. Cf. SL39 (whereabouts unknown).
See H997 and H1608.
• (Ms. 925/SL61) 'Loca difficilia in Novo Lumine Chymico explicata' (c. 1668), in Latin, c. 400 words, 2 pp. + 1 line on 2 ff.
One page of explanatory notes on Michael Sendivogius's Novum lumen chemicum (H1192). On f. 2, what appears to be a draft index, being a list of chemical terms (not in alphabetical order) followed by page numbers, and below this the same headwords written out again in alphabetical order. [on rappelle que les Douze Traités, c'est-à-dire le Traité du Mercure, encore appelé Nouvelle Lumière Chymique n'est pas de Michel Sendivogius mais d'Alexandre Sethon]
Bought at the Sotheby sale by C.A. Stonehill for £5.
Detailed analysis, including arguments for dating, in Figala, 'Exakte Alchemie', 177-9, with most of the text transcribed in the relevant notes, p. 215. Cf. Keynes Mss. 19 and 55, and Yahuda Ms. Var. 259.4.
• Ms. 1006 (SL297) Series of Latin anagrams of Newton's name and lists of authors cited in the Ludus Puerorum, Scala Philosophorum, and Rosarium Magnum, in the last case followed by page numbers, 1 p. on 1 f.
The last and (in Newton's eyes) obviously most satisfactory anagram, 'Ieova sanctus vnvs,' is used on a paper in Keynes Ms. 13 (SL2/R18). On reverse: rough draft of a letter (probably mid-1699), presumably to the Treasury, objecting to plans by the Ordnance Office to build a smith's house on Mint territory (cf. Mint Catalogue #818 (III.416-17)).
Bought at the Sotheby sale for £10 by C.K. Ogden.
The handwriting of the draft letter is markedly different from that on the recto, which was probably written a good deal earlier.
XV. Stanford University Library, Stanford, California, USA Alchemical Manuscripts
• M132/2/3 (SL5/R42) A series of lists of authors and books on alchemy, 12 pp. of which one blank.
Includes (p. 7) a list of 27 items headed: 'Desiderantur opera Lullij sequentia'.
Bought at the Sotheby sale by Heffers for £12.10s. and offered to Yahuda on 7 September 1936 for £18 but presumably turned down. Appeared as Item 1 in Heffers' Catalogue 493 (1936) at £18, and again as Item 745 in Heffers' Catalogue 513 (1937) at the same price. At some point acquired by Frederick E. Brasch, who donated it to Stanford.
Described in the Sotheby catalogue as 8 pp. enclosed in a folded sheet used for geometrical diagrams: the wrapper accounts for 4 pp. of which one blank.
See Figala et al., 'De Scriptoribus'.
• M132/2/4 (SL6/R42) 'De Scriptoribus Chemicis' (mostly late 1660s/early1670s though with later additions), 5 pp.
An (al)chemical bibliography containing titles and particulars of 90 works (six of which are evidently later additions by Newton to his original list), for the most part printed but some in manuscript.
Bought at the Sotheby sale by Heffers for £11.10s. and offered to Yahuda on 7 September 1936 for £17 but presumably turned down. Appeared as Item 2 in Heffers' Catalogue 493 (1936) at £17.10s. and again as Item 746 in Heffers' Catalogue 513 (1937) at the same price. At some point acquired by Frederick E. Brasch, who donated it to Stanford.
Annotated transcript (pp. 163-179) and extensive discussion, including arguments for dating, in Figala et al., 'De Scriptoribus'. Cf. Stanford Ms. M132/2/3 and Keynes Ms. 13.
• M132/2/5 (SL38/R42) 'To make Lucatello's Balsome': a medical recipe, in English, efficacious against 'ye Measell Plague or Small Pox [...] & against poyson & ye biting of a mad dog', c. 250 words, 1 p.
Bought at the Sotheby sale by Heffers for £8.10s. and offered to Yahuda on 7 September 1936 for £15 but presumably turned down. Appeared as Item 3 in Heffers' Catalogue 493 (1936) at £15 and again as Item 747 in Heffers' Catalogue 513 (1937) at the same price. At some point acquired by Frederick E. Brasch, who donated it to Stanford.
• M132/2/6 (SL69/R42) 'Notes out of Philalethes', in English, c. 650 words, 3 pp. on 2 ff.
Notes on the preparation of mercury for fusion with gold, on the nature of the Philosophers' Stone, and exposition of alchemical symbolic language, with page references to various sections of Ripley Reviv'd [1678: H1407].
Bought at the Sotheby sale by Heffers for £7.10s. and offered to Yahuda on 7 September 1936 for £11.10s. but presumably turned down. Appeared as Item 5 in Heffers' Catalogue 493 (1936) at £11.10s. and again as Item 748 in Heffers' Catalogue 513 (1937) at the same price. At some point acquired by Frederick E. Brasch, who donated it to Stanford.
• M132/2/8 (SL82 + ?/R42) Notes from Ramón Lull, in Latin, c. 5,300 words, 13 pp.
First page headed: 'Ex Raymundi <libro secretorum>, seu de Quintessentijs', followed by an incomplete set of notes on the separation of elements. p. 13 does not follow from p. 12 and is not mentioned in the Sotheby catalogue: presumably it was added to the lot later. It contains a paragraph of notes (beginning missing) and the beginning of an alchemical recipe, headed 'Ex Raymundi Lulli Libro Mercuriorum', which breaks off in mid-sentence.
SL82 was bought at the Sotheby sale by Heffers for £13.10s. Keynes wrote to Heffers on 12 August 1936 asking to see it, but presumably returned it, as Heffers offered it to Yahuda on 7 September 1936 for £20. He must also have turned it down, since it appeared as Item 6 in Heffers' Catalogue 493 (1936) at £20 and again in Heffers' Catalogue 513 (1937) at the same price. At some point acquired by Frederick E. Brasch, who donated it to Stanford.
See H995-6 and 998.
• M132/2/9 (SL106/R42) 'Theatrum Astronomiæ Terrestris': copy of a treatise on the Philosophers' Stone and transmutation, English introduction and Latin text, c. 1,000 words, with 2 astronomico-alchemical diagrams, 4 pp.
Bought at the Sotheby sale by R.V. Sowers for £10. [on rappelle que le Théâtre de l'Astronomie Terrestre est un traité du médium Edward Kelly ; on y trouve de nombreuses et intéressantes gravures]
• M132/2/12 (Not identified in Sotheby/R42) Fragmentary notes on the astrological characters of the planets and on the gods and metals associated with them, in English, beginning missing, c. 600 words, 2 pp. Not in Newton's hand.
• Barchas Collection QD 25 G367 (R42) Newton's copy of Geber's Chimia (Latin translation by Caspar Horn, 1668), with Latin notes in his hand on both flyleaves elucidating some of Geber's terminology, c. 200 words.
Chimia, sive Traditio summæ perfectionis et investigatio magisterii, innumeris locis emendata à C. Hornio. See H657.
XVI. Cushing/Whitney Medical Library, Yale University, New Haven, Connecticut, USA Alchemical Manuscripts
• (SL102/R42) Transcript of Johann de Monte Snyders' The Metamorphosis of the Planets, with notes, in English, c. 23,500 words in total, 69 pp.
Title reads in full: 'The Metamorphosis of the Planets, That is A wonderfull Transmutation of the Planets and Metalliq[ue] formes into their first Essence, (with an annexed Process,) being a discovery of the three Keys pertinent to the obteining of ye three Principles. Likewise in what manner the most generall universall is to be obteined is in many places of this treatise described by Iohn de Monte Snyders'. [ouvrage encore indisponible - note du 1/01/2003 - en français]
A complete transcript of the book (an elaborate alchemical allegory) in Newton's hand (c. 22,000 words on 62 pp. plus title page and a hand-drawn frontispiece showing Jupiter (personified as a bearded man) enthroned on an orb with the sun and moon in his hands). Also 3 pp. of notes 'On ye Metamorphosis of ye Planets' and a further 2 pp. of 'Notes on ye Metamorphosis of ye Planets', c. 1,500 words.
Bought at the Sotheby sale by the London dealer E.P. Goldschmidt for £52.
Cf. Keynes Ms. 58 and the notes on Snyders in the Rare Book and Manuscript Library, Columbia University, and see Brewster (1855), 2: 371 and Dobbs, Foundations, 168-9, esp. n. 87. The work had been published in 1663 (second ed. 1700), but only in German, which Newton did not understand (he says so himself in Mint #206 (II.180-81)). Presumably this translation was copied from a manuscript (or, just possibly, translated by Newton from a Latin or French manuscript translation). See also H1378 for Newton's copy of Snyders' Commentatio de pharmaco catholico.
• (SL34/R42) 'Index Chemicus', in Latin, c. 2,000 words, 5 pp.
The beginnings of a draft version of Keynes Ms. 30, but the alphabetical headings run only from 'Ablutio' to 'Aqua fœtida', each followed by extensive page references to a range of alchemical literature.
Bought at the Sotheby sale by 'Goldschmidt' for £10; subsequent history unclear.
See Westfall, 'Newton's Index Chemicus', 177-8, esp. n. 13.
XVII. Add. Mss., Cambridge University Library, Cambridge, UK Alchemical Manuscripts
• Add. Ms. 3973 (R10) Notes evidently on Newton's own laboratory experiments, mostly in English but two sets in Latin, c. 20,000 words in all, 51 ff. several of which blank. Dates range from Dec. 1678 to Feb. 1695/6.
The numbers preceding each set of experiments (except the tenth, which is not numbered on the manuscript) seem to have been added by a later hand.
1. (f. 1r) 'Experiments' dated 10 Dec. 1678 to 15 Jan. [1678/9?]. On subliming antimony with sal ammoniac and alloying antimony with lead, iron and other metals. In English, 3 pp.
2. (f. 5r) 'Experimts' dated Jan. 1679/80. On subliming antimonial sublimate with lead antimoniate. 22 Jan. Action of nitric acid and sal ammoniac on antimony sulphide, and further sublimations. In English, 8 pp.
3. (f. 9r) 'Experiments Feb. 1679/80.' On fusing antimony with vitriol and other substances. Sublimation of various metals with antimony and sal ammoniac. Action of oil of vitriol on galena, of nitric acid on sublimate of antimony, and others in the same vein In English, 6 pp.
4. (f. 13r) 'Experiments Aug. 1682.' Similar experiments; some on lead ore, others on an alloy of tin and bismuth referred to as 'Diana' (cf. references to the 'Doves of Diana' in Keynes Mss. 34 and 59). In English, 4 pp.
5. (f. 17r) 'Expts. Iuly 10 [no year]'. Sublimations of calx albus with [sal ammoniac?]. [The symbol used is a six-armed asterisk, which is not a conventional symbol for anything. Most (al)chemical writers at the period, including Newton, normally use an eight-armed asterisk for 'sal ammoniac', though Newton sometimes uses the eight-armed asterisk for 'star regulus of antimony': see Dobbs, Janus Faces, 296.] Includes the striking if enigmatic claim 'Iuly 10. Vidi [salammoniacum?] philosophicum. [...] Digestus cum tinctura Veneris [uncia] 5 gr 20 dabat Leonem vir[idem] gr 10. & [vitriolem] gr 180 vel 200 sed [vitriolus] istud per destillationem nullum emittebit [salammoniacum?] ph[ilosoph]icum' ['I saw the philosophical [sal ammoniac?]. 20 grains digested with 5 ounces of tincture of Venus [i.e. copper] gave 10 grains of the green Lion and 180 or 200 grains of vitriol, but upon distillation this vitriol yielded no philosophical [sal ammoniac?]']. In Latin, 1 p.
6. (f. 19r) 'Experimts April 26t 1686.' On a volatile salt of zinc [apparently the chloride], and on an alloy derived from ores of iron, antimony, tin , lead, and bismuth. 16 May. On subliming 'Ve. vo.' [probably 'Venus volans' or 'volatisata', i.e. volatilised copper] with precipitates of antimony and iron, and with mercury. In English, 2 pp.
7. (f. 21r) 'Experiments' dated 5 and 16 March 1690/1. On some bismuth compounds and the action of aqua fortis on alloys of tin, bismuth and zinc. In English, 5 pp. Followed by a page headed 'Experiments of Refining Gold by Antimony made by Dr Ionathan Goddard' but with no text (cf. Babson Ms. 725).
8. (f. 25r) 'Experiments & observations Dec. 1692 & Ian. 1692/3.' On the action of barm in brewing and distilling. Other experiments on the salts of metals and various sublimations. Comparison of the fusibility of alloys of lead, tin, and bismuth in various proportions. Further observations dated April and June 1693 on vitrification of reguluses and the fermentation of 'The two serpents' with the salts of various metals. In English, 7 pp.
9. (f. 29r) 'Experiments April 1695.' Experiments with antimony and ores of iron, copper, and tin, and sublimations with sal ammoniac. (f. 30v) 'Experiments Feb. 1695/6' Sublimations of antimony with iron ore. In English, 5 pp.
[10.] (f. 32r) Undated notes on miscellaneous experiments, including studies of the action of aqua fortis on antimony sulphide; sublimation of an alloy of antimony and lead with sal ammoniac; experiments on lead ore and other substances. In English, 29 pp.
11. (f. 51r) 'De metallo ad conficiendum speculum componendo & fundendo': a Latin recipe, 2 pp.
[sur ces expériences alchimiques, cf. notre section Précis de symbolisme alchimique. On y fait voir notamment l'étrange contre sens de Newton sur la signification de l'antimoine considéré comme le « loup » des métaux, là où il faut voir un mors ou un grappin.]
Extracts in A.R. and M.B. Hall, 'Newton's chemical experiments'. Section 8 printed in Dobbs, Janus Faces, 288-92. Section 11 printed in Brewster (1855), 2: 535-6. Full critical edition by Peter Spargo forthcoming [2002?].
• Add. Ms. 3975 (R10) Notebook containing notes and experimental reports on a range of subjects, principally optics and chemistry (c. 1664-1696), mostly in English with some Latin, 283 pp. + 4 pp. starting from the back, c. 65,000 words.
A number of the chemical notes are closely related to those in Add. Ms. 3973.
On both sides of the fly-leaf: a table with notes of the value, hardness and other properties of various gems.
pp. 1-22 'Of Colours': a series of 64 'articles'. Articles 1-5: notes on experiments 9, 10 and 11 in Boyle's Experiments and Considerations Touching Colours (1664). Arts. 6-26: experiments with prisms. Arts. 27-43: on the effects of thin layers of air or water between prisms. Arts. 44-8: further experiments with prisms, including (46-8) the production of white and other colours of light by admixture. Art. 49: reflection at two contiguous glass surfaces. Art. 50: on the phenomena of colours in thin flakes of glass, soap bubbles and thin films of metal or water. Arts. 51-3: experiments on the effects of internal reflection of light in spheres of water, with several references to Descartes. Art. 54: on the effect of oblique rays on the size of the spot at contact of two glasses. Art. 55: on the diminished reflective power of a glass surface when placed in water. Arts. 56-7: on the reflective effects of powders and 'flawed' bodies with multiple reflecting surfaces. Arts. 58-62: notes on the effects of distorting the eyeball, including a diagram of Newton's experiment of putting a bodkin 'betwixt my eye & ye bone as neare to ye backside of ye eye as I could: & pressing my eye with ye end of it' (facsimile in Westfall, Never at Rest, 95). Art. 63: on the after-image of colours on the retina. Art. 64: an account of the retina and optic nerve, with a diagram.
p. 22 Calculations of the 'thicknesse of a vibration' of light passing through various media; notes from Boyle's 'Of ye determinate nature of Effluviums'  on heightened sense perception during illness; notes on vegetable substances that 'turn vitriol to a black precipitate'.
p. 23 Recipe 'To make excellent Ink'.
pp. 25-41 'Of Cold, & Heate'. Notes 'On the Mechanical Origin of Heat and Cold', mainly from Boyle [Experiments, Notes, &c. about the Mechanical Origine or Production of divers particular Qualities (1675)] but including some observations either of Newton's own or from another source.
[pp. 42-4 blank]
pp. 45-6 More notes from Boyle. An incomplete experiment on the height of the thermometer in various substances. Others on the expansion of air and linseed oil when heated.
pp. 49-51 'Of fire, flame, ye heate & ebullition of ye heart & divers mixed liquors & Respiration': notes from Boyle's New Experiments Physico-mechanicall, Touching the Spring of the Air (1660). An account of experiments on flame, with the conclusion 'yt flame & vapour differ onely as bodys red hot & not red hot' (pp. 49-50), and that heat is 'made by division of parts: for when two particles are parted it makes ye æther rush in betwixt ym and so vibrate' (p. 51).
p. 51 'The Phosphorus': a recipe for making it from urine and sand.
[pp. 53-60 blank]
pp. 61-5 'Of fformes & Transmutations wrought in them': notes from Boyle [The Origine of Formes and Qualities (1666)] with page references.
p. 65 Excerpts from Starkey's Pyrotechny Asserted .
p. 66 Note on a petrifying spring in Peru, from a Spanish treatise on 'The Art of metals' translated by the Earl of Sandwich.
[pp. 57-70 blank]
pp. 71-80 'Of Salts, & Sulphureous bodys, & Mercury & Mettalls': extracts from Boyle [The Origine of Formes and Qualities (1666)].
p. 80 Recipe for the extraction of mercury from the nitrate and from corrosive sublimate by various other metals.
pp. 81-2 Recipes for making regulus of antimony by different metals.
pp. 83-4 Notes of alloys which fuse at low temperatures, and others which give a crystalline mass from fusion. Notes on the reaction of various chemicals with salt, including that of tartarum vitriolatum ('it makes a great effervescence, and an earthy sediment is precipitated out of the salt of Tartar [...] This precipitate some <fools> call Magisterium Tartari Vitriolati' (p. 84)): reference to David Vonder Becke as an authority for this.
pp. 85-92 Notes and extracts mainly from various works of Boyle.
pp. 93-100 Various recipes and extracts on chemical reactions, chiefly from Boyle.
p. 101 Recipes for various preparations of antimony. Note of the action of corrosive sublimate on various ores.
p. 102-4 Notes of experiments on the preparation of regulus of antimony and the action of corrosive sublimate on antimony, silver, and mercury; of the heat produced by mixing oil of vitriol with water or spirit of wine [alcohol]; of the preparation of ether and oil of wine.
pp. 104-5 Notes on the warmth emitted on mixing water with spirit of antimony, and of various chemical reactions: the last (on saturation of spirit of antimony by different substances) has blanks left for the quantities.
pp. 106-7 Further chemical experiments. Note on the composition of fusible metal.
pp. 108-12 Chemical experiments chiefly on preparations of antimony and scoria of reguluses. 'N' [presumably 'N[ota]'] marked in the margin against several of these.
p. 113 Notes on the action of distilled liquor of antimony on salts of lead, iron and copper; action of heat on tartarised antimony.
p. 114 Notes on the action of spar on distilled liquor of antimony, vinegar, and aquafortis, and of salt from the clay of lead mines on the same; action of nitre on antimony.
pp. 115-16 Notes on the action of oil of vitriol on lead ore, and of an antimonial sublimate on several substances.
pp. 117-20 Experiments with 'ven. vol.' ['venus volans' or 'volatisata'].
p. 121 Deleted note in Latin that on 10, 14 and 15 May 1681 Newton comprehended various alchemical names.
p. 122 Another deleted note in Latin that on 18 May [presumably 1681] he finished deciphering the alchemical symbol of the 'caduceus' ['rod of mercury'], followed by experiments dated 10 June on sublimation of green and blue vitriol with sal ammoniac and of the resulting sublimate with lead ore.
pp. 123-6 Experiments dated May and June 1682 on sublimation of various salts with sal ammoniac, and various metals and alloys with sal ammoniac and with antimony.
pp. 127-30 Experiments dated 6 June and 4 July 1682 on obtaining regulus from a mixture of lead ores, antimony and bismuth; and others similar.
p. 131 Experiments on the action of various reguluses with an unspecified spirit [of salt?].
pp. 132-4 Further experiments on sublimation, with the date Tuesday 19 July [no year] at the top of p. 133.
pp. 135-9 Experiment dated 29 Feb. 1683/4 on the preparation of chlorides of mercury.
pp. 140-49 Various experiments relating to 'the net' [an elaborate alchemical concept for discussion of which see Dobbs, Foundations, 161-3]. One experiment (p. 149) is dated 'Friday May 23' [no year].
p. 150 Experiments on the spirit of zinc, dated 'Apr. 26, 1686 Wednesday'.
pp. 151-8 Experiments on alloys of copper, antimony and iron, incomplete here but resumed on p. 267.
pp. 159-167, 169-174, 177-182 (intermediate pages blank) Extracts, chiefly from Boyle but with others from Starkey and van Helmont, on 'The medical virtues of Saline & other Præparations'.
[pp. 183-6 blank]
pp. 187-193 'Medical observations', principally drawn from Boyle.
[pp. 194-206 blank]
p. 207 'Of volatile salts of Animal & vegetable substances': further extracts from Boyle.
[p. 208 blank]
pp. 209-223 'Of Alcalia': extracts from Starkey's Pyrotechny Asserted (1658: H1553).
pp. 224-264 Largely blank, except for a series of headings (only two of which have any text attached), as follows: 'Gross Ingredients' (p. 227); 'ffirst preparation' (p. 229); '3 Principles' (p. 231); '4 Elements' (p. 233); 'Mercuries' (p. 235), 'Sulphurs' (p. 237); 'Salts' (p. 239); 'ffires' (p. 241); 'Of ye work wth common [gold]', followed by notes and excerpts from 'Philalethes'' Secrets Reveal'd and Snyders' Commentatio de pharmaco catholico, gaps being left for page references (pp. 243-4); 'Of ye work with artificial [gold]' (p. 245); 'Times' (p. 247); 'Proportions' (p. 249); 'Hieroglyphicks' (p. 251); 'Progress of ye Decoction' (p. 253); 'Vse of ye stone' (p. 257); 'Miscellanies' (p. 259) 'Of ye work with common sol.', followed by cryptic references to various works of 'Philalethes' (p. 261).
p. 265 Recipe for 'Spiritus dulcis Vitrioli' and notes on its medical uses, in Latin.
p. 266 ff. Three pages (two of which are unnumbered) of medical recipes.
pp. 267-283 Resumption of experimental reports from p. 158, with further similar experiments on regulus of antimony and various alloys, interspersed (p. 267) with an account [from an unidentified source] of a 'menstruum' for extracting the 'tinctures' of all metals).
[cf. précis de symbolisme alchimique, là encore, sur nombre de ces essais alchimiques.]
The rest of the book is blank apart from four pages at the end, which are taken up with notes of Newton's expenses on chemicals bought in 1687 while he was in London to appear before the Ecclesiastical Commission, similar chemical expenses in 1693, and notes on the preparation of sal ammoniac.
The first, primarily optical, section of the manuscript (to p. 22) is discussed in A.R. Hall, 'Further optical experiments of Isaac Newton', Annals of Science 11 (1955), 27-43, and transcribed in McGuire and Tamny, Certain Philosophical Questions, 466-89. Article 64 (on the optic nerve) was first published (with due acknowledgment) in Joseph Harris, Treatise on Optics (1775), 108-10, with a copy of the diagram in the plate following p. 110, and again from Harris's edition by Brewster (1855), 1: 432-6. Several extracts from the following pages printed in A.R. and M.B. Hall, 'Newton's chemical experiments'. Experiments on pp. 45-6 printed in Brewster (1855), 2: 366-7. pp. 81-2 printed in Dobbs, Foundations, 249-50. Full critical edition by Peter Spargo forthcoming [2002?]. See also H254-H276 for Newton's extensive Boyle collection.
XVIII. Mellon Alchemical Mss., Beinecke Library, Yale University, New Haven, Connecticut, USA Alchemical Material not in Chadwyck-Healey Microfilm Collection
• Mellon Ms. 78 (SL47 (Ms. 78.5) + ?) Six sets of notes on Newton's alchemical reading (c. late 1690s).
Extracts from Lull's 'Theorica' [the first part of his Testamentum] on the three principles of reduction, with notes on the extraction of gold starting at the other end of the page, 1 f. Written on the cover slip of a letter addressed 'ffor Mr Issiac Nuton mathematik Profesoor in Trenity colidg cambridg'; remains of the original wax seal carry the initials 'IW'. [on pourra consulter l'Elucidation du Testament de Lulle.]
Single page with a list of thirty alchemical operations, in Latin, beginning:
'Opus 1. Vvarum præparatio <prima> manuaalis [sic]
Opus 2 Fermentatio & putrefactio
3 Extractio et rectificatio spiritus'
Paper bifolium with forty-five brief headings from Lull, Aristotle and others, referring to alchemical operations, in Latin, on same paper as Ms. 78.6. (c. early 1690s).
Four leaves with a list of operations similar to those in Ms. 78.3. On f. 4v there is a reference to 'Centrum naturæ concentratum. Or ye salt of Nature regenerated. ffor ye most part improperly called ye Phers stone. Written in Arabic by Aliphi a Mauritanian born of Asiatick parents. Published in Low Dutch 1694 & now done in English 1696. Price bound 1s. Printed for Iohn Harris at the Harrow in little Brittain' (H25).
Paper bifolium with notes from Bloomfield, Flammel, 'Philalethes' and Ripley's Medulla Alchimiæ on the 'Rod of Mercury', in English and Latin, 11 pp. f. 1r is headed 'De Virga [Mercurii]', with remarks in English from Bloomfield, Flammel, and 'Ayrenæus' [i.e. 'Eirenæus Philalethes']. Followed by five queries: 'What Lute for distilling O. Vitr.'; 'Whether ye Spt. in ye first degestion stink, & how soon, & with what odor'; 'How he contrives his Lamp', etc.
Paper bifolium cut to the same size as Ms. 78.3 containing a series of 'Observationes' beginning with 'Prima operatio est in mineris vivis, secunda in [mercurio] et metallis imperfectis'.
SL47 was bought at the Sotheby sale by 'Ulysses' (Jacob Schwartz?) for £11.10s.
Many pages of Ms. 78.6 printed in facsimile and transcript with further details in MacPhail, Alchemy and the Occult, 2: 470-78.
• Mellon Ms. 79 (SL36) Notes on the mining, preparation and properties of 'Saturn' [i.e. lead] (mid-1670s), mainly in English, c. 3,500 words, 8 pp.
Begins with excerpts from 'Philalethes'' The Marrow of Alchemy (1654: H1034), book 3, p. 1: 'Saturn though vile & base to see, is of oe secrets all ye ground. In [Saturn] is hid an immortal soul. Untie its fetters wch do it forbid to sight for to appear then shal arise a vapour shining like pearl orient. To Saturn Mars [i.e. iron] wth bonds of love is tied who is by him devourd of mighty force whose spirit divides saturns body & from both combined flow a wondrous bright water in wch ye Sun [i.e. gold] doth set & loos its light.' Further notes on lead from Webster's Metallographia: or, An History of Metals (1671: H1718), Georg Agricola's De Re Metallica (1621: H20), Boyle's Sceptical Chymist, Norton's 'Ordinall of Alchemy' [in Ashmole's Theatrum Chemicum Britannicum (1652: H93), 1-106], and Bloomfield's 'Compendiary of Alchemy'.
Bought at the Sotheby sale for £10.10s. by Pickering & Chatto. Acquired on 21 April 1943 by Mary Mellon from William Gannon, a New York bookseller.
Independently dated to mid-1670s by Dobbs (Alchemy and the Occult (1977 edition), 4: 479) and Shapiro ('Dating Game', 195). Only the 1680 edition of the Sceptical Chymist is known to have been in Newton's library (H270), but the work first appeared in 1661.
Printed in facsimile and transcript in MacPhail, Alchemy and the Occult, 2: 479-83. More Bloomfield in Keynes Ms. 15. See H1034, 1718, 20, 270, 93.
• Mellon Ms. 80 (SL117) Incomplete copy, in (probably) the author's hand, of a six-chapter version of William Yworth's 'Processus Mysterii Magni Philosophicus' (1702), in English, 91 pp.
Prefaced by 'A short Epistle to my Children'. Dated 1702 on f. 6r, and signed 'Wiliam Yarworth V.D.' on ff. 7r and 9v.
Bought at the Sotheby sale by Heffers for £3.10s.
Cf. Keynes Mss. 65, 66 and 91, and Hampshire Record Office Ms. NC17. On Yworth generally and his association with Newton, see Figala and Petzold, 'Alchemy in the Newtonian circle', esp. p. 187 for this manuscript. See also 'McPhail, Alchemy and the Occult, 4: 484-6, where the manuscript is incorrectly identified as SL116 (which is in fact Hampshire Record Office Ms. NC17: Figala and Petzold are also mistaken in describing the whereabouts of SL116 as unknown (pp. 180, n. 25 and 187, n. 60)).
This is the only known instance of this author calling himself 'Yarworth': in all his other printed or manuscript material he appears as 'Yworth', 'Y-worth' or 'Y.worth'. This has often been taken as an abbrevation of 'Yarworth', but Figala and Petzold suggest ('Alchemy in the Newtonian circle', 181-2) that it may rather be an anglicisation of a Dutch form such as Ijvaert, as the author was by his own account Dutch by birth.
XIX. Joseph Halle Schaffner Collection, Chicago University Library, Chicago, Illinois, USA Alchemical Material not in Chadwyck-Healey Microfilm Collection
• (SL27) Notes on the construction of portable furnaces, c. 300 words, 2 pp., with rough sketches, 1 p.
Bought at the Sotheby sale by William H. Robinson for £24; subsequent history unclear.
• (SL46) Variant version of the memorandum in Keynes Ms. 26 (SL45), in English, 1 p.; on reverse, the draft of a short letter.
Bought at the Sotheby sale by William H. Robinson for £20; subsequent history unclear.
• (SL79) Technical notes, c. 3,000 words, 2 pp.
A summary of the operations and technique of pyrotechny, analysed and arranged in tabular form, with details of various pieces of apparatus and directions for the construction and working of furnaces, illustrated by six diagrams.
Bought at the Sotheby sale by William H. Robinson for £29; subsequent history unclear.
XX. Rare Book and Manuscript Library, Columbia University, New York, USA
Alchemical Manuscripts not on Chadwyck-Healey Microfilm
• (Part of SL103?) Commentary on Monte Snyder's alchemy (after 1678), in Latin, c. 1,000 words, 3 pp.
A commentary on the Tractatus de medicina universali (1678) of Johann de Monte Snyders.
Received as a gift from the Friends of the Columbia Libraries. SL103, described in the Sotheby catalogue as 'A Key to Snyders [in Latin] about 1000 words, on 3 pp.; Sententiæ notabilii expositiæ, about 1400 words, on 4 pp.', was bought at the Sotheby sale by Emanuel Fabius for £6. This sounds remarkably like the first part of that lot, though none of the material bought by Fabius is otherwise known to have entered the public domain. If this is not part of SL103 itself, it is certainly related to it.
One page reproduced at www.columbia.edu/acis/textarchive/rare/40.html. See the entry for SL103 (whereabouts unknown); also Keynes Ms. 58 and Cushing/Whitney Medical Library, Yale University.
XXI. Alchemical manuscripts whose location is currently unknown Alchemical Material not in Chadwyck-Healey Microfilm Collection
• (SL18) Four pages of miscellaneous alchemical notes.
a) Notes on 'Terra Lemnia & Terra Sigillata [...] sold in but one shop in London [...] for 2s. 6d. per pound', and its distillation products, c. 230 words, 1 p. At the foot, a note: 'Mr. Leibnitz is Counsellor to ye Elector of Brunswick. Mr. Fatio has no correspondence with him. This direction will find him out. Cl. viro D. G. G. Leibnitio Hannoveræ'.
b) 'De Peste' (notes from Van Helmont), c. 650 words, 2 pp.
c) Notes on 'Roth Mallor's work', c. 250 words, 1 p.
[A titre personnel, nous considérons que cette note sur la terre sigillée doit avoir une grande importance, sous l'angle de la symbolique alchimique, cf. 1, 2, 3.]
Bought at the Sotheby sale by Pickering & Chatto for £9.10.
See H751 for Newton's copy of Van Helmont's medical compendium.
• (SL22) Extracts from 'Faber' (probably Pierre Jean Fabré) and other alchemical writers, in Latin and English, c. 7,000 words, 22 pp.
Bought at the Sotheby sale by Francis Edwards for £15.
• (SL29) Notes from Fabré's 'Hercula Piochymico', c. 1,300 words, 4 pp.
Bought at the Sotheby sale by Emmanuel Fabius for £5.10s.
• (SL39) Notes 'Ex Codicillo R. Lullii, impress. Coloniæ 1563', c. 3,000 words, 6 pp.
Bought at the Sotheby sale by Davis & Orioli for £6.
Cf. Babson Ms. 747, and see H997.
• (SL49) Notes on mercury and its purification, c. 350 words, 1 p.
Bought at the Sotheby sale by Bernard Quaritch for £6.
• (SL54) Verse extracts from Hadrian Mynsicht, 'Aureum sæculum redivivum' and 'Testamentum Hadrianeum de aureo Phorem [according to the Sotheby catalogue, though 'Ph[ilosoph]orum is surely intended] lapide', with a diagram, c. 300 lines in all, 8 pp.
[sur Mynsicht, cf. 1, 2, 3, 4, 5.]
Bought at the Sotheby sale by Francis Edwards for £9.
See H1137 for Newton's copy of another work by Mynsicht.
• (SL57) 'Notanda chemica': notes on 'Philalethes', Ripley, Maier and other writers, c. 1,500 words, 4 pp.
Bought at the Sotheby sale by Emmanuel Fabius for £9.
• (SL60) Notes 'Ex Turba Philosophorum', over 2,000 words, 6 pp.
Bought at the Sotheby sale by Emmanuel Fabius for £8.10s.
• (SL67) 'Opus Galli Anonymi': notes and excerpts, with the comment: 'Simile est hoc opus operi Fabri', c. 2,750 words, 8 pp. + wrapper.
Includes the chapter headings: 'Practica'; 'De Igne'; 'Multiplicatio'; 'Facere aurum potabile'.
Bought at the Sotheby sale by Emmanuel Fabius for £13.10s.
• (SL75) 'Preparatio Mercurii ad Lapidem per Regulam et Lunam, ex MSS. Phi. [pres. 'Phi[losophi]'] Americani', c. 1,000 words, 6 pp.
Bought at the Sotheby sale by Emmanuel Fabius for £10.
• (SL78) 'The Three Mysterious Fires', mainly in English, c. 1,200 words, 3 pp.
Bought at the Sotheby sale by Francis Edwards for £19.10s.
[sur les différents feus de l'oeuvre, cf. Atalanta XXVIII et La Lumière sortant par soy-même des Ténèbres]
Cf. Keynes Ms. 46. Half a page reproduced in facsimile in the Sotheby catalogue, between pp. 12 and 13.
• (Part of SL81) Six pages of miscellaneous notes originally grouped together with what is now Babson Ms. 747.
The complete lot was bought at the Sotheby sale by Francis Edwards for £9.10s.
• (SL88) Three pages of alchemical recipes: for making 'Regulus Martis' (an alloy of iron and antimony), c. 300 words, 1 p.; for making aqua fortis and for refining silver (these in John Conduitt's hand), 1 p.; 'Experimentum Bellini', 1 p.
Bought at the Sotheby sale by Pickering & Chatto for £5.
• (SL96) Notes from Schroeder's 'Pharmocopœia' with other fragmentary notes, 10 pp.
Bought at the Sotheby sale by Emmanuel Fabius for £7.
See H1473 for Newton's copy of another work by Schroeder.
• (SL103) Key to [Johann de Monte] Snyders, in Latin, c. 1,000 words, 3 pp.; 'Sententiæ notabilii expositiæ' [according to the Sotheby catalogue, though 'expositæ' is surely intended], c. 1,400 words, 4 pp.
Bought at the Sotheby sale by Emmanuel Fabius for £6.
The first part of this lot may be the manuscript now in the Rare Book and Manuscript Library, Columbia University (q.v.). Cf. Keynes Ms. 58 and Cushing/Whitney Medical Library, Yale University.
• (SL104) Notes on sublimation, the Stone, the tincture, etc., in Latin, c. 1,500 words, 6 pp.
Bought at the Sotheby sale by Maggs Brothers for £7.10s.
• (SL109) Fragment of a treatise on transmutation, containing several drawings of processes, one occupying a whole page, in English, c. 2,200 words, 8 pp.
Bought at the Sotheby sale by Emmanuel Fabius for £10.10s.
• (SL115) 'Notes upon ye working of ---': an account of a purification of vitriol, which took 6 months to accomplish, c. 350 words, 1 p.
On the reverse: seven 'Quares' [leg. 'Quæres'?], and notes of various sums owing to Newton, dated 1673-77.
Bought at the Sotheby sale by Davis & Orioli for £5.
XXII. Alchemical Newton's Printed Sources
[il s'agit des titres que devait compter la bibliothèque alchimique de Newton ; d'après Cambridge University Press on John Harrison, The Library of Isaac Newton (Cambridge: CUP, 1978). Les titres que nous avons commentés sont indiqués en lien hypertexte.]
[H20] Agricola, Georg. De re metallica libri XII ... Ejusdem De animantibus subterraneis liber ... F°, Basileæ, 1621. (A few signs of dog-earing.) Tr/NQ.11.4
[H84] Ars chemica, quod sit licita recte exercentibus, probationes doctissimorum iurisconsultorum. Septem tractatus seu capitula Hermetis Trismegisti, aurei. Eiusdem Tabula Smaragdina, in ipsius sepulchro inuenta, cum commento Hortulani Philosophi. Studium Consilii conjugij de massa solis & lunæ ... 8°, [Argentorati, 1566]. (Short notes by Newton in margins and texts of pp.9-13, 15, 21, 22, 29-31, 48, 92, 128, 129, mostly references to alchemical books; many signs of dog-earing.) Tr/NQ.10.145
[H90] Artis auriferae, quam chemiam vocant, volumina duo, quæ continent Turbam philosophorum, aliosq[ue] antiquiss. auctores ... Accessit noviter volumen tertium ... 8°, Basileæ, 1610. (Notes and references by Newton mainly relating to other alchemical works on verso of title-page of vol. 1, in vol. 1, pp.20, 21, 68, on verso of title-page of vol. 2, in vol. 2, pp.6, 23, 24, 99, 111, 158, 190, 245, 275; many signs of dog-earing.) Tr/NQ.16.121 [on rappelle que la version de la Tourbe disposée sur le site n'est qu'une traduction mal faite de Salmon, cf. Girardin, Alchimie, Belfond, 1972]
[H93] Ashmole, Elias. Theatrum chemicum Britannicum. Containing severall poeticall pieces of our famous English philosophers, who have written the Hermetique mysteries in their owne ancient language ... 4°, London, 1652. (Numerous corrections, additions and references by Newton; several signs of dog-earing.) Van Pelt Library, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia. [disponible sur le serveur Gallica de la bnf]
[H103] Aurifontina chymica: or, A collection of fourteen small treatises concerning the first matter of philosophers, for the discovery of their, hitherto so much concealed, mercury ... 24°, London, 1680. (Notes and references by Newton relating to other alchemical works in margins of pp.21, 93, 123, 124, 131, 147; a few signs of dog-earing.) Tr/NQ.16.119
[H110] Bacon, Roger. De arte chymiæ scripta. Cui accesserunt opuscula alia eiusdem authoris. 12°, Francofurti, 1603. (Notes and page references by Newton relating to other alchemical works on fly-leaf and pp.43-4.) Tr/NQ.16.120 [cf. introduction à l'oeuvre de Roger Bacon]
[H115] Barba, Alvaro Alonso. The first book of the Art of mettals, in which is declared the manner of their generation; and the concomitants of them. Written in Spanish. Transl. into English ... 8°, London, 1670. (A few signs of dog-earing.) Tr/NQ.10.143(2)
[H127] Basilius Valentinus. Azoth, ou Le moyen de faire l'or caché des philosophes. Reveu, corrigé & augmenté par Mr. L'Agneau Medecin. 8°, Paris, 1659. Tr/NQ.16.124(1)
[H128] __ Basilius Valentinus Friar of the Order of St. Benedict his last will and testament ... (6 pts.) 8°, London, [1656-]1657. (Pt 2 has a correction by Newton in text of p.7 and references by him in margins of p.13 to 'Maier. Embl. 24, p.70' and p.16 to 'Maier. Embl. 54, p. 150'; many signs of dog-earing.) Tr/NQ.16.135
[H129] __ Basil Valentine his Triumphant chariot of antimony, with annotations of T. Kirkringius ... 8°, London, 1678. (Many signs of dog-earing.) Tr/NQ.16.97
[H130] __ Les douze clefs de philosophie. Plus l'Azoth, ou Le moyen de faire l'or caché des philosophes. Traduction françoise. 8°, Paris, 1660. Tr/NQ.16.124(3)
[H145] Becher, Johann Joachim. Actorum Laboratorii Chymici Monacensis, seu Physicæ subterraneæ libri II ... 8°, Francofurti, 1681. (pp.475, 506, 526, 780 turned up and a few other signs of dog-earing.) Tr/NQ.16.96 [sur Becher, cf. Histoire de la Chimie de F. Hoefer critiquée par E. Chevreul et un Résumé de l'Histoire de la Matière, par E. Chevreul.]
[H157] Bellini, Lorenzo. De urinis et pulsibus, de missione sanguinis, de febribus, de morbis capitis, et pectoris. 4°, Francofurti, 1685. (p.165 turned up and a few other signs of dog-earing.) Tr/NQ.8.53
[H221] Bibliothèque des philosophes (chymiques), ou Recueil des oeuvres des auteurs les plus approuvez qui ont écrit de la pierre philosophale ... Par Le Sieur S.D.E.M. [i.e. Walter Salmon]. 2 vols. 12°, Paris, 1672-8. Tr/NQ.16.94 [vol. 1 only]
[H225] Bizot, Pierre. Histoire metallique de la République de Hollande. Nouv. éd. augmentée. 2 vols. & suppl. (3 vols.) 8°, Amsterdam, 1688-90. (A few signs of dog-earing in the set.) Tr/NQ.9.149 to 151
[H245] Boot, Anselmus Boetius de. Gemmarum et lapidum historia. Quam olim edidit A.B. de Boot. Nunc vero recensuit, à mendis repurgavit, commentariis ... A. Toll. 8°, Lugduni Batavorum, 1636. (A few signs of dog-earing.) Tr/NQ.16.85 [des titres de Anselme de Boot sont disponibles sur le serveur Gallica de la bnf]
[H250] Borrichius, Olaus. De ortu, et progressu chemiæ, dissertatio. 4°, Hafniæ, 1668. (Several signs of dog-earing.) Tr/NQ.16.92
[H259] Boyle, Robert. Essays of the strange subtilty, determinate nature, great efficacy of effluviums ... (4 pts.) 8°, London, 1673. (Inscribed at foot of title-page: 'For Mr Isaac Newton from the Authour' in Oldenburg's hand; many signs of dog-earing. Newton acknowledged to Oldenburg receipt of Boyle's gift on 14 Sept. 1673 (NC, 1: 305).) Memorial Library, University of Wisconsin-Madison [sur Boyle, cf. Hist. Chim.]
[H265] __ Medicina hydrostatica: or, Hydrostaticks applyed to the materia medica ... 8°, London, 1690. ('A Table of refractions given to me by Mr. Halley' in Newton's hand on fly-leaves; notes and corrections by him on unnumbered pages at back of book, relating to a 'Table of specific gravities'; 24 pages turned down or up.) Turner Collection, University of Keele Library
[H269] __ New experiments physico-mechanicall, touching the spring of the air, and its effects ... 8°, Oxford, 1660. (A few signs of dog-earing.) Tr/NQ.10.69
[H270] __ The sceptical chymist: or Chymico-physical doubts & paradoxes ... (2 pts.) 8°, Oxford, 1680. (Pt 1 has pp.40, 134 turned down and up, pp.213, 399, 405 up, pp.260, 279, 359, 367, 369, 400, 402, 409 down; pt 2 has pp.18, 118, 152, 235 up, pp.19, 259 down and many other signs of dog-earing.) Tr/NQ.16.84
[H275] __ Tracts, containing new experiments, touching the relation betwixt flame and air. And about explosions. An hydrostatical discourse occasion'd by some objections of Dr. Henry More ... 8°, London, 1672. (A few signs of dog-earing.) Tr/NQ.10.100
[H331] Caesius, Bernardus. Mineralogia, sive Naturalis philosophiæ thesauri ... F°, Lugduni, 1636. (pp.66, 201 turned down, p.189 up.) Tr/NQ.18.4
[H340] Caneparius, Petrus Maria. De atramentis cujuscunque generis ... In sex descriptiones digestum. 4°, Londini, 1660. (pp.193, 517 turned down and many other signs of dog-earing.) Tr/NQ.7.56
[H397] Claveus, Gasto, called Dulco. Apologia Chrysopoeiæ et Argyropoeiæ, adversus T. Erastum ... De triplici auri et argenti præparatione. 8°, Ursellis, 1602. (p.207 turned down and a few other signs of dog-earing.) Tr/NQ.16.152 [sur Gaston Claves, dit Dulco, cf. 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7,]
[H419] Colson, Lancelot. Philosophia maturata: an exact piece of philosophy, containing the practick and operative part thereof in gaining the philosophers stone ... 24°, London, 1668. (A few signs of dog-earing.) Memorial Library, University of Wisconsin-Madison
[H436] Conti, Luigi de'. Clara fidelisqu. admonitoria disceptatio practicæ manualis experimento veraciter comprobata. De duobus artis, & naturæ miraculis: hoc est de liquore alchaest; nec non lapide philosophico ... 12°, Francofurti, 1664. (Many signs of dog-earing.) Memorial Library, University of Wisconsin-Madison
[H437] __ Discours philosophiques sur les deux merveilles de l'art et de la nature. Ou Traité de la liqueur de l'Alchaest ... 2e éd., reveüe & corrigée. 12°, Paris, 1678. (A few signs of dog-earing.) Tr/NQ.16.110
[H445] Cosmopolite, ou Nouvelle lumière chimique, pour servir d'éclaircissement aux trois principes de la nature ... [By Michael Sendivogius.] Dernière éd., revue et augmentée ... 2 vols. 12°, Paris, 1691. [sur le vrai Cosmopolite, cf. Alexandre Sethon.]
[H462] Crollius, Oswaldus. Basilica chymica cum notis Hartmanni, et Praxis chymiatrica ... 4°, Francofurti, 1647. (A few signs of dog-earing.) Tr/NQ.16.81(1) [sur Oswald Crollius, cf 1, 2, 3, 4, 5,]
[H493] De alchimia opuscula complura veterum philosophorum, quorum catalogum sequens pagella indicabit. (Pt 1.) 4°, [Francoforti, 1550]. (Many signs of dog-earing.) Sir Geoffrey Keynes, Brinkley
[H513] Dickinson, Edmund. Epistola ad Theodorum Mundanum philosophum adeptum. De quintessentia philosophorum et de vera physiologia ... 8°, Oxoniæ, 1686. (Notes by Newton consisting of references to other alchemical works in margins of pp.70, 180, 187; many signs of dog-earing.) Tr/NQ.16.89
[H554] Enarratio methodica Trium Gebri medicinarum, in quibus continetur Lapidis philosophici vera confectio. Autore Anonymo sub nomine Æyrenæi Philalethes. 8°, [London,] 1678. [The real author of the Enarratio is not, as Harrison tentatively conjectures, G. Starkey, though this 1678 edition does contain two short tracts written by him under his pseudonym Eirenæus Philalethes: see Newman, Gehennical Fire, 268, entry 19 in his Starkey bibliography.] (Note in Newton's hand on title-page: 'Vide Borelli Bibliothecam Chemicam p.20' [i.e. Pierre Borel, Bibliotheca chimica (Paris, 1654: H426), where there is a reference to this work]; p.212 turned up and several other signs of dog-earing.) Tr/NQ.16.86
[H598] Fabré, Pierre Jean. Operum voluminibus duobus exhibitorum volumen prius [& II]. (Vol. 2 with title Opera reliqua volumine hoc posteriore comprehensa.) 4°, Francofurti ad Moenum, 1652. (On the fly-leaf of vol.1, a list in Newton's hand of eleven of Fabré's published works under the heading 'Author opera sua hoc ordine impressit', and added at the end: 'Desumpta sunt hæc ex Libris ipsis impressis in Bibliotheca Bodleiana Oxonij'. Vol.1 has pp.37, 558, 575, 657, 686, 692 turned down, p.690 turned down and up, pp.44, 555, 685, 691 up; vol.2 pp.51, 759, 881 down, pp.62, 422, 854, 882 up, with many other signs of dog-earing.) Tr/NQ.9.174 and 175
[H605] The fame and confession of the Fraternity of R:C: commonly, of the Rosie Cross ... By Eugenius Philalethes. [i.e. T. Vaughan, in fact the translator rather than the author, though he did supply a preface]. 8°, London, 1652. ('Is. Newton. Donum Mri Doyley' in Newton's hand on fly-leaf. Notes by Newton on the Rosicrucians on fly-leaf and in margin of p.4: see Macphail, Alchemy and the Occult, 2: 347-9, where the notes are reproduced in full.) Beinecke Library, Yale
[H649] Garland, John. Compendium alchimiæ: cum dictionario eiusdem artis ... Omnia nunc primum in lucem edita. 8°, Basileæ, 1560. (A few signs of dog-earing.) Tr/NQ.16.137(2)
[H657] Geber. Chimia, sive Traditio summæ perfectionis et investigatio magisterii, innumeris locis emendata à C. Hornio ... Accessit ejusdem Medulla alchimiæ Gebricæ, omnia edita à G. Hornio. 24°, Lugduni Batavorum, 1668. (Two closely written pages of Latin notes by Newton on the fly-leaves, giving his rendering of Geber's terms into contemporary versions.) Barchas Collection, Stanford University Library, QD 25 G367 (see entry under Stanford in main catalogue)
[H658] __ Works of Geber, the most famous Arabian Prince and philosopher ... Englished by R. Russel. 8°, London, 1678.
[H659] __ The works of Geber, the most famous Arabian Prince and philosopher of the investigation and perfection of the philosophers-stone. 8°, London, 1686. Memorial Library, University of Wisconsin-Madison.
[H740] Harmoniæ inperscrutabilis chymico-philosophicæ, sive Philosophorum antiquorum consentientium ... decas I[-II]. [By J. Grasshoff and Johannes Rhenanus.] (2 pts.) 8°, Francofurti, 1625. (Notes and references by Newton all relating to Zetzner's Theatrum chemicum, vols. 4 & 5, in margins of pt 1, pp.205, 228, pt.2, pp.324, 338; pt.2, p.326 turned down and several other signs of dog-earing.) Tr/NQ.16.122
[H751] Helmont, Jan Baptista van. Ortus medicinæ, id est initia physicæ inaudita ... edente F.M. van Helmont ... Ed. 4a. F°, Lugduni, 1667
[H752] Helvetius, Johann Friedrich. The golden calf which the world adores, and desires: in which is handled the most rare and incomparable wonder of nature, in transmuting metals ... 12°, London, 1670. (Several signs of dog-earing.) Memorial Library, University of Wisconsin-Madison
[H838] Introitus apertus ad occlusum regis palatium: autore Anonymo Philaletha [i.e. G. Starkey] ... nunc primum publicatus, curante J. Langio. 8°, Amstelodami, 1667.
[H938] Lemery, Nicolas. A course of chymistry ... 3rd ed., transl. from the 8th ed. in the French ... 8°, London, 1698. (pp.165, 172, 210, 255, 265, 283, 296, 297 turned up, pp.167, 176, 182, 254, 262, 266, 317 down, and many other signs of dog-earing.) Tr/NQ.8.118
[H939] __ Traité de l'antimoine, contenant l'analyse chymique de ce minéral, & un recueil d'un grand nombre d'opérations ... 12°, Paris, 1707. (Several signs of dog-earing.) Tr/NQ.16.128
[H994] Lull, Raymund. Ars magna, generalis et ultima ... 8°, Francofurti, 1596. Tr/NQ.10.70 .
[H995] __ De secretis naturæ sive Quinta essentia libri II. His accesserunt, Alberti Magni Summi philosophi, De mineralibus & rebus metallicis libri V ... 8°, [Argentorati,] 1541.
[H996] __ De secretis naturæ, seu De quinta essentia liber unus ... 8°, Coloniæ, 1567.
[H997] __ Liber, qui codicillus, seu vade mecum inscribitur, in quo fontes alchimicæ artis & reconditioris philosophiæ traduntur ... 8°, Coloniæ, 1563. (Many signs of dog-earing.) Tr/NQ.16.133
[H998] __ Mercuriorum liber iam tandem subsidio manuscripti exemplaris perfectè editus. Item eiusdem Apertorium, Repertorium, Artis intellectivæ theorica & practica, Magia naturalis ... 8°, Coloniæ Agrippinæ, 1567.
[H999] __ Opera ea quæ ad adinventam ab ipso artem universalem, scientiarum artiumque omnium brevi compendio ... 8°, Argentorati, 1609.
[H1000] __ Raymundi Lullii Maioricani philosophi sui temporis doctissimi libelli aliquot chemici: nunc primùm, excepto Vade mecum, in lucem opera Doctoris Toxitæ editi ... 8°, Basileæ, 1572. (References by Newton to other works by Lull: in margins of p.7 'Ars magica p.378, 379', p.159 'Vide Lib. Merc. p.156 l.11 & p.179 l.16'; many signs of dog-earing). Tr/NQ.16.37
[H1001] __ Tractatus brevis et eruditus, De conservatione vitæ: item Liber secretorum seu quintæ essentiæ ... 8°, Argentorati, 1616.
[H1003] La Lumière sortant par soy même des tenebres, ou Véritable théorie de la pierre des philosophes ... [Variously attributed to M.-A. Crassellame and O. Tachenius.] 8°, Paris, 1687. (p.206 turned down and many other signs of dog-earing.) Tr/NQ.16.117
[H1034] The Marrow of alchemy, being an experimental treatise, discovering the secret and most hidden mystery of the philosophers elixer ... By Eirenæus Philoponos Philalethes [i.e. G. Starkey]. 8°, London, 1654. (Many signs of dog-earing. See Duveen, Bibliotheca Alchemica et Chemica, 563.) Memorial Library, University of Wisconsin-Madison.
[H1044] Mayer, Michael. Lusus serius: or, Serious passe-time. A philosophicall discourse concerning the superiority of creatures under man. 12°, London, 1654. [sur Michel Maier, cf. Atalanta fugiens]
[H1045] __ Secretioris naturæ secretorum scrutinium chymicum, per oculis et intellectui accuratè accommodata ... ingeniosissima emblemata ... 4°, Francofurti, 1687. (Newton added the references 'p.8, 82' in margin of p.111 and 'cap. 67' on p.146; many signs of dog-earing.) Tr/NQ.16.88
[H1046] __ Septimana philosophica, qua ænigmata aureola de omni naturæ genere ... 4°, Francofurti, 1620.
[H1047] __ Silentium post clamores, hoc est, Tractatus aplogeticus, quo causæ non solùm clamorum seu Reuelationum Fraternitatis Germanicæ de R.C. sed & silentii ... 8°, Francofurti, 1617. (A few signs of dog-earing.) Tr/NQ.19.148(2)
[H1048] __ Symbola aureæ mensæ duodecim nationum ... 4°, Francofurti, 1617. (A few signs of dog-earing.) S.M. Edelstein Collection, Jewish National & University Library, Jerusalem
[H1049] __ Themis aurea; hoc est, De legibus Fraternitatis R.C. tractatus ... 8°, Francofurti, 1618. (In a note at the foot of p.160 Newton deciphered the last 7 lines of text, printed in code, and added the key he used.) Tr/NQ.10.148(4)
[H1050] __ Tractatus de volucri arborea, absque patre et matre, in Insulis Orcadum, forma anserculorum proueniente ... 8°, Francofurti, 1619. (p.136 turned down and a few other signs of dog-earing.) Tr/NQ.10.148(1)
[H1051] __ Verum inventum, hoc est, Munera Germaniæ; ab ipsa primitus reperta ... & reliquo orbi communicata ... 8°, Francofurti, 1619. Tr/NQ.10.1483
[H1052] __ Viatorium, hoc est, De montibus planetarum septem seu metallorum ... 8°, Rothomagi, 1651.
[H1119] Morhof, Daniel Georg. De metallorum transmutatione ad ... J. Langelottum ... epistola. 8°, Hamburgi, 1673. (Several signs of dog-earing.) Tr/NQ.16.126
[H1130] Musaeum Hermeticum omnes sopho-spagyricae artis discipulos fidelissime erudiens. 4°, Francofurti, 1625. (Imperfect, wants title-page and pp.1-35 (Lambspring's De lapide philosophorum); pp.231, 353 turned down and several other signs of dog-earing.) Tr/NQ.16.115
[H1131] Musæum Hermeticum reformatum et amplificatum, omnes sopho-spagyricæ artis discipulos fidelissimè erudiens ... Continens tractatos chimicos XXI ... 4°, Francofurti, [1677-]1678. (pp.132, 150, 239 turned down, p.278 up, and several other signs of dog-earing.) Tr/NQ.16.148
[H1137] Mynsicht, Hadrianus. Thesaurus et armamentarium medico-chymicum ... Cui in fine adiunctum est Testamentum Hadrianeum de aureo philosophorum lapide. 8°, Rothomagi, 1651. (A few signs of dog-earing). Tr/NQ.8.68
[H1138] Mystagogus, Cleidophorus [i.e. W. Yworth], Mercury's Caducean rod: or The great and wonderful office of the universal mercury, or God's Viceregent, displayed ... By Cleidophorus Mystagogus. 8°, London, 1702. Probably the book sent to Newton by the author in 1702: see NC, 7: 441, where the work referred to in Yworth's [or Yarworth's, as he is called there] undated letter is tentatively (and wrongly) identified as his The complete distiller ... 2nd ed., 1705, though Newton is only known to have owned the 1st ed., 1692 [H1760]. See notes to Keynes Ms. 65 in main catalogue, and Figala and Petzold, 'Alchemy in the Newtonian Circle' for clarification of the issue. Note by Newton on fly-leaf: 'Willis his search of causes p.3, 21. Sanguis naturæ p.10 & Epistle p.27. Philadelphia p.13' (page references to works quoted in the text); many signs of dog-earing.) Tr/NQ.16.131(1)
[H1180] Norton, Samuel. Alchymiæ complementum, et perfectio, seu Modus et processus argumentandi ... ab E. Deano auctior & perfectior editus ... 4°, Francofurti, 1630. Tr/NQ.16.101(7) [cf. l'Enfant Hermaphrofite du Soleil et de la Lune.]
[H1181] __ Catholicon physicorum, seu Modus conficiendi tincturam physicam & alchymicam ... editus labore & industriâ E. Deani... 4°, Francofurti, 1630. (A few signs of dog-earing) Tr/NQ.16.101(2)
[H1182] __ Elixer, seu Medicina vitae, seu Modus conficiendi verum aurum et argentum ... editus industriâ, & operâ E. Deani ... 4°, Francofurti, 1630. Tr/NQ.16.101(3)
[H1183] __ Mercurius redivivus, seu Modus conficiendi lapidem philosophicum ... editus opera & studio E. Deani .. auctior & perfectior. 4°, Francofurti, 1630. Tr/NQ.16.101(1)
[H1184] __ Metamorphosis lapidum ignobilium in gemmas quasdam pretiosas, seu Modus transformandi perlas parvas, et minutulas, in magnas & nobiles ... editus diligentia E. Deani ... 4°, Francofurti, 1630. Tr/NQ.16.101(5)
[H1185] __ Saturnus saturatus dissolutus, et coelo restitutus, seu Modus componendi lapidem philosophicum ... vero edente E. Deano, ... 4°, Francofurti, 1630. Tr/NQ.16.101(6)
[H1186] __ Tractatulus de antiquorum scriptorum considerationibus in alchymia ... editus studio, labore & industriâ E. Deani ... 4°, Francofurti, 1630. Tr/NQ.16.101(8)
[H1187] __ Venus vitriolata, in elixer conversa ... sivè Modus conficiend lapidem philosophicum ... editus studiis, & diligentiâ E. Deani ... 4°, Francofurti, 1630. Tr/NQ.16.101(4)
[H1192] Novum lumen chymicum. E naturæ fonte & manuali experientia depromptum: cui accessit Tractatus de sulphure ... [By M. Sendivogius.] 8°, Genevæ, 1639. (Annotations by Newton on pp.36, 97, 116; pp. 45, 47, 67, 69, 75, 79, 88 turned down and a few other signs of dog-earing.) British Library/C.113.aa.3.(1.)
[H1208] Opuscula quædem chemica. G. Riplei Medulla philosophiæ chemicæ [etc.] ... Omnia partim ex veteribus manuscriptis eruta partim restituta ... 8°, Francofurti, 1614.
[H1238] Paracelsus. Aurora thesaurusque philosophorum, Theophrasti Paracelsi, Germani philosophi, & Medici præ cunctis omnibus accuratissimi. Accessit Monarchia physica per G. Dorneum ... 8°, Basileæ, 1577. (A few signs of dog-earing.) Tr/NQ.9.170(2)
[H1239] __ Congeries Paracelsicæ chemiæ de transmutationibus metallorum, ex omnibus quæ de his ab ipso scripta reperire licuit hactenus. Accessit genealogia mineralium, atq[ue] metallorum omnium, eiusdem autoris. G. Dorneo interprete. 8°, Francofurti, 1581. (Several signs of dog-earing.) Tr/NQ.9.170(1)
[H1296] Philadelphia, or Brotherly love to the studious in the hermetick art ... Written by Eyreneus Philoctetes. 12°, London, 1694. [The author is probably not, as Harrison tentatively conjectures, G. Starkey: not listed in Newman's bibliography of Starkey's pseudonymous publications, Gehennical Fire, 262-70.]
[H1301] Philosophiæ chymicæ IV. vetustissima scripta, I. Senioris Zadith F. Hamuellis Tabula chymica. II. Innominati philosophi Expositio tabulæ chymicæ. III. Hermetis Trismegisti Liber de compositione. IV. Anonymi veteris philosophi Consilium coniugii ... Omnia ex Arabico sermone Latina facta, & nunc primum in lucem producta. 8°, Francofurti, 1605. (Long index-note by Newton on fly-leaf headed 'Authores a Seniore citati' and listing 18 authors with page numbers for each, ranging from one reference to twenty (for 'Hermes'), also short references to other writers on pp.2-5, 47, 98, 114, 117-19, 124, 133, 207; several signs of dog-earing.) Tr/NQ.16.136
[H1302] A Philosophical epistle, discovering the unrevealed mystery of the three fires of the Sophi. [Signed Cloidophorus Mystagogus, i.e. W. Yworth.] 8°, [c. 1702]. (Many signs of dog-earing.) Tr/NQ.16.131(2)
[H1309] Philosophie naturelle de trois anciens philosophes renommez: Artephius, Flamel, & Synesius, traitant de l'art occulte, & de la transmutation metallique. Dernière éd. [of Trois traitez de la philosophie naturelle ...]. 4°, Paris, 1682. (pp.21, 31 turned down and several other signs of dog-earing.) Tr/NQ.16.93 [titre disponible sur le serveur Gallica de la bnf.]
[H1310] __ [Another copy.] Tr/NQ.16.77(5)
[H1311] La philosophie naturelle restablie en sa pureté. Où l'on void à découvert toute l'œconomie de la nature, & où se manifestent quantité d'erreurs de la philosophie ancienne ... [By J. d'Espagnet.] 8°, Paris, 1651. (A few signs of dog-earing) Tr./NQ.10.81
[H1378] Reconditorium ac reclusorium opulentiæ sapientiæque numinis mundi magni, cui deditur in titulum Chymica vannus ... (With Commentatio de pharmaco catholico ...) [By J. de Monte Snyder.] (2 pts.) 4°, Amstelodami, 1666. (Many page and line references by Newton in margin of pt 2, pp.12, 13, 15, 19, 20, 29, 48, 66, 68, 72, 75; several signs of dog-earing in pt 2.) Tr/NQ.16.80
[H1397] Rhenanus, Johannes Opera chymiatrica, quæ hactenus in lucem prodierunt omnia à plurimis ... 8°, Francofurti, 1668. Tr/NQ.8.90
[H1405] Ripley, George. Opera omnia chemica, quotquot hactenus visa sunt ... 8°, Cassellis, 1649. (Notes by Newton, mainly references to alchemical books, on pp. 18, 101, 123, 171, 383, 401; several signs of dog-earing.) Tr/NQ.10.149
[H1407] Ripley reviv'd: or, An exposition upon Sir George Ripley's hermetico-poetical works ... Written by Eirenæus Philalethes [i.e. G. Starkey] ... 8°, London, -1678.
[H1445] Sanguis naturæ, or, A manifest declaration of the sanguine and solar congealed liquor of nature. By Anonimus [i.e. C. Grummet]. 8°, London, 1696. (Many signs of dog-earing.) Tr/NQ.16.172
[H1446] __ [Another copy.] (Note in Newton's hand inserted: 'Sanguis Naturæ, at Sowles [the bookseller] a Quaker Widdow in White Hart Court at ye upper end of Lombard Street'; many signs of dog-earing.) Memorial Library, University of Wisconsin-Madison.
[H1473] Schroeder, Johann. Quercetanus redivivus, hoc est, Ars medica dogmatico-hermetica, ex scriptis J. Quercetani ... Ed. 2a. 3 vols. in 1. 4°, Francofurti, 1679. [Fulcanelli considérait que seuls Quercetanus et Nicolas Valois avaient révélé le secret de « l'or alchimique ».]
[H1478] Secrets reveal'd: or, An open entrance to the shut-palace of the King ... by ... Anonymous, or Eyræneus Philaletha Cosmopolita [i.e. G. Starkey] ... 8°, London, 1669. (Heavily annotated and corrected throughout by Newton with some margins completely filled with notes; many signs of dog-earing. See Duveen, Bibliotheca Alchemica et Chemica, 470 and plate XII.) Memorial Library, University of Wisconsin-Madison (see entry under Wisconsin-Madison in main catalogue)
[H1485] Sendivogius, Michael. A new light of alchymie ... Also nine books of the nature of things, written by Paracelsus ... Also a chymicall dictionary ... Transl. out of the Latin ... by J. F[rench]. 3 pts. 4°, London, 1650. (Several signs of dog-earing.) Tr/NQ.16.130
[H1553] Starkey, George. Pyrotechny asserted and illustrated, to be the surest and safest means for art's triumph over nature's infirmities ... 8°, London, 1658.
[H1608] Theatrum chemicum, præcipuos selectorum auctorum tractatus de chemiæ et lapidis philosophici antiquitate, veritate, jure, præstantia, & operationibus, continens ... [Ed. by L. Zetzner etc.] 6 vols. 8°, Argentorati, 1659-61. (Numerous annotations, textual corrections and references by Newton in vols. 1, 3-6, with vols. 3 and 5 very copiously annotated; very many pages turned down: see Sotheran Catalogue 800 (1926: Item 12098), and catalogue of Hampton & Sons, Thame Park, Oxfordshire (1920: Item 978).)
[H1619] Le Tombeau de la pauvreté. Dans lequel il est traité clairement de la transmutation des metaux ... Par un philosophe inconnu [i.e. d'Atremont] ... 12°, Paris, 1673. (A few signs of dog-earing.) Tr/NQ.16.109
[H1623] Tractatus aliquot chemici singulares summum philosophorum arcanum continentes. 1. Liber de principiis naturæ, & artis chemicæ, incerti authoris. 2. Johannis Belye Angli tractatulus novus, & alius Bernhardi Comitis Trevirensis, ex Gallico versus. Cum fragmentis E. Kellæi, H. Aquilæ Thuringi, & J.I. Hollandi. 3. Fratris Ferrarii tractatus integer ... 4. Johannis Daustenii Angli Rosarium ... [Ed. by L. Combachius.] 8°, Geismariæ, 1647. (At the end of the preface (p.15), signed 'L.C.' Newton added 'is est Lud. Combachius. Vide Bibl. Chem. p.64' (a reference to Borel's Bibliotheca chimica [H246]); a few signs of dog-earing.) Tr/NQ.10.147
[H1641] Tres tractatus de metallorum transmutatione. Quid singulis contineatur, sequens pagina indicat. Incognito auctore. Adjuncta est Appendix Medicamentorum Antipodagricorum & Calculifragi ... Nunc primum in lucem edi curavit M. Birrius. 8°, Amstelodami, 1668. [In fact by 'Eiren&ae;us Philalethes', i.e. G. Starkey: see Dobbs, Foundations, 131-2, and Newman, Gehennical Fire, 267 (entry 18 in his Starkey bibliography; Newman gives the publication date as 1669).] (Many signs of dog-earing.) Tr/NQ.10.144
[H1642] Le Triomphe hermetique, ou La pierre philosophale victorieuse ... [By A.T. de Limojon de Saint-Didier.] 8°, Amsterdam, 1689. (Below the author's name, printed at the end of the book (p.153) as the anagram 'DIVES SICUT ARDENS, S***', Newton appended his solution 'S.E. Sanctus Didierus'; many signs of dog-earing.) Tr/NQ.16.123
[H1644] A true light of alchymy. Containing, I. A correct edition of the Marrow of alchymy [by Eirenæus Philoponos Philalethes, i.e. G. Starkey] ... II. The errors of a late tract called, A short discourse of the quintessence of philosophers ... III. The method and materials pointed at, composing the Sophick Mercury ... 12°, London, 1709. Tr/NQ.16.95(2)
[H1675] Venette, Nicolas. Traité des pierres qui s'engendrent dans les terres & dans les animaux, où l'on parle exactement des causes qui les forment dans les hommes ... 12°, Amsterdam, 1701. (A few signs of dog-earing.) Tr/NQ.8.58
[H1685] Vigani, Giovanni Francesco. Medulla chymiæ, variis experimentis aucta, multisq; figuris illustrata. 8°, Londini, 1683. (Annotations by Newton in margins of pp.8 & 9; a few signs of dog-earing.) Memorial Library, University of Wisconsin-Madison
[H1718] Webster, John. Metallographia: or, An history of metals ... 4°, London, 1671. (Many signs of dog-earing.) Tr/NQ.16.150
[H1760] Yworth, William. Introitus apertus ad artem distillationis; or The whole art of distillation practically stated ... 8°, London, 1692.